Ontology and E-Learning

Fabio Clarizia, Francesco Colace, Massimo De Santo

Abstract

In the last decade the evolution on educational technologies forced an extraordinary interest in new methods for delivering learning content to learners. Distance education represents today an effective way for supporting and sometimes substituting the traditional formative processes, thanks to the technological improvements achieved in the field in recent years. However the role of technology has often been overestimated and on the other hand the amount of information students can obtain from the Internet is huge and they can easily be confused. Teachers can also be disconcerted by this quantity of contents and they are often unable to suggest the correct contents to their students. In the open scientific literature, it is widely recognized that an important factor of this success is related with the capability of customizing the learning process for the specific needs of a given learner. This feature is still far to have been reached and there is a real interest for investigating new approaches and tools to adapt the formative process on specific individual needs. In this scenario, the introduction of ontology formalism can improve the quality of formative process, allowing the introduction of new and effective services. Ontologies can lead to important improvements in the definition of courses knowledge domain, in the generation of adapted learning path and in the assessment phase. This paper provides an initial discussion of the role of ontologies in the context of e-learning. We discuss such improvements related to the introduction of ontologies formalism in the E-Learning field and we present a novel algorithm for ontology building through the use of Bayesian Networks. Finally, we show its application in the assessment process and some experimental results.

