IMPACT OF BEHAVIORAL FORCES ON KNOWLEDGE SHARING IN AN EXTENDED ENTERPRISE SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS

Lawrence John, Patricia M. McCormick, Tom McCormick, Greg McNeill, John Boardman

Abstract

An extended enterprise is both a system of systems (SoS) and a complex dynamical system. We characterize government-run joint and interagency efforts as “government extended enterprises” (GEEs) comprising sets of effectively autonomous organizations that must cooperate voluntarily to achieve desired GEE-level outcomes. Our research investigates the proposition that decision makers can leverage four “canonical forces” to raise the levels of both internal GEE cooperation and SoS-level operational effectiveness, changing the GEE's status as indicated by the "SoS differentiating characteristics" detailed by Boardman and Sauser. Two prior papers described the concepts involved, postulated the relationships among them, and discussed the n-player, iterated "Stag Hunt" methodology applied to execute a real proof-of-concept case (the U.S. Counterterrorism Enterprise's response to the Christmas Day Bomber) in an agent-based model. This paper presents preliminary conclusions from data analysis conducted as a result of ongoing testing of the simulation.

References

  1. Ashby, W. R. (1956). An Introduction to Cybernetics, London: Chapman & Hall.
  2. Axelrod, R. (1997). The Complexity of Cooperation: Agent-Based Models of Competition and Collaboration, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.
  3. Baldwin, W. C. and B. Sauser (2009). “Modeling the Characteristics of System of Systems,” IEEE International Conference on System of Systems Engineering, pp.1-6.
  4. Boardman, J. and B. Sauser (2006). “System of Systems - the meaning of of,” Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE/SMC International Conference on System of Systems Engineering, IEEE.
  5. Boardman, J. and B. Sauser (2008). Systems Thinking: Coping with 21st Century Problems, Boca Raton: CRC Press, pp. 155-161.
  6. Bowles, S. and H. Gintis (2003). “The Origins of Human Cooperation,” in Peter Hammerstein (ed.) The Genetic and Cultural Origins of Cooperation, Cambridge: MIT Press.
  7. Bowles, S. and H. Gintis (2011). A Cooperative Species: Human Reciprocity and Its Evolution, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  8. Boyd, R. and P. J. Richerson (2009). “Culture and the evolution of human cooperation,” Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society Biological Sciences, 364, pp. 3281-3288.
  9. Davis, E. W. and R. E. Spekman (2004). The Extended Enterprise: Gaining Competitive Advantage through Collaborative Supply Chains, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times Prentice Hall, p. 20.
  10. DiMario, M. J., J. T. Boardman and B. J. Sauser (2009). “System of Systems Collaborative Formation,” IEEE Systems Journal, 3, (September).
  11. Epelbaum, S., M. Mansouri, A. Gorod, B. Sauser, A. Fridman (2011). “Target Evaluation and Correlation Method (TECM) as an Assessment Approach to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS),” International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 36-62.
  12. Filipe, J. B. L., and A. L. N. Fred (2008). “Collective Agents and Collective intentionality Using the EDA Model,” micai, pp. 211-220, 2007 Sixth Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Special Session.
  13. Fine, C. H. (1998). Clockspeed: Winning Industry Control in the Age of Temporary Advantage, New York: Perseus Books.
  14. Garrett, E. (1998). “Rethinking the Structures of Decisionmaking in the Federal Budget Process,” Harvard Journal on Legislation, (Summer) 35, pp. 409-412.
  15. Gintis, H. (2009a). The Bounds of Reason: Game Theory and the Unification of the Behavioral Sciences, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  16. Gintis, H. (2009b), Review of B. Skyrms, The Stag Hunt and the Evolution of Social Structure, http://www. amazon.com/gp/cdp/member-reviews/A2U0XHQB7M MH0E?ie=UTF8&display=public&sort_by=MostRece ntReview&page=6, accessed 1 February 2011.
  17. Gorod, A., B. Sauser and J. Boardman (2008). “System-ofsystems engineering management: A review of modern history and a path forward,” IEEE Systems Journal, 2, (December), pp. 484-499.
  18. Hardin, R. (2006). Trust, Maldin, MA: Polity Press.
  19. Hume, D. (2000 [1739-1740]). In D. F. Norton and M. J Norton (eds.), A Treatise of Human Nature, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.
  20. Jarvenpaa, S. L., K. Knoll and D. E. Leidner (1998). “Is anybody out there? Antecedents of trust in global virtual teams,” Journal of Management Information Systems, 14, pp. 29-64.
  21. John, L., P. M. McCormick, T. McCormick, and J. Boardman (2011a). “Self-organizing Cooperative Dynamics in Government Extended Enterprises: Essential Concepts,” Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Systems Conference, IEEE.
  22. John, L., P. McCormick, T. McCormick, G. McNeill, J, Boardman (2011b). “Self-Organizing Cooperative Dynamics in Government Extended Enterprises: Experimental Methodology,” Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Systems Conference, IEEE.
  23. Lopes, L. (1987). “Between Hope and Fear: The Psychology of Risk.” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 20, pp. 255-295.
  24. Mertikopoulos, P. and A. L. Moustakas (2010). “The Emergence of Rational Behavior in the Presence of Stochastic Perturbations,” The Annals of Applied Probability, 20, pp. 1359-1388.
