Learning, Agents and Formal Languages - State of the Art

Leonor Becerra Bonache, M. Dolores Jiménez-López


The paper presents the state of the art of machine learning, agent technologies and formal languages, not considering them as isolated research areas, but focusing on the relationship among them. First, we consider the relationship between learning and agents. Second, the relationship between machine learning and formal languages. And third, the relationship between agents and formal languages. Finally, we point to some promising directions on the intersection among these three areas.


  1. Angluin, D. (1987). Learning Regular Sets from Queries and Counterexamples. Information and Computation, 75, 87-106.
  2. Angluin, D. and Kharitonov, M. (1991). When Won't Membership Queries Help? In STOC'91: 24th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (pp. 444- 453). New York: ACM Press.
  3. Balcázar, J.L., Díaz, J., Gavaldà, R. and Watanabe, O. (1997). Algorithms for Learning Finite Automata from Queries: A Unified View. In Du, D.Z. and Ko. K.I. (Eds.), Advances in Algorithms, Languages, and Complexity (pp. 73-91). Dordrech: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  4. Baník, I. (1996). Colonies with Position. Computers and Artificial Intelligence, 15, 141-154.
  5. Becerra-Bonache, L., Dediu, A.H. and Tirnauca, C. (2006). Learning DFA from Correction and Equivalence Queries. In Sakakibara, Y., Kobayashi, S., Sato, K., Nishino, T. and Tomita, E. (Eds.), ICGI 2006 (pp. 281-292). Heidelberg: Springer.
  6. Brooks, R.A. (1990). Elephants don't Play Chess. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 6, 3-15.
  7. Castellanos, J., Martín-Vide, C., Mitrana, V. and Sempere, J.M. (2003). Networks of Evolutionary Processors. Acta Informatica, 39, 517-529.
  8. Clark, A. (2004). Grammatical Inference and First Language Acquisition. In Workshop on Psychocomputational Models of Human Language Acquisition (pp. 25-32). Geneva.
  9. Csuhaj-Varjú, E. and Dassow, J. (1990). On Cooperating/Distributed Grammar Systems. Journal of Information Processing and Cybernetics (EIK), 26, 49-63.
  10. Csuhaj-Varjú, E., Dassow, J., Kelemen, J. and Pa?un, Gh. (1994). Grammar Systems: A Grammatical Approach to Distribution and Cooperation. London: Gordon and Breach.
  11. Csuhaj-Varjú, E., Kelemen, J., Kelemenová, A. and Pa?un, Gh. (1996). Eco-Grammar Systems: A Grammatical Framework for Life-Like Interactions. Artificial Life, 3(1), 1-28.
  12. Dassow, J., Kelemen, J. and Pa?un, Gh. (1993). On Parallelism in Colonies. Cybernetics and Systems, 14, 37- 49.
  13. Dassow, J., Pa?un, Gh. and Rozenberg, G. (1997). Grammar Systems. In Rozenberg, G., Salomaa, A. (Eds.), Handbook of Formal Languages (Vol. 2, pp. 155-213). Berlin: Springer.
  14. de la Higuera, C. (2010). Grammatical Inference: Learning Automata and Grammars. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  15. Fernau, H. and de la Higuera, C. (2004). Grammar Induction: An Invitation to Formal Language Theorists. Grammars, 7, 45-55.
  16. Gold, E.M. (1967). Language identification in the limit. Information and Control, 10, 447-474.
  17. Hellerstein, L., Pillaipakkamnatt, K., Raghavan, V. and Wilkins, D. (1995). How many Queries are Needed to Learn?. In 27th Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing (pp. 190-199). ACM Press.
  18. Huhns, M. and Weiss, G. (1998). Guest Editorial. Machine Learning, 33, 123-128.
  19. Jedrzejowicz, P. (2011). Machine Learning and Agents. In O'Shea, J. et al. (Eds.), KES-AMSTA 2011 (pp. 2-15). Berlin: Springer.
  20. Kari, L., Rozenberg, G. and Salomaa, A. (1997). L Systems. In Rozenberg, G. and Salomaa, A. (Eds.), Handbook of Formal Languages (Vol. 1, pp. 253-328). Berlin: Springer.
  21. Kelemen, J. (1998). Colonies -A Theory of Reactive Agents. In Kelemenová, A. (Ed.), Proceedings on the MFCS'98 Satellite Workshop on Grammar Systems (pp. 7-38). Opava: Silesian University.
  22. Kelemen, J. and Kelemenová, A. (1992). A GrammarTheoretic Treatment of Multiagent Systems. Cybernetics and Systems, 23, 621-633.
