EMPLOYEES’ INNOVATION BEHAVIOR - The Role of External Information Awareness and Proactiveness of Innovation Strategy

Jing Tang, Loo Geok Pee, Junichi Iijima


Employees’ innovation behavior (IB), which involves developing, promoting, judging, distributing and implementing new ideas, is the foundation for knowledge creation and diffusion in organizations. Therefore, it is important to encourage employees’ IB in knowledge management initiatives. To better understand IB, this study applies the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Employees’ attitude towards innovation, subjective norm about innovation, and perceived behavioral control to innovation are expected to influence employees’ IB. In addition, the effects of organizational factors are considered. Specifically, the influence of external information awareness (EIA) and proactiveness of innovation strategy (PIS) are examined. Results from a survey of employees in Japanese organizations show that employees’ attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control not only significantly influence their innovative behavior, they also mediate the effects of EIA and PIS. This study contributes to research by understanding what individual and organizational factors influence employees’ IB and extending TPB by considering the effects of EIA and PIS, using data collected from an understudied yet important context. The findings also suggest that managers should focus on improving perceived behavioral controls, EIA and PIS to encourage employees’ IB.


  1. Ajzen, I. 1991. The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process, 50(2), 170-211.
  2. Ajzen, I. 2005. Attitudes, Personality, and Behavior, Maidenhead, England: Open University Press.
  3. Amabile, T. M. 1997. Motivating creativity in organizations: on doing what you love and love what you do. California Management Review, 40(1), 39-58.
  4. Amo, B. W. 2006. Employee innovation behavior in health care: the influence from management and colleagues. International Nursing Review, 53(3), 231- 237.
  5. Arogon-Correa, J. A., and Sharma, S. 2003. A contingent resource-based view of proactive corporate environmental strategy. The Academy of Management Review, 28(1), 71-88.
  6. Bock, G. W., Zmud, R. W., and Kim, Y. G. 2005. Behavioral intention formation in knowledge sharing: examining the roles of extrinsic motivators, socialpsychological forces, and organizational climate. MIS Quarterly, 29(1), 87-111.
  7. Chin, W. W., Marcolin, B. L., and Newsted, P. R. 1996. A partial least squares latent variable modeling approach for measuring interaction effects: results from a monte carlo simulation study and voice mail emotion/adoption study, in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Information Systems, DeGross, J. I., Jarvenpaa, S., and Srinivasan, A. (Eds.), 21-41.
  8. Chesbrough, H. W. 2003. Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology. Harvard Business School, Boston.
  9. Cohen, W. M., and Levinthal, D. A. 1990. Absorptive capability: a new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1), 128-152.
  10. Cooper, R. G., and Kleinschmidt, E. J. 1995. Benchmarking the firm's critical success factors in new product development. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 12(5), 374-391.
  11. De Jong, J. P. J., and Den Hartog, D. N. 2007. How leaders influence employees' innovation behavior. European Journal of Innovation Management,10(1), 41-64.
  12. Diamantopoulos, A., and Winklhofer, H. M. 2001. Index construction with formative indicators: an alternative to scale development. Journal of Marketing Research, 38 (2), 269-277.
  13. Dorenbosch, L., van Engen, M. L., and Verhagen, M. 2005. On-the-job innovation: the impact of job design and human resource management through production ownership. Creativity and Innovation Management, 14(2), 129-141.
  14. Fagerberg, J., Mowery, D. C., and Nelson, R. R. 2005. The Oxford Handbook of Innovation. 1st Edition. Oxford University, New York.
  15. Forrester, R. H. 2000. Capturing learning and applying knowledge: an investigation of the use of innovation teams in Japanese and American automotive firms. Journal of Business Research, 47(1), 35-45.
  16. Frishammar, J., and Horte, S. A. 2005. Managing external information in manufacturing firms: the impact on innovation performance. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, 22(3), 251-266.
  17. Freel, M. 2000. External linkages and product innovation in small manufacturing firms. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 12(3), 245-266.
  18. Fishbein, M., and Ajzen, I. 1981. On construct validity: a critique of miniard and cohen's paper. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 17(3), 340-350.
  19. Goodman, M. B. 1989. Executive summary: high visibility, high risk, high reward. 1989 Professional Communication Conference, 18-20, 245-248.
  20. Hair, J. F., Black, B., Babin, B., and Anderson, A. E. 2005. Multivariate Data Analysis, 6th edition, Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, N.
  21. Hofstede, G., and Hofstede, G.J. 2004. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. McGraw-Hill U.S.A., New York.
  22. Jassen, O. 2004. How fairness perceptions make innovative behavior more or less stressful. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(2), 201-215.
  23. Jimmieson, N. L., Peach, M., and White, K. M. 2008. Utilizing the theory of planned behavior to inform change management: an investigation of employee intentions to support organizational change. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 44(2), 237-262.
  24. Kaufmann, A., and Todtling, F. 2002. How effective is innovation support for SMEs? An analysis of the region of Upper Austria. Technovation, 2 (3), 147-159.
  25. King, N., and Anderson, N. 2002. Managing Innovation and Change: a Critical Guide for Organizations. Thomson, London.
  26. Knight, G. 2000. Entrepreneurship and marketing strategy: the SME under globalization. Journal of International Marketing, 8(2), 12-32.