  25. Miller, J. and S. Page (2007). Complex Adaptive Systems: An introduction to Computational Models of Social Life, Princeton MJ: Princeton University Press, 2007.
  26. Miner, J. B. (2006). Organizational Behavior 2: Essential Theories of Process and Structure, Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., pp.109-126.
  27. Miner, J. B. (2005). Organizational Behavior 1: Essential Theories of Motivation and Leadership, Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., pp. 94-113.
  28. “need,” OED (2009). Oxford English Dictionary (2nd Edition) Online, Oxford: Oxford University Press, retrieved 7 October 2009.
  29. Ostrom, E. (2005). Understanding Institutional Diversity, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  30. Ostrom, E. (2007) “An Assessment of the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework,” in Sabatier, Paul A. (ed.) Theories of the Policy Process Second Edition, Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  31. Ostrom, E (2010). Personal communication, “Request for Opinion on Subtractability of Value as a replacement for Subtractability of Flow in Information Exchanges,” Fri 6/25/2010 8:06 AM.
  32. Ostrom, E., R. Gardner, and J. Walker (1994). Rules, Games, and Common-Pool Resources, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  33. Ostrom, V. (2005). “Citizen Sovereigns: The Source of Contestability, the Rule of Law, and the Conduct of Public Entrepreneurship,” PS: Political Science and Politics, (January), pp. 13-17.
  34. Pacheco, J. M., F. C. Santos, M. O. Souze, B. Skyrms (2009). “Evolutionary dynamics of collective action in n-person stag hunt dilemmas,” Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences, (January 22), 276 (1655), pp. 315-321.
  35. Parsons, T. and E. A. Shils (2001). Toward a General Theory of Action: Theoretical Foundations for the Social Sciences, New Brunswick, NJ: Transactions Publishers, p.134.
  36. Poteete, A. R., M. A. Janssen and E. Ostrom (2010). Working Together: Collective Action, the Commons, and Multiple Methods in Practice, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  37. Prange, G. W. (1981). At Dawn We Slept, New York: McGraw-Hill.
  38. Priest, D. and W. M. Arkin (2010). “Top Secret America: A Washington Post Investigation,” accessed 10 Feb 2011 at http://projects.washingtonpost.com/top-secretamerica/articles/a-hidden-world-growing-beyondcontrol.
  39. Ridings, C. M., D. Gefen, and B. Arinze (2002). “Some antecedents and effects of trust in virtual communities,” Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 11, pp. 271-295.
  40. SEAS (2010). “What is SEAS?” http://teamseas.com/ content/view/55/71/, accessed 12 October 2010.
  41. Shefrin, H. (2002). Beyond Greed and Fear, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 120-121.
  42. Shor, M. (2010a). "Prisoners' Dilemma," Dictionary of Game Theory Terms, Game Theory.net, http://www. gametheory.net/dictionary/games/PrisonersDilemma.ht ml accessed: 12 October 2010.
  43. Shor, M. (2010b). "Stag Hunt," Dictionary of Game Theory Terms, Game Theory.net, www.gametheory. net/dictionary/games/StagHunt.html accessed: 12 October 2010.
  44. Simon, H. A. (1990). “Invariants of Human Behavior,” Annual Review of Psychology, 41, pp. 1-19.
  45. Simon, H. A. (1997 [1945]). Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organizations, Fourth Edition, New York: The Free Press, pp 206-207.
  46. Skinner, B. F. (1965). Science and Human Behavior, New York: The Free Press, 1965, p. 361.
  47. Skyrms, B. (2004). The Stag Hunt and the Evolution of Social Structure, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  48. Smith, A. (1790). The Theory of Moral Sentiments (6th Edition), London: A. Millar, http://www.econlib.org/ library/Smith/smMS1.html.
  49. SSCI (2010). Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, “Unclassified Executive Summary of the Committee Report on the Attempted Terrorist Attack on Norwest Airlines Flight 253,” Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, May 18, 2010.
  50. Stamper, R., K. Liu, M. Hafkamp and Y. Ades (2000). “Understanding the Roles of Signs and Norms in Organizations - a Semiotic Approach to Information Systems Design,” Behaviour and Information Technology, 19(1), pp. 15-27.
  51. “trust,” OED (2009). Oxford English Dictionary (2nd Edition) Online, Oxford: Oxford University Press, retrieved 7 October 2009.
  52. “uncertainty,” OED (2009). Oxford English Dictionary (2nd Edition) Online, Oxford: Oxford University Press, retrieved 7 October 2009.
  53. von Bertalanffy, L. (1950). “The Theory of Open Systems in Physics and Biology,” Science, III, 2872, pp.23-29.
  54. Wiener, N. (1948), Cybernetics. New York: Wiley.
  55. Williams, J. (2002). In Cynthia Grabo, Anticipating Surprise: Analysis for Strategic Warning, Washington DC: Center for Strategic Intelligence Research, Joint Military Intelligence College.
  56. Windrum, P., G. Fagiolo, and A. Moneta (2007). “Empirical Validation of Agent-Based Models: Alternatives and Prospects,” Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol. 10, no.2, 8.
  57. Wohlstetter, R. (1962). Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  58. Wolpert, D. H. (2003). “Collective Intelligence,” in David B. Fogel and Charles Robinson (eds.) Computational Intelligence: The Experts Speak, New York: (IEEE) Wiley, Chapter 17.
Download


