Adrian Benfell


The discovery of suitable web services is a demanding challenge for organisations that plan to benefit from this technology. Strategic objectives, organisational structures, business processes and technology placed in a climate of constant change impact the normative behavioural patterns of people working in all kinds of organisations. Such dynamic conditions can have a profound influence over the discovery of appropriate web services. Advocated in this paper is a semiotic approach to web service description that configures a solution to take into account the dynamic conditions affecting web service discovery. The semiotic approach merges the articulation of dynamic conditions with web service description whilst facilitating the engagement of service providers and consumers in joint actions. Framed by affordance, joint actions capture the changeable normative behavioural patterns of people so that web service utilisation can be harmonised with organisational contexts.


  1. Austin, J., (1962). How to Do Things with Words. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  2. Atkin, A. (2006). Peirce's Theory of Signs, available at: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/peirce-semiotics/
  3. Atkinson, C., Bostan, P., Hummel, O., and Stoll, D. A, (2007) Practical Approach to Web Service Discovery and Retrieval, IEEE International Conference on Web Services, 9-13 July, Salt Lake City UT, USA. ISBN: 0-7695-2924-0.
  4. Beller, S., (2003). The flexible use of deontic mental models. In R. Alterman and D. Kirsh (Eds), Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, pp 127-132.
  5. Beller, S., (2008). Deontic norms, deontic reasoning, and deontic conditionals. Thinking and Reasoning, 14, 4, pp 305-341.
  6. Benfell, A., and Liu, K., (2009). Defining a Pragmatic Based Web-service Discovery Mechanism, ISEMANTICS Special Track: 4th AIS SigPrag, International Pragmatic Web Conference. Graz, Austria. ISBN 978-3-85125-060-2, pp 763-774.
  7. Berkem, B., (2008) .From The Business Motivation Model (BMM) To Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Journal of Object Technology, Vol. 7, No. 8, November-December.
  8. Berners-Lee, T. Hendler, J. and Lassila, O., (2001). The Semantic Web, Scientific American, May, pp34-43.
  9. Boella, G., Torre, L., and Verhagen, H., (2006). Introduction to Normative Multiagent Systems, Computational and Mathematical Organizational Theory, Volume 12, Numbers 2-3, October, pp71-79 (9).
  10. Business Motivation Model (2008). - OMG, Accessed at: http://www.omg.org/spec/BMM/1.0/.
  11. Carey, M., (2008) SOA What? IEEE Computer, March, pp 92-93.
  12. Chandler, D., (2002). Semiotics - The Basics, Routledge.
  13. Crasso, M., Zunino, A., and Campo, M., (2008). Easy web service discovery: A query-by-example approach, Science of Computer Programming, 71, pp 144-164.
  14. De Moor, A., (2005). Patterns for the Pragmatic Web, Invited paper, Proc. of the 13th International Conference on Conceptual Structures, Kassel, Germany, LNAI. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp 1-18.
  15. Erl, T., (2008). SOA: Principles of Service Design. Prentice Hall.
  16. Everaert-Desmedt, N., Peirce's Semiotics, available at: http://www.signosemio.com/peirce/a_semiotique.asp accessed 15th May 2010.
  17. Finnegan, J, D., and Currie, L,W., (2010). A multi-layered approach to CRM implementation: An integration perspective, European Management Journal, Vol 28, 2, pp 158 - 173,
  18. Gibson, James, J. (1977). The Theory of Affordances. In Perceiving, Acting, and Knowing, Eds. Robert Shaw and John Bransford, ISBN 0-470-99014-7.
  19. Huang, S., Chu, Y,. Li, S., and Yen, D., (2008). Enhancing conflict detecting mechanism for Web Services composition: A business process flow model transformation approach, Information and Software Technology, 50, 11, pp 1069-1087.
  20. Il-Woong, Kim, Kyong-Ho, Lee. (2007). Web Services, Describing Semantic Web Services: From UML to OWL-S ICWS. IEEE International Conference on Web Services, Volume, Issue, 9-13, pp 529 - 536.
  21. Li, Y., Liu, Y., Zhang, L., Li, G., Xie, B., Sun, S., (2007). An Exploratory Study of Web Services on the Internet, IEEE International Conference on Web Services, 9-13 July, Salt Lake City UT, USA. ISBN: 0-7695-2924-0.
  22. Liu, K., (2000). Semiotics in Information Systems Engineering, Cambridge University Press.
