J. C. Sakdavong, F. Amadieu, N. Huet, C. Dupeyrat


This paper presents the framework of elaboration of help in a text-processing computer-based learning environment. A multiagent software system have been developed including help. Then it was tested in participants who had to learn autonomously and for which we analyzed the behavioral pattern of using help. Results showed a lack of regulation and highlight the need for adding a metacognitive guidance enabling learner to efficiently use help.


  1. Dillon, A., & Gabbard, R., 1998. Hypermedia as an educational technology: A review of the quantitative research literature on learner comprehension, control, and style. In Review of Educational Research, 68(3), 322-349.
  2. Shapiro, A., & Niederhauser, D.,2004. Learning from hypertext: Research issues and findings. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 605-620). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  3. Lebel, C., 1995. Le tuteur et l'autonomie de l'étudiant à distance. In Journal of Distance Education, vol. X, n° 1, pp. 5-24.Baker, M., Puustinen, M., & Lund, K., 2002. Assessment of existing concepts: Deliverable D.2.C.1. VIRTU@LIS. In Project Report, EU FP5 Contract IST-2000-28121. GRIC, UMR CNRS 5612, University of Lyon 2, France.
  4. Boucheix, J. M., 2003. Ergonomie et Formation : Approche d'ergonomie cognitive des apprentissages professionnels. In Psychologie Française, 48(2), 17- 34.
  5. Leplat, J., 2002. Psychologie de la formation, jalons et perspectives. In Toulouse: Octares 2002.
  6. Samurçay, R. & Pastré, P., 2004. Recherches en didactique professionnelle. In Toulouse : Octarès 2002
  7. Azevedo, R. & Cromley, J.G., 2004. Does training on selfregulated learning facilitate students'learning with hypermedia? In Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 523-535.
  8. Puustinen, M., Volckaert-Legrier, O., Coquin, D. & Bernicot, J. 2009. An analysis of students' spontaneous computer-mediated help seeking: A step toward the design of ecologically valid supporting tools. In Computers & Education, 53(4), 1040-1047.
  9. Aleven, V., Fischer, F., Schworm S., Stahl E., Wallace R. 2003. Help Seeking and Help Design in Interactive Learning Environments. In Review of educational Research, 73, 3, 277-320
  10. Roll, I., Baker, R.S., Aleven, V., McLaren, B., & Koedinger, K., 2005. Modeling students' metacognitive errors in two intelligent tutoring systems. In L.Ardissono, P. Brna and A. Mitrovic (Eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on User Modeling, UM'2005, 379-388. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
  11. Puustinen, M. 1998. Help-seeking behavior in a problemsolving situation: Development of self-regulation. In European Journal of Psychology of Education, 13, 271-282.
  12. Flavell, J., 1979. Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. In American Psychologist, 34, 906-911.
  13. Nelson-Le Gall, S., 1981. Help-seeking: An understudied problem-solving skill in children. In Developmental Review, 1, 224-246.
  14. Pressley, M., Borkowski, J. G. and O'Sullivan, J. T., 1985. Children's Metamemory and the Teaching of Memory Strategies. In Forrest-Pressley, D. L., MacKinnon, G. E. and Waller, T. G.(eds.), Metacognition, Cognition and Human Performance, pp. 111-153. New York: Academic Press.
  15. Escribe, C., Huet, N., 2005. Knowledge accessibility, achievement goals and memory strategy maintenance. In British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 1- 19.
  16. Noury, F., Huet, N., Escribe, C., & Narciss, S., 2008. Metacognitive knowledge, achievement goals and help seeking in learning on a web site of statistic problem. In 3rd Biennial Meeting of the EARLI Special Interest Group 16, Ioannina.
  17. Hofer, M., Niegemann, H. M., Eckert. A., & Rinn, U., 1996. Padagogische Hilfen fur interaktive selbstgesteuerte Lernprozesse und Konstruktion eines neuen Verfahrens zur Wissensdiagnose [Instructional help for interactive self-directed learning processes and construction of a new procedure for knowledge diagnosis]. In Zeitschrift fur Berufs- und Wirtschaftspddagogik Beiheft, 13, 53-67.
  18. Clarebout, G. & Elen, J., 2009. The complexity of tool use in computer-based learning environments. In Instructional Science, 37, 475-486.
  19. Jiang, L., Elen, J., Clarebout, G., 2009. The relationships between learner variables, tool-usage behaviour and performance, Computers. In Human Behavior, v.25 n.2, p.501-509, March, 2009
  20. Puustinen, M., & Rouet, J.-F., 2009. Learning with new technology, Help seeking and information searching revisited. In Computers & Education, 53, 1014-1019.
  21. Puustinen, M., Bernicot, J., & Bert-Erboul, A. (In press). Written computer-mediated requests for help by French-speaking students: An analysis of their forms and functions. In Learning and Instruction.
  22. Help design for the metacognitive guidance of the learner: A proposition of computer-based system, In CSEDU 2009, Lisbonne, 23-26 mars 2009, ISBN 978-989- 8111-82-1, pp 210-216.
  23. Arbreton, A., 1998. Student goal orientation and helpseeking strategy use. In S.A. Karabenick (Ed.), Strategic help seeking: Implications for learning and teaching (p. 95-116). Mahwah, NJ.: Erlbaum.
  24. Wooldridge M., 2002. An introduction to MultiAgent Systems, In John Wiley & sons, Ltd, 2004.
  25. Bellefemine, F., Caire, G., Trucco, T., Rimassa, G., 2004. Jade programmer's guide (jade 3.2). In Technical Report, TILab S.p.A., 2004.
  26. Wood, D., Bruner, J.S., Ross, G., 1976. The role of tutoring in problem solving. In Journal of Child Psychology and Child Psychiatry, 17, 89-100.
  27. Davis, F. D., 1989. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. In MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319-340.
  28. Venkatesh, V., Morris, Davis, & Davis, 2003. User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. In MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 425-47

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

C. Sakdavong J., Amadieu F., Huet N. and Dupeyrat C. (2011). HELP DESIGN AND HELP USE IN A COMPUTER BASED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT . In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Computer Supported Education - Volume 1: CSEDU, ISBN 978-989-8425-49-2, pages 304-311. DOI: 10.5220/0003345503040311

in Bibtex Style

author={J. C. Sakdavong and F. Amadieu and N. Huet and C. Dupeyrat},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Computer Supported Education - Volume 1: CSEDU,},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Computer Supported Education - Volume 1: CSEDU,
SN - 978-989-8425-49-2
AU - C. Sakdavong J.
AU - Amadieu F.
AU - Huet N.
AU - Dupeyrat C.
PY - 2011
SP - 304
EP - 311
DO - 10.5220/0003345503040311