Paper Citation


in Harvard Style

John L., M. McCormick P., McCormick T., McNeill G. and Boardman J. (2011). IMPACT OF BEHAVIORAL FORCES ON KNOWLEDGE SHARING IN AN EXTENDED ENTERPRISE SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS . In Proceedings of the International Conference on Knowledge Management and Information Sharing - Volume 1: KMIS, (IC3K 2011) ISBN 978-989-8425-81-2, pages 67-76. DOI: 10.5220/0003655900670076


in Bibtex Style

@conference{kmis11,
author={Lawrence John and Patricia M. McCormick and Tom McCormick and Greg McNeill and John Boardman},
title={IMPACT OF BEHAVIORAL FORCES ON KNOWLEDGE SHARING IN AN EXTENDED ENTERPRISE SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS},
booktitle={Proceedings of the International Conference on Knowledge Management and Information Sharing - Volume 1: KMIS, (IC3K 2011)},
year={2011},
pages={67-76},
publisher={SciTePress},
organization={INSTICC},
doi={10.5220/0003655900670076},
isbn={978-989-8425-81-2},
}


in EndNote Style

TY - CONF
JO - Proceedings of the International Conference on Knowledge Management and Information Sharing - Volume 1: KMIS, (IC3K 2011)
TI - IMPACT OF BEHAVIORAL FORCES ON KNOWLEDGE SHARING IN AN EXTENDED ENTERPRISE SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS
SN - 978-989-8425-81-2
AU - John L.
AU - M. McCormick P.
AU - McCormick T.
AU - McNeill G.
AU - Boardman J.
PY - 2011
SP - 67
EP - 76
DO - 10.5220/0003655900670076