  27. Krueger Jr., N. 1998. Encouraging the identification of environmental opportunities. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 11(2), 174-183.
  28. Krueger Jr., N. 2007. The cognitive infrastructure of opportunity emergence. Entrepreneurship, part II, 185- 206.
  29. Laursen, K., and Salter, A. 2006. Open for innovation: the role of openness in explaining innovation performance in among U.K. manufacturing firms. Strategic Management Journal, 27, 131-150.
  30. Lee, L., and Wong, P. K., 2006. Individual attitudes, organizational reward system and patenting performance of R&D scientists and engineers. M. P. R. Archive, ed., 595, 44.
  31. Lee, R., Klobas, J., Tezinde, T., and Murphy, J. 2010. The underlying social identities of a nation's brand. International Marketing Review, 27(4), 450-465.
  32. Lieberman, M., and Montgomery, D. 1988. First mover advantages. Strategic Management Journal, 9(1), 41- 58.
  33. Lin, H. F, and Lee G. G. 2004. Perceptions of senior managers towards knowledge-sharing behavior. Management decision, 42(1), 108-125.
  34. Lumpkin, G. T., and Dess, G. G. 1996. Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 135-172.
  35. Martin, P., Salanova, M., and Peiro, J.M. 2007. Job demands, job resources and individual innovation at work: going beyond Karasek's model. Psicothema, 12(4), 621-626.
  36. Mendelson, H. 2000. Organizational architecture and success in the information technology industry. Management Science, 46(4), 513-529.
  37. Morris, M. G., Venkatesh, V., and Ackerman, P. L. 2005. Gender and age differences in employee decision about new technology: an extension to the theory of planned behavior. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 52 (1), 69-84.
  38. Ong, C. H., Wan, D., and Chng, S.H. 2003. Factors affecting individual innovation: an examination within a Japanese subsidiary in Singapore. Technovation, 23(7), 617-631.
  39. Pizam, A. 1972. Psychological characteristics of innovators. European Journal of Marketing 6(3), 203-210.
  40. Pieterse, A. N., Knippenberg, D. V., Schippers, M., and Stam, D. 2010. Transformational and transactional leadership and innovative behavior: the moderating role of psychological empowerment. Journal of Organization Behavior, 31(4), 609-623.
  41. Price, J. L., and Mueller, C. W. 1986. Handbook of Or ganizational Measurement. Pittman, Marshfield, MA.
  42. Robinson, J. P., and Shaver, P. R. 1973. Measures of Social Psychological Attitudes, the Institute for Social Research. The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
  43. Saleh, S. D., and Wang, C. K. 1993. The management of innovation: strategy, structure, and organizational culture. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 40(1), 14-21.
  44. Sender, S. W. 2007. Systematic agreement: A theory of organizational alignment. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 8(1), 23-40.
  45. Scott, S. G., and Bruce, R. A. 1994. Determinants of innovation behavior: a path model of individual innovation in the workplace. The Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 580-607.
  46. Scott, S. G., and Bruce, R. A. 1998. Following the leader in R&D: the joint effect of subordinate problemsolving style and leader-member relations on innovative behavior. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 45(1), 3-10.
  47. Slater, S. F., and Mohr, J. J. 2006. Successful development and commercialisation of technological innovation: insights based on innovation type. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, 23(1), 26-33.
  48. Souitaris, V. 2001. External communication determinants of innovation in the context of a newly industrialized country: a comparison of objective and perceptual results from Greece. Technovation, 21(1), 25-34.
  49. Souder, W.E. 1987. Managing New Product Innovation. Health, Lexington, MA.
  50. Tambe, P. B., Hitt, L. M., and Brynjolfsson, E. 2009. The extroverted firm: how external information practices affect productivity. 2008 International Conference on Information Systems.
  51. Turgoose, C., Thacker, C., Adams, M., Carmichael, C., Gray, M., Hall, L., and Todd, C. 2000. Innovation in Manufacturing SMEs in South Yorkshire. Innovation Advisory Service, Sheffield.
  52. Unsworth, K.L., and Parker, S. 2003. Proactivity and innovation: promoting a new workforce for the new workplace. The New Workplace: A Guide to the Human Impact of Modern Working Practices, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 175-196.
  53. Von Hippel, E. 1988. The Sources of Innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.
  54. Wiethoff, C. 2004. Motivation to learn and diversity training: application of the theory of planned behavior. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 15(3), 263- 278.
  55. Williams, S. D. 2004. Personality, attitude, and leader influences on divergent thinking and creativity in organizations. European Journal of Innovation Management, 7(3), 187-204.

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Tang J., Pee L. and Iijima J. (2011). EMPLOYEES’ INNOVATION BEHAVIOR - The Role of External Information Awareness and Proactiveness of Innovation Strategy . In Proceedings of the International Conference on Knowledge Management and Information Sharing - Volume 1: KMIS, (IC3K 2011) ISBN 978-989-8425-81-2, pages 5-17. DOI: 10.5220/0003629400050017

in Bibtex Style

author={Jing Tang and Loo Geok Pee and Junichi Iijima},
title={EMPLOYEES’ INNOVATION BEHAVIOR - The Role of External Information Awareness and Proactiveness of Innovation Strategy},
booktitle={Proceedings of the International Conference on Knowledge Management and Information Sharing - Volume 1: KMIS, (IC3K 2011)},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the International Conference on Knowledge Management and Information Sharing - Volume 1: KMIS, (IC3K 2011)
TI - EMPLOYEES’ INNOVATION BEHAVIOR - The Role of External Information Awareness and Proactiveness of Innovation Strategy
SN - 978-989-8425-81-2
AU - Tang J.
AU - Pee L.
AU - Iijima J.
PY - 2011
SP - 5
EP - 17
DO - 10.5220/0003629400050017