Sergio Cavaliere, Pietro Santangelo


In the framework of humanoid robotics it’s of great importance studying and developing computational techniques that enrich robot perception and its interaction with the surrounding environment. The most important cues for the estimation of sound source azimuth are interaural phase differences (IPD), interaural time differences (ITD) and interaural level differences (ILD) between the binaural signals. In this paper we present a method for the recognition of the direction of a sound located on the azimuthal plane (i.e. the plane containing the interaural axis). The proposed method is based on a spectrum weighted comparison between ILD’s and IPD’s extracted from microphones located at the ears and a set of stored cues; these cues where previously measured and stored in a database in the form of a Data Lookup Table. While the direct lookup in the table of the stored cues suffers from the presence of both ambient noise and reverberation, as usual in real environments, the proposed method, exploiting the overall shape of the actual frequency spectrum of the signal, both its phase and modulus, reduces dramatically errors in the localization. In the paper we give also the experimental evidence that such method improves greatly the usual HRTF based identification methods.


  1. H.Viste (2004). Binaural Localization and Separation. Ph.D. thesis Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausannen. (EPFL), Switzerland.
  2. G.Evangelista and H.Viste (2004). Binaural Localization. In Proceedings of the 7th Int. Conference on DigitalAudio Effects. Naples, Italy.
  3. P.X. Joris, P.H. Smith and T.C. Yin (1998) Coincidence Detection in the Auditory Systems: 50 years after Jeffress In Neuron,Vol.21,December. Cell Press.
  4. K. Nakadai, D. Matsuura H.G. Okuno and H. Kitano (2003) Applying Scattering Theory to Robot Audition System: Robust Sound Source Localization and Extraction In In Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE Intl. Conference on Robots and Systems.
  5. Berkout, de Vries and Boone (1980) A new method to acquire impulse esponse in concert halls In J. Audio Eng. Society 68(8).
  6. A.Farina (2000) Simultaneous Measurement of Impulse Response an Distorsion with a Swept-Sine Technique In Proc. of the 108 AES Convention, 2000.
  7. V.R. Algazi, R.O. Duda, D.M. Thompson and C. Avendano (2001) The CIPIC HRTF Database In Proceedings of IEEE Workshops on Application of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics New York USA, 2001.
  8. K. Nakadai, H.G. Okuno and H.Kitano (2001) Epipolar Geometry Based Sound Localization and Extraction for Humanoid Audition In Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems. Maui,Hawaii,USA,2001.
  9. J. Blauert (1997) In Spatial Hearing. MIT Press,USA.
  10. C.H. Knapp and G.Clifford Carter (1976) The Generalized Correlation Method for Time Delay Estimation In IEEE Trans. Acoustic Speech and Signal Processing, pp 320-327, Vol. 24.
  11. P.Santangelo (2006) Sound Localization In Robotic Environment Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II. Thesis available by the author.
  12. Irie, R. (1995) Robust sound localization: An application of an auditory perception system for a humanoid robot”, Master's thesis, MIT Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Cavaliere S. and Santangelo P. (2007). SPECTRUM WEIGHTED HRTF BASED SOUND LOCALIZATION . In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Signal Processing and Multimedia Applications - Volume 1: SIGMAP, (ICETE 2007) ISBN 978-989-8111-13-5, pages 165-170. DOI: 10.5220/0002136001650170

in Bibtex Style

author={Sergio Cavaliere and Pietro Santangelo},
booktitle={Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Signal Processing and Multimedia Applications - Volume 1: SIGMAP, (ICETE 2007)},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Signal Processing and Multimedia Applications - Volume 1: SIGMAP, (ICETE 2007)
SN - 978-989-8111-13-5
AU - Cavaliere S.
AU - Santangelo P.
PY - 2007
SP - 165
EP - 170
DO - 10.5220/0002136001650170