GAIL: Geometry-aware Automatic Image Localization

Luca Benedetti, Massimiliano Corsini, Matteo Dellepiane, Paolo Cignoni, Roberto Scopigno


The access and integration of the massive amount of information, that can be provided by the web, can be of great help in a number of fields, including tourism and advertising of artistic sites. A “virtual visit” of a place can be a valuable experience before, during and after the experience on-site. For this reason, the contribution from the public could be merged to provide a realistic and immersive visit of known places. We propose an automatic image localization system, which is able to recognize the site that has been framed, and calibrate it on a pre-existing 3D representation. The system is characterized by very high accuracy and it is able to validate, in a completely unsupervised manner, the result of the localization. Given an unlocalized image, the system selects a relevant set of pre-localized images, performs a Structure from Motion partial reconstruction of this set and then obtain an accurate camera calibration of the image with respect to the model by minimizing distances between projections on the model surface of corresponding image features. The accuracy reached is enough to seamlessly view the input image correctly super-imposed in the 3D scene.


  1. Amato, G. and Falchi, F. (2010). kNN based image classification relying on local feature similarity. In Proc. SISAP'10, pages 101-108. ACM.
  2. Brivio, P., Benedetti, L., Tarini, M., Ponchio, F., Cignoni, P., and Scopigno, R. (2012). Photocloud: interactive remote exploration of large 2D-3D datasets. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, pages 1-20.
  3. Cignoni, P., Callieri, M., Corsini, M., Dellepiane, M., Ganovelli, F., and Ranzuglia, G. (2008). Meshlab: an open-source mesh processing tool. In Sixth Eurographics Italian Chapter Conference, pages 129-136.
  4. Cipolla, R., Robertson, D., and Tordoff, B. (2004). Imagebased localisation. In Proc. of 10th Int. Conf. on Virtual Systems and Multimedia, pages 22-29.
  5. Corsini, M., Dellepiane, M., Ganovelli, F., Gherardi, R., Fusiello, A., and Scopigno, R. (2012). Fully automatic registration of image sets on approximate geometry. International Journal of Computer Vision, pages 1- 21.
  6. Fischler, M. and Bolles, R. (1981). Random sample consensus: A paradigm for model fitting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography. Communications of the ACM, 24(6):381-395.
  7. Gordon, I. and Lowe, D. (2006). What and where: 3d object recognition with accurate pose. Toward category-level object recognition, pages 67-82.
  8. Harris, C. and Stephens, M. (1988). A combined corner and edge detector. In Alvey vision conference, volume 15. Manchester, UK.
  9. Horn, B. (1987). Closed-form solution of absolute orientation using unit quaternions. JOSA A, (April).
  10. Irschara, A., Zach, C., Frahm, J.-M., and Bischof, H. (2009). From structure-from-motion point clouds to fast location recognition. In CVPR, pages 2599-2606.
  11. Li, Y., Snavely, N., and Huttenlocher, D. P. (2010). Location recognition using prioritized feature matching. In ECCV, pages 791-804.
  12. Lowe, D. (2004). Distinctive image features from scaleinvariant keypoints. International Journal of Computer Vision, 60(2):91-110.
  13. Morris, R. and Smelyanskiy, V. (2001). Matching images to models - camera calibration for 3-d surface reconstruction. Energy Minimization Methods, pages 105- 117.
  14. Paletta, L., Fritz, G., Seifert, C., Luley, P., and Almer, A. (2006). A mobile vision service for multimedia tourist applications in urban environments. 2006 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference, pages 566- 572.
  15. Robertson, D. and Cipolla, R. (2004). An image-based system for urban navigation. In Proc. BMVC, volume 1, pages 260-272.
  16. Sattler, T., Leibe, B., and Kobbelt, L. (2011). Fast imagebased localization using direct 2d-to-3d matching. In IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), pages 667-674.
  17. Schindler, G., Brown, M., and Szeliski, R. (2007). City-scale location recognition. In IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR2007), pages 1-7. IEEE Computer Society.
  18. Shao, H., Svoboda, T., Tuytelaars, T., and Van Gool, L. (2003). HPAT indexing for fast object/scene recognition based on local appearance. CIVR'03, pages 307- 312.
  19. Smith, R. and Cheeseman, P. (1986). On the representation and estimation of spatial uncertainty. The international journal of Robotics Research, 5(4):56.
  20. Snavely, N., Seitz, S. M., and Szeliski, R. (2006). Photo tourism: exploring photo collections in 3d. In SIGGRAPH 7806, pages 835-846.
  21. Stamos, I., Liu, L., Chen, C., Wolberg, G., Yu, G., and Zokai, S. (2008). Integrating automated range registration with multiview geometry for the photorealistic modeling of large-scale scenes. Int. J. Comput. Vision, 78:237-260.
  22. Tsai, R. (1987). A versatile camera calibration technique for high-accuracy 3d machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf tv cameras and lenses. IEEE Journal of Robotics and Automation, 3(4):323-344.
  23. Wang, J., Cipolla, R., and Hongbin, Z. (2004). Image-based localization and pose recovery using scale invariant features. pages 711-715.
  24. Xiao, J., Chen, J., Yeung, D.-Y., and Quan, L. (2008). Structuring visual words in 3d for arbitrary-view object localization. In ECCV 7808, pages 725-737.
  25. Zhang, W. and Kosecka, J. (2006). Image based localization in urban environments. 3DPVT'06, pages 33-40.
  26. Zhu, Z., Oskiper, T., Samarasekera, S., Kumar, R., and Sawhney, H. (2008). Real-time global localization with a pre-built visual landmark database. In CVPR, pages 1-8.

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Benedetti L., Corsini M., Dellepiane M., Cignoni P. and Scopigno R. (2013). GAIL: Geometry-aware Automatic Image Localization . In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications - Volume 2: VISAPP, (VISIGRAPP 2013) ISBN 978-989-8565-48-8, pages 31-40. DOI: 10.5220/0004281800310040

in Bibtex Style

author={Luca Benedetti and Massimiliano Corsini and Matteo Dellepiane and Paolo Cignoni and Roberto Scopigno},
title={GAIL: Geometry-aware Automatic Image Localization},
booktitle={Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications - Volume 2: VISAPP, (VISIGRAPP 2013)},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications - Volume 2: VISAPP, (VISIGRAPP 2013)
TI - GAIL: Geometry-aware Automatic Image Localization
SN - 978-989-8565-48-8
AU - Benedetti L.
AU - Corsini M.
AU - Dellepiane M.
AU - Cignoni P.
AU - Scopigno R.
PY - 2013
SP - 31
EP - 40
DO - 10.5220/0004281800310040