TEMPORAL ENTITIES - Types, Tokens and Qualifications

B. O. Akinkunmi

Abstract

Reified logics have been a major subject of interest in the knowledge representation community for well over twenty years, since over the years, the need to quantify and reason about propositional entities such as events and states among other temporal entities has grown. Galton had made it clear that one may either refer to types or tokens (instances) of such entities in the ontology. A clear tendency in the literature is to derive event tokens from event types by instantiating types with their times of occurrence. That tendency is exemplified by earlier token-reified logic. The problem with this approach is that it makes it difficult to distinguish between two different events of the same type happening at the same time. This is a major price that earlier logic paid for being a full-fledged logical theory. This paper presents an alternative way of deriving event tokens from event types which uses the concept of qualifications rather than use times of occurrence. A clear distinction is made between qualifications and the actual event tokens they help derive from event types. A qualification captures the peculiarities of an actual event token that are not part of the event type definitions. Our logic maintains both the advantage of being a full-fledged logic as well being able to add many qualifications to an event token. This paper presents an alternative way of deriving event tokens from event types which uses the concept of qualifications rather than use times of occurrence. A clear distinction is made between qualifications and the actual event tokens they help derive from event types. A qualification captures the peculiarities of an actual event token that are not part of the event type definitions. Our logic maintains both the advantage of being a full-fledged logic as well being able to add many qualifications to an event token.

References

  1. Akinkunmi, B. O. (2000). On the expressive limits of Reified logics. Journal of Logic and Computation, 10(2), pp. 297- 313, April 2000.
  2. Allen, J. F. (1991), Planning as Temporal Reasoning. In J.F. Allen, R. Fikes and E. Sandewall (eds.) Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KRR 91), pp. 3-14, Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, May 1991.
  3. Allen, J. F. (1984), Towards a general theory of action and time. Artificial Intelligence, 23: 123-154, 1984.
  4. Allen, J. F. (1983), Maintaining knowledge about temporal intervals. Communications of the ACM, 26: 832-843, 1983.
  5. Allen, J. F. & Fergusson, G. M. (1994). Actions and Events in Interval Temporal Logic. Journal of Logic and Computation 4(5): 531-579, December 1994.
  6. Allen, J. F. & Hayes, P. J. (1985). A common sense theory of time. In R. Bajcsy (ed.), Proceedings of the 9th IJCAI, 1985, pp 528-531 Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1985.
  7. Bacchus F., Tennenberg J. & Koomen, J. A. (1991). A non-reified temporal logic. Artificial Intelligence 52 (1) pp. 87-101, 1991.
  8. Davidson, D. (1967). The logical form of action sentences. In Rescher, N. (ed.) The logic of decision and action. pp 81-95, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1967. Also in Davidson, D. (ed.) Essays on Actions and Events pp 105-221, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2001.
  9. Fergusson, G. M. (1995). Knowledge Representation and Reasoning for Mixed-Initiative Planning. PhD thesis, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, 1995.
  10. Galton A. (2008) Experience and History: Processes and their Relation to Events. Journal of Logic and Computation 18(3): 323-340, December 2008.
  11. Galton A.(2006) Operators vs Arguments: The Ins and Outs of Reification. Synthese 150: 415-441
  12. Bennett, B and A. P. Galton (2004) A unifying semantics for time and events. Artificial Intelligence 153(1-2): 13-48
  13. Galton, A. (1991). Reified Theories and how to unreify them. In Mylopoulous, J. and Reiter, R (eds.) Proceedings of the IJCAI, 1991, pp.1177-1182, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, 1991.
  14. Gooday, J. (1994). A transition based approach to reasoning about action and change. PhD thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Exeter, September, 1994
  15. Haugh, B. A. (1987). Non-standard semantics for the method of temporal arguments In J. Mylopoulous (ed.) Proceedings of the 10th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp.449-455, Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, 1987.
  16. Kautz, H. A. (1987). A Formal Theory of Plan Recognition. PhD thesis, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York.
  17. Koomen, J. A. (1989). Reasoning about Recurrence PhD thesis, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York.
  18. Kowalski, R. & Sergot, M. (1986). A logic based calculus of events. New Generation Computing 4(1): 67-96, April 1986.
  19. Shoham, Y. (1987). Temporal logics: semantical and ontological considerations. Artificial Intelligence, 33: 89-104, 1987.
  20. Vila, Ll. & Reichgelt, H. (1996). The token reification approach to temporal reasoning Artificial Intelligence, 83(1): 59-74, 1996.
Download


Paper Citation


in Harvard Style

Akinkunmi B. (2010). TEMPORAL ENTITIES - Types, Tokens and Qualifications . In Proceedings of the International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Ontology Development - Volume 1: KEOD, (IC3K 2010) ISBN 978-989-8425-29-4, pages 288-294. DOI: 10.5220/0003099602880294


in Bibtex Style

@conference{keod10,
author={B. O. Akinkunmi},
title={TEMPORAL ENTITIES - Types, Tokens and Qualifications},
booktitle={Proceedings of the International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Ontology Development - Volume 1: KEOD, (IC3K 2010)},
year={2010},
pages={288-294},
publisher={SciTePress},
organization={INSTICC},
doi={10.5220/0003099602880294},
isbn={978-989-8425-29-4},
}


in EndNote Style

TY - CONF
JO - Proceedings of the International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Ontology Development - Volume 1: KEOD, (IC3K 2010)
TI - TEMPORAL ENTITIES - Types, Tokens and Qualifications
SN - 978-989-8425-29-4
AU - Akinkunmi B.
PY - 2010
SP - 288
EP - 294
DO - 10.5220/0003099602880294