A Reflective Middleware Architecture for Adaptive Mobile Computing Applications

Celso Maciel da Costa, Marcelo da Silva Strzykalski, Guy Bernard


Mobile computing applications are required to operate in environments in which the availability for resources and services may change significantly during system operation. As a result, mobile computing applications need to be capable of adapting to these changes to offer the best possible level of service to their users. However, traditional middleware is limited in its capability of adapting to the environment changes and different users requirements. Computational Reflection paradigm has been used in the design and implementation of adaptive middleware architectures. In this paper, we propose an adaptive middleware architecture based on reflection, which can be used to develop adaptive mobile applications. The reflection-based architecture is compared to a component-based architecture from a quantitative perspective. The results suggest that middleware based on Computational Reflection can be used to build mobile adaptive applications that require only a very small overhead in terms of running time as well as memory space.


  1. Apache Software Foundation. Axis: A framework for constructing SOAP processors. In: http://ws.apache.org/axis, December 2005.
  2. Blair, G. S., Coulson, G., Robin, P., Papathornas M. Architecture for Next Generation Middleware. In: Proceedings of the IFIP International Conference on Distributed Systems Platforms and Open Distributed Processing, the Lake District, England, September 1998.
  3. Capra, L., Blair, G. S., Mascolo, C., Emmerich, W., Grace, P. Exploiting Reflection in Mobile Computing Middleware. ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review, Vol. 6, No. 6, pp 34-44, 2002.
  4. Capra, L., Emmerich, W., Mascolo, C. Middleware for Mobile Computing. In: Advanced Lectures on Networking - Networking 2002 Tutorials, Pisa, Italy. Volume 2497 of LNCS, pages 20-58, Springer Verlag. May 2002.
  5. Capra, L., Emmerich, W., Mascolo, C. CARISMA: Context-Aware Reflective Middleware System for Mobile Applications. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 29(10):929- 945, 2003.
  6. Clarke, M., Blair, G., Coulson, G., Parlavantzas, N. An Efficient Component Model for the Construction of Adaptive Middleware. In: Proceedings of Middleware 2001, Heidelberg, Germany, November 2001.
  7. CPUFreq. In: http://www.linux.org.uk/listinfo/cpufreq, December 2005.
  8. Douglas, C. S., Cleeland, C. Applying Patterns to Develop Extensible ORB Middleware. IEEE Communications Magazine Special Issue on Design Patterns, 37(4), 54-63, May 1999.
  9. Douglis, F., Krishnan, P., Marsh, B. Thwarting the Power-Hungry Disk. In: Proceedings of Winter USENIX Conference, California, 1994, pp. 292-306.
  10. Efstratiou, C., Cheverst, K., Davies, N., Friday, A. Architectural Requirements for the Effective Support of Adaptive Mobile Applications. In: Proceedings of 2nd International Conference in Mobile Data Management. Hong Kong, Springer, Vol. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 1987, pp. 15-26, January 2001.
  11. Friday, A., Davies, N., Blair, G. S., Cheverst, K. W. J. Developing Adaptive Applications: The MOST Experience. Journal of Integrated Computer-Aided Engineering, Volume 6, Number 2, 1999, pp143-157.
  12. Joseph, A., deLespinasse, A., Tauber, J., Gifford, D., and Kaashoek, M. Rover: A Toolkit for Mobile Information Access. In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, December 1995.
  13. Kon, F., Román, M., Liu, P., Mao, J., Yamane, T., Magalhaes, L. C., R., Campbell, H. Monitoring, Security and Dynamic Configuration with the DynamicTAO Reflective ORB. In: Proceedings of the IFIP/ACM International Conference on Distributed Systems Platforms, New York, April 2000.
  14. Kon, F., Gordon, B., Costa, F., Campbell, R. H. The Case for Reflective Middleware, CACM, Vol. 45, No. 6, pp 33-38, 2002.
  15. Maes, P. Concepts and Experiments in Computational Reflection. In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Object-Oriented Languages, December 1987.
  16. Noflushd. In: http://sourceforge.net/projects/noflushd, December 2005.
  17. Pillai, P., Shin, K. G. Real-Time Dynamic Voltage Scaling for Low-Power Embedded Operating Systems. In: Proceedings of the Eighteenth ACM Symposium on Operating systems principles, Alberta, Canada, October 2001.
  18. Pitoura, E., Bhargava, B. Maintaining Consistency of Data in Distributed Environments. In: Proceedings of Fifteenth International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, Vancouver, Canada, May 1995.
  19. R. Hayton, ANSA Team. FlexiNet Architecture. Architecture Report, Citrix Systems (Cambridge) Limited, February, 1999.
  20. Satyanarayanan, M., Kistler, J. J., Mummert, L. B., Ebling, M. R., Kumar, P., Lu, Qi. Experience with Disconnected Operation in Mobile Computing Environment. In: Proceedings of the 1993 USENIX Symposium on Mobile and Location-Independent Computing, Cambridge, MA, August 1993.
  21. Satyanarayanan, M. Mobile Information Access. IEEE Personal Communications, February 1996.
  22. Sizhong, Y., Jinde, L. RECOM: A Reflective Architecture of Middleware. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Metalevel Architectures and Separation of Crosscutting Concerns, Kyoto, Japan, September 2001.
  23. Smith, B. C. Reflection and Semantics in a Procedural Language. PhD thesis, MIT Laboratory of Computer Science, 1982, MIT Technical Report 272.
  24. T. Ledoux. OpenCorba: A Reflective Open Broker. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1616, 1999.
  25. Weiser, M., Welch, B., Demers, A., Shenker, S. Scheduling for Reduced CPU Energy. In: Proceedings of Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation, November 1994.
  26. Welch, G.F. A Survey of Power Management Techniques. In Mobile Computing Operating Systems. Operating Systems Review, Volume 29, Number 4, October 1995.
  27. Welling, G.S. Designing Adaptive Environmental-Aware Applications for Mobile Computing. PhD thesis, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, July 1999.
  28. Zhang, C., Jacobsen, H. Aspectizing Middleware Platforms. Technical Report, Computer Systems Research Group, CSRG-466, University of Toronto, Canada, January 2003.

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Maciel da Costa C., da Silva Strzykalski M. and Bernard G. (2006). A Reflective Middleware Architecture for Adaptive Mobile Computing Applications . In Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Wireless Information Systems - Volume 1: WIS, (ICEIS 2006) ISBN 978-972-8865-48-1, pages 12-25. DOI: 10.5220/0002481000120025

in Bibtex Style

author={Celso Maciel da Costa and Marcelo da Silva Strzykalski and Guy Bernard},
title={A Reflective Middleware Architecture for Adaptive Mobile Computing Applications},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Wireless Information Systems - Volume 1: WIS, (ICEIS 2006)},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Wireless Information Systems - Volume 1: WIS, (ICEIS 2006)
TI - A Reflective Middleware Architecture for Adaptive Mobile Computing Applications
SN - 978-972-8865-48-1
AU - Maciel da Costa C.
AU - da Silva Strzykalski M.
AU - Bernard G.
PY - 2006
SP - 12
EP - 25
DO - 10.5220/0002481000120025