References

  1. Neches R., Fikes R. E., Finin T., Gruber T. R., Senator T., Swartout W. R., Enabling Technology for Knowledge Sharing, AI Magazine, 12(3):36-56, 1991
  2. Uschold M., Gruninger M., Ontologies: Principles, Methods and Applications, Knowledge Engineering Review, volume 11, number 2, June 1992.
  3. Gomez-Perez, A.; Corcho, O., Ontology languages for the Semantic Web, Intelligent Systems, IEEE Volume 17, Issue 1, Jan/Feb 2002 Page(s):54 - 60
  4. Staab, S., Schnurr, H. P., Studer, R. Sure, Y., Knowledge Processes and Ontologies, IEEE Intelligent Systems 16(1), January/Febrary 2001
  5. Guarino, N., Welty, C., Evaluating ontological decisions with OntoClean, Communications of the ACM, 45(2), 2002
  6. Fernandez-Lopez, M., Gomez-Lopez, A., Pazos-Sierra, A., Building a Chemical Ontology Using METHONTOLOGY and the Ontology Design Environment, IEEE Intelligent Systems and their applications,1999
  7. Chandrasekaran, B., Josephson, J.R., Benjamins, R., What are ontologies, and why do we need them?, IEEE Intelligent Systems, 14(2), 1999
  8. Gruber, T.R, Translation approach to portable ontology specification, Knowledge Acquisition 5, 1993
  9. Maedche A., Staab S., Ontology Learning for the Semantic Web, IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 16 no. 2, Mar/Apr 2001, 72-79
  10. Uschold M., R. Jasper, A Framework for Understanding and Classifying Ontology Applications, IJCAI99 Workshop on Ontologies and Problem Solving Methods, Stockholm, 1999.
  11. Heckermann, D., Bayesian Networks for Data Mining, Journal of Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining 1(1), Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997
  12. Singh, M., Valtorta, M., Construction of Bayesian Network Structures from Data: a Brief Survey and an Efficient Algorithm, International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, 12, 1995
  13. Heckerman, D., Geiger, D., Chickering, D., Learning Bayesian Network: the Combination of Knowledge and Statistical Data, Machine Learning, 20, 1995
  14. Jensen, F., An Introduction to Bayesian Networks, Springer - Verlag, New York, 1998
  15. Gruninger, M, Lee, J., “Ontology applications and Design”, Introductory article to a special issue on Ontology Engineering, Communications of the ACM, 45(2), 42-47, February, 2002
  16. Uschold M., King M., Towards a methodology for building ontologies, IJCAI95, Montreal, 1995
  17. R. Prieto Diaz, A faceted approach to building ontologies, Information Reuse and Integration, 2003. IRI 2003. IEEE International Conference on , 27-29 Oct. 2003, On page(s): 458- 465
  18. N. Noy and D. L. McGuinness, Ontology Development 101: A Guide to Creating Your First Ontology Dept. Mech. Ind. Eng., Univ. Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, Rep. SMI2001-0880, 2001.
  19. S. Bechhofer, I. Horrocks, P. Patel-Schneider, and S. Tessaris, “A proposal for a description logic interface,” in Proc. Int.Workshop Description Logics, 1999, pp. 33-36.
  20. A. Maedche and S. Staab, “Mining ontologies from text,” EKAW-2000-12th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management. Juan-les-Pins, France, LNAI, Springer, 2000.
  21. A. Doan, J. Madhavan, P. Domingos, and A. Y. Halevy, “Learning to map between ontologies on the semantic web,” in Proc. 11th Int.World Wide Web Conf. (WWW2002), Honolulu, HI, 2002, pp. 662-673.
  22. A. Maedche and S. Staab, “Ontology Learning for the SemanticWeb,” IEEE Intell. Syst. (special issue on the semantic web), vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 72-79, Mar.-Apr. 2001.
  23. A. Faatz and R. Steinmetz, “Ontology enrichment with texts from the WWW,” in Proc. Semantic Web Mining Second Workshop (ECML/PKDD-2002), Finland, 2002.
  24. G. Bisson and C. Nedellec, “Designing clustering methods for ontology building: the Mo'K workbench,” in Proc. 14th Eur. Conf. Artificial Intelligence Workshop Ontology Learning (ECAI'00), S. Staab, A. Maedche, C. Nedellec, and P. WiemerHasting, Eds., Germany, 2000.
  25. Aroyo, L., et al , 2002 (1). A layered approach towards domain authoring support, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ICAI'02), Las Vegas, USA.
  26. Aroyo, L., et al, 2002 (2). Courseware authoring tasks ontology, International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE'02), Auckland, New Zealand.
  27. Maedche, A. and S. Staab (2001). “Ontology learning for the semantic web”, IEEE Intelligent Systems, Vol 16, No 2, pp: 72-79.
  28. Gruber, T. R. (1995). 'Towards principles for the design of ontologies used for knowledge sharing', International Journal of Human-Computer Studies Vol 43, no 5/6, pp: 907- 928.
  29. Guarino N. and P. Giareta (1995). 'Ontologies and knowledge bases: Towards a terminological clarification', In Mars, N., Editor, IOS Press, p. 25-32.
  30. Perez and Benjamins (1999), 'Overview of Knowledge Sharing and Reuse Components: Ontologies and Problem-Solving Methods', In the Proceedings of IJCAI-99 Workshop on Ontologies and Problem-Solving Methods (KRR5), Stockholm, Sweden.
Download


Paper Citation


in Harvard Style

Clarizia F., Colace F. and De Santo M. (2007). Ontology and E-Learning . In Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Computer Supported Activity Coordination - Volume 1: CSAC, (ICEIS 2007) ISBN 978-972-8865-98-6, pages 87-98. DOI: 10.5220/0002424400870098


in Bibtex Style

@conference{csac07,
author={Fabio Clarizia and Francesco Colace and Massimo De Santo},
title={Ontology and E-Learning},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Computer Supported Activity Coordination - Volume 1: CSAC, (ICEIS 2007)},
year={2007},
pages={87-98},
publisher={SciTePress},
organization={INSTICC},
doi={10.5220/0002424400870098},
isbn={978-972-8865-98-6},
}


in EndNote Style

TY - CONF
JO - Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Computer Supported Activity Coordination - Volume 1: CSAC, (ICEIS 2007)
TI - Ontology and E-Learning
SN - 978-972-8865-98-6
AU - Clarizia F.
AU - Colace F.
AU - De Santo M.
PY - 2007
SP - 87
EP - 98
DO - 10.5220/0002424400870098