COMPETITIVE AND COOPERATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR REMOTE EYE-TRACKING

Giovanni Crisafulli, Giancarllo Iannizzotto, Francesco La Rosa

Abstract

Reliable detection and tracking of eyes is an important requirement for attentive user interfaces. In this paper, we present an innovative approach to the problem of the eye-tracking. Traditional eye-detectors, chosen for own properties, are combined by two different schemes (competitive and cooperative scheme) to improve own robustness and reliability. To illustrate our work, we introduce a proof-of-concept single camera remote eye-tracker and discuss its implementation and the obtained experimental results.

References

  1. Viola, P., Jones, M., 2001. Rapid Object Detection using a Boosted Cascade of Simple Features. In CVPR'01, International Conference on Computer Vision And Pattern Recognition. IEEE Computer Science Society.
  2. Lienhart, R., Maydt, J., 2002. An Extended Set of Haarlike Features for Rapid Object Detection. In ICIP'02, International Conference on Image Processing. IEEE Signal Processing Society.
  3. Freund, Y., Schapire, R., 1996. Experiments with a new boosting algorithm. In ICML'96, International Conference on Machine Learning. Morgan Kaufmann.
  4. Gonzalez, R., Woods, R., 2002. Digital Image Processing. Prentice Hall Press, 2nd edition.
  5. Freund, Y., Schapire, R., 1997. A Decision-Theoretic Generalization of On-Line learning and an application to boosting. Journal of Computer and System Sciences, Elsevier Inc.
  6. Hsu, R., Abdel-Mottaleb, M., Jain, A., 2002. Face detection in color images. Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intellegence. IEEE Computer Science Society.
  7. Coifman, B., Beymer, D., McLauchlan, P., Malik, J., 1998. A real-time computer vision system for vehicle tracking and traffic surveillance. Transportation Research Part C 6. Elsevier Inc.
  8. Babcock, J., Pelz, J., 2004. Building a lightweight eyetracking headgear. In ETRA'04, International Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications. ACM Press.
  9. Ji, Q., Zhu, Z. 2004. Eye and gaze tracking for interactive graphic display. Machine Vision and Applications. Springer.
  10. Tomasi, C., Kanade, T., 1992. Shape and motion from image streams under orthography: a factorization method. International Journal of Computer Vision. Springer.
  11. Black, M., Jepson, A., 1998. EigenTracking: Robust Matching and Tracking of Articulated Objects Using a View-Based Representation. International Journal of Computer Vision. Springer.
  12. Morimoto, C., Koons, D., Amir, A., Flickner M., 1998. Pupil detection and tracking using multiple light sources. Technical Report RJ-10117, IBM Almaden Research Center.
  13. Morimoto, C., Koons, D., Amir, A., Flickner M., 1998. Real-time detection of eyes and faces. In PUI'98 International Workshop on Perceptual User Interfaces. ACM Press.
  14. Morimoto, C., Mimica, M., 2005. Eye gaze tracking techniques for interactive applications. Computer Vision and Image Understanding. Elsevier Inc.
  15. Zhu, Z., Ji, Q., 2005. Robust real-time eye detection and tracking under variable lighting conditions and various face orientations. Computer Vision and Image Understanding. Elsevier Inc.
  16. Jacob, R., 1991. The use of eye movements in humancomputer interaction techniques: What you look at is what you get. ACM Transactions on Information Systems. ACM Press.
  17. Shi, J., Tomasi, C., 1994. Good features to track. In CVPR'94, International Conference on Computer Vision And Pattern Recognition. IEEE Computer Science Society.
  18. Ramadan, S., Almageed, W., Smith, C., 2002. Eye tracking using active deformable models. In ICVGIP'02, Indian Conference on Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing. Springer.
  19. Kawato, S., Tetsutani, N., 2002. Real-time detection of between-the-eyes with a circle frequency filter. In ACCV'02, Asian Conference on Computer Vision. Springer.
  20. Kawato, S., Tetsutani, N., 2002. Detection and tracking of eyes for gaze-camera control. In VI'02 International. Conference on Vision Interface. Springer.
  21. Canny, J., 1986. A Computational Approach to Edge Detection, Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intellegence. IEEE Computer Science Society.
  22. Bouguet, J., 1999. Pyramidal Implementation of the Lucas Kanade Feature Tracker. Intel Corporation Microprocessor Research Labs.
  23. Daugman, J., 1993. High confidence visual recognition of persons by a test of statistical independence. Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intellegence. IEEE Computer Science Society.
  24. Haro, A., Flickner, M., Essa, I, 2000. Detecting and tracking eyes by using their physiological properties, dynamics, and appearance. In CVPR'00, International Conference on Computer Vision And Pattern Recognition. IEEE Computer Science Society.
  25. Peng, K., Chen, L., Ruan, S., Kukharev, G., 2005. A Robust Algorithm for Eye Detection on Gray Intensity Face without Spectacles. Journal of Computer Science & Technology. Springer.
  26. Vester-Christensen, M., Leimberg, D., Ersbøll, B., Hansen, L., 2005. Heuristics For Speeding Up Gaze Estimation. In SSBA'05, Svenska Symposium i Bildanalys.
  27. Li, D., Babcock, J., Parkhurst, D., 2006. OpenEyes: A low-cost head-mounted eye-tracking solution. In ETRA'06, International Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications. ACM Press.
  28. Li, D., Winfield, D., Parkhurst, D., 2005. Starburst: A Hybrid Algorithm For Video-Based Eye Tracking Combining Feature-Based And Model-Based Approaches. In CVPR'05, International Conference on Computer Vision And Pattern Recognition. IEEE Computer Science Society.
  29. Matsumoto, Y., Zelinsky., A., 2000. An algorithm for realtime stereo vision implementation of head pose and gaze direction measurement. In AFGR'00, International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. IEEE Computer Science Society.
  30. King, I., Xu, L., 1997. Localized Principal Component Analysis Learning for Face Feature Extraction and Recognition. Workshop on 3D Computer Vision. Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Download


Paper Citation


in Harvard Style

Crisafulli G., Iannizzotto G. and La Rosa F. (2009). COMPETITIVE AND COOPERATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR REMOTE EYE-TRACKING . In Proceedings of the International Conference on Bio-inspired Systems and Signal Processing - Volume 1: BIOSIGNALS, (BIOSTEC 2009) ISBN 978-989-8111-65-4, pages 521-528. DOI: 10.5220/0001555105210528


in Bibtex Style

@conference{biosignals09,
author={Giovanni Crisafulli and Giancarllo Iannizzotto and Francesco La Rosa},
title={COMPETITIVE AND COOPERATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR REMOTE EYE-TRACKING },
booktitle={Proceedings of the International Conference on Bio-inspired Systems and Signal Processing - Volume 1: BIOSIGNALS, (BIOSTEC 2009)},
year={2009},
pages={521-528},
publisher={SciTePress},
organization={INSTICC},
doi={10.5220/0001555105210528},
isbn={978-989-8111-65-4},
}


in EndNote Style

TY - CONF
JO - Proceedings of the International Conference on Bio-inspired Systems and Signal Processing - Volume 1: BIOSIGNALS, (BIOSTEC 2009)
TI - COMPETITIVE AND COOPERATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR REMOTE EYE-TRACKING
SN - 978-989-8111-65-4
AU - Crisafulli G.
AU - Iannizzotto G.
AU - La Rosa F.
PY - 2009
SP - 521
EP - 528
DO - 10.5220/0001555105210528