A ROBUST WATERMARKING SCHEME BASED ON EDGE DETECTION AND CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTION

John N. Ellinas, Dimitrios E. Manolakis

Abstract

The efficiency of an image watermarking technique depends on the preservation of visually significant information. This is attained by embedding the watermark transparently with the maximum possible strength. The current paper presents an approach for still image digital watermarking in which the watermark embedding process employs the wavelet transform and incorporates Human Visual System (HVS) characteristics. The sensitivity of a human observer to contrast with respect to spatial frequency is described by the Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF).The strength of the watermark within the decomposition subbands, which occupy an interval on the spatial frequencies, is adjusted according to this sensitivity. Moreover, the watermark embedding process is carried over the subband coefficients that lie on edges where distortions are less noticeable. The experimental evaluation of the proposed method shows very good results in terms of robustness and transparency.

References

  1. Schyndel, R., Tirkel, A. and Osborne, C., 1994. A digital watermark. In IEEE Proc. of International Conference on Image Processing 1994.
  2. Bender, W., Gruhl, D., Morimoto, N. and Lu, A., 1996. Techniques for data hiding. In IBM Systems Journal, 35(3-4).
  3. Wolfgang, R. B. and Delp, E. J., 1996. A watermark for digital images,” In IEEE Proc. of International Conference on Image Processing 1996.
  4. Swanson, M. D., Zhu, B. and Tewfik, A. H., 1996. Transparent robust image watermarking. In IEEE Proc. of International Conference on Image Processing 1996.
  5. Cox, I. J., Kilian, J., Leighton, T. and Shamoon, T., 1997. Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia. In IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 6(12).
  6. Barni, M., Bartolini, F. and Piva, A., 2001. Improved wavelet-based watermarking through pixel-wise masking. In IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 10(5).
  7. Xia, X., Boncelet, C. G. and Arce, G. R., 1997. A multiresolution watermark for digital images. In IEEE Proc. of International Conference on Image Processing 1997.
  8. Kim, J. R. and Moon, Y. S., 1999. A robust wavelet-based digital watermarking using level-adaptive thresholding. In IEEE Proc. of International Conference on Image Processing 1999.
  9. Hsu, C. T. and Wu, J. L., 1999. Hidden digital watermarks in images. In IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 8(1).
  10. Dugad, R., Ratakonda, K. and Ahuja, N., 1998. A new wavelet-based scheme for watermarking images. In IEEE Proc. of International Conference on Image Processing 1998.
  11. Wolfgang, R. B., Podilchuk, C. I. and Delp, E. J., 1999. Perceptual watermarks for digital images and video. In SPIE Proc. of International Conference on Security and watermarking of multimedia contents 1999.
  12. De Vleeschouwer, C., Delaigle, J. F. and Macq, B., 2002. Invisibility and application functionalities in perceptual watermarking an overview. In IEEE Proc., 90(1).
  13. Wandell, B. A., 1995. Foundations of Vision, Sinauer Associates Inc., Sunderland MA.
  14. Mannos, J. and Sakrison, D., 1974. The effects of a visual fidelity criterionon the encoding of images. In IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 20.
Download


Paper Citation


in Harvard Style

N. Ellinas J. and E. Manolakis D. (2007). A ROBUST WATERMARKING SCHEME BASED ON EDGE DETECTION AND CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTION . In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications - Volume 1: VISAPP, ISBN 978-972-8865-73-3, pages 93-100. DOI: 10.5220/0002047900930100


in Bibtex Style

@conference{visapp07,
author={John N. Ellinas and Dimitrios E. Manolakis},
title={A ROBUST WATERMARKING SCHEME BASED ON EDGE DETECTION AND CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTION},
booktitle={Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications - Volume 1: VISAPP,},
year={2007},
pages={93-100},
publisher={SciTePress},
organization={INSTICC},
doi={10.5220/0002047900930100},
isbn={978-972-8865-73-3},
}


in EndNote Style

TY - CONF
JO - Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications - Volume 1: VISAPP,
TI - A ROBUST WATERMARKING SCHEME BASED ON EDGE DETECTION AND CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTION
SN - 978-972-8865-73-3
AU - N. Ellinas J.
AU - E. Manolakis D.
PY - 2007
SP - 93
EP - 100
DO - 10.5220/0002047900930100