  23. Liu, K., and Benfell, A., (2009). Pragmatic Web - Incorporating Semiotics into Web Services, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Software and Data Technologies, Volume 1, Sofia, Bulgaria, July 26-29, ISBN 978-989-674-009-2, pp 11 -18.
  24. Morris, C.W., (1938). Foundations of the Theory of Signs, Chicago: Chicago University Press.
  25. OASIS (2008). Reference Architecture for Service Oriented Architecture Version 1.0, Public Review Draft 1, 23 http://docs.oasis-open.org/soa-rm/soara/v1.0/soa-ra-pr-01.pdf. 2008.
  26. OWL-S (2004). OWL-S: Semantic Markup for Web Services, Accessed at: http://www.w3.org/ Submission/OWL-S/
  27. Papazoglou, M., Traverso, P., Dustdar, S., and Leymann, F., (2007). Service-Oriented Computing: State of the Art and Research Challenges, IEEE Computer, Nov, pp 38 -45.
  28. Pastore, S., (2008). The service discovery methods issue: A web services UDDI specification framework integrated in a grid environment, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 31, pp 93-107.
  29. Peirce, C, S., (1931-1958). Collected writings (8 vols), Editors, Charles Hartshorne, Paul Weiss and Arthur W. Burks, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.
  30. Redavid, D., Iannone, L. and Payne, T. (2007). OWL-S Atomic services composition with SWRL rules. In: Proceedings of the 4th Italian Semantic Web Workshop, 18-20 December, Dipartimento di Informatica - Universita' degli Studi di Bari - Italy.
  31. Searle, R., (1969). Speech Acts. Cambridge University Press, London, UK.
  32. Schoop, M. deMoor, A. and Deitz, J, L, G. (2006). The Pragmatic Web: A Manifesto, Communications of the ACM, 49, 5, pp 75-76.
  33. Shadbolt, N. Hall, W. Berners-Lee, T. The Semantic Web Revisited, (2006). IEEE Intelligent Systems, MayJune, pp 96-101.
  34. Short, T, L., (2007). Peirce's Theory of Signs, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-84320-0.
  35. Singh, M.P. (2002) The Pragmatic Web, IEEE Computing, May-Jun, pp 4-5.
  36. SOAP (2007). W3C, available at: http://www.w3.org/ TR/2007/REC-soap12-part1-20070427/
  37. Sowa, J. (2000). Knowledge Representation: Logical, Philosophical and Computational Foundations, Brookes/Cole, Thomson Learning, ISBN: 0-534- 94965-7, pp 394 - 401.
  38. Stamper, R., (1996). Signs, Norms, and Information Systems, in Holmqvist, B. et al (Eds.) Signs at Work, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, Germany.
  39. Stamper, R., (1985). Knowledge as action: a logic of social norms and individual affordances. In Gilbert, G, N., and Heath, C., (eds) Social Action and Artificial Intelligence. Gower Press, Aldershot, Hampshire. pp 172-191.
  40. SWRL (2004). A Semantic Web Rule Language Combining OWL and RuleML, available at: http://www.w3.org/Submission/2004/SUBM-SWRL20040521/
  41. UDDI, OASIS, available at: http://uddi.org/pubs/uddiv3.0.2-20041019.htm ,2004.
  42. Ulrich, H. 2006, available at: http://msdn.microsoft.com/ en-us/architecture/aa479368.aspx
  43. Young, P., (2008). Social Norms, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Second Edition, Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume, eds. London: Macmillan.
  44. Welser, T, H., Gleave, E., Barash, V., Smith, M., Meckes, J., (2009). Whither the Experts? Social affordances and the cultivation of experts in community Q&A systems, International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering, pp 450 - 455.
  45. WSDL, W3C, available at: http://www.w3.org/ TR/2001/NOTE-wsdl-20010315
  46. WSDL-S, W3C, available at: http://www.w3.org/ Submission/2005/SUBM-WSDL-S-20051107/
  47. WSML, WSMO, available at: http://www.wsmo.org/ TR/d16/d16.1/v1.0/

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Liu K. and Benfell A. (2010). A SEMIOTIC APPROACH TO WEB SERVICE DESCRIPTION . In Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Informatics and Semiotics in Organisations - Volume 1: ICISO, ISBN 978-989-8425-26-3, pages 68-76. DOI: 10.5220/0003270000680076

in Bibtex Style

author={Kecheng Liu and Adrian Benfell},
booktitle={Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Informatics and Semiotics in Organisations - Volume 1: ICISO,},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Informatics and Semiotics in Organisations - Volume 1: ICISO,
SN - 978-989-8425-26-3
AU - Liu K.
AU - Benfell A.
PY - 2010
SP - 68
EP - 76
DO - 10.5220/0003270000680076