  23. Kelemenová, A. (1999). Timing in Colonies. In Pa?un, Gh. and Salomaa, A. (Eds.), Grammatical Models of Multi-Agent Systems. London: Gordon and Breach.
  24. Kelemenová, A. and Csuhaj-Varjú, E. (1994). Languages of Colonies. Theoretical Computer Science, 134, 119- 130.
  25. Langton, Ch. (1989). Artificial Life. In Langton, Ch. (Ed.), Artificial Life (pp. 1-47). California: Addison-Wesley.
  26. Lindenmayer, A. (1968). Mathematical Models for Cellular Interaction in Development, I and II. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 18, 280-315.
  27. Martín-Vide, C. and Pa?un, Gh. (1998). PM-colonies. Computers and Artificial Intelligence, 17, 553-582.
  28. Martín-Vide, C. and Pa?un, Gh. (1999). New Topics in Colonies Theory. Grammars, 1, 209-223.
  29. Martín-Vide, C., Pa?un, Gh., Pazos, J. and Rodríguez-Patón, A. (2002). Tissue P Systems. Theoretical Computer Science, 296(2), 295-326.
  30. Nii, H.P. (1989). Blackboard Systems. In Barr, A., Cohen, P.R. and Feigenbaum, E.A. (Eds.), The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence (Vol. IV, pp. 3-82). California: Addison-Wesley.
  31. Nilsson, N. J. (1998). Introduction to Machine Learning. An Early Draft of a Proposed Textbook, http:// robotics.stanford.edu/people/nilsson/mlbook.html.
  32. Panait, L. and Luke, S. (2005). Cooperative Multi-Agent Learning: The State-of-the-Art. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 11(3), 387-434.
  33. Pa?un, Gh. (1995). On the Generative Power of Colonies. Kybernetika, 31, 83-97.
  34. Pa?un, Gh. (2000). Computing with Membranes. Journal of Computer and Systems Sciences, 61(1), 108-143.
  35. Pa?un, Gh. and Saˆntean, L. (1989). Parallel Communicating Grammar Systems: The Regular Case. Annals of the University of Bucharest, 38, 55-63.
  36. Rivest, R.L. and Schapire, R.E. (1993). Inference of Finite Automata Using Homing Sequences. Information and Computation, 103(2), 299-347.
  37. Rozenberg, G. and Salomaa, A. (Eds.) (1997). Handbook of Formal Languages. Berlin: Springer.
  38. Sen, S. and Weiss, G. (1999). Learning in Multiagent Systems. In Weiss, G. (Ed.), Multiagent Systems (pp. 259- 298). Cambridge: MIT Press.
  39. Shoham, Y., Powers, R. and Grenage, T. (2007). If MultiAgent Learning is the Answer, What is the Question? Artificial Intelligence, 171(7), 365-377.
  40. Sosík, P. (1999). Parallel Accepting Colonies and Neural Networks. In Pa?un, Gh. and Salomaa, A. (Eds.), Grammatical Models of Multi-Agent Systems. London: Gordon and Breach.
  41. Sosík, P. and S?tÉbnar, L. (1997). Grammatical Inference of Colonies. In Pa?un, Gh. and Salomaa, A. (Eds.), New Trends in Formal Languages. Berlin: Springer.
  42. Stone, P. and Veloso, M. (2000). Multiagent Systems: A Survey from a Machine Learning Perspective. Autonomous Robots, 8, 345-383.
  43. Valiant, L.G. (1984). A Theory of the Learnable. Communication of the ACM, 27, 1134-1142.
  44. Weiss, G. (1993). Learning to Coordinate Actions in MultiAgent Systems. In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence (pp. 311- 316).
  45. Weiss, G. (1998). A Multiagent Perspective of Parallel and Distributed Machine Learning. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Confernce on Autonomous Agents (pp. 226-230).
  46. Weiss, G. and Dillenbourg, P. (1998). What is “Multi” in Multi-Agent Learning?. In Dillenbourg, P. (Ed.), Collaborative Learning: Cognitive and Compuational Approaches (Chapter 4). Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Becerra Bonache L. and Jiménez-López M. (2013). Learning, Agents and Formal Languages - State of the Art . In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 1: LAFLang, (ICAART 2013) ISBN 978-989-8565-38-9, pages 470-478. DOI: 10.5220/0004359704700478

in Bibtex Style

author={Leonor Becerra Bonache and M. Dolores Jiménez-López},
title={Learning, Agents and Formal Languages - State of the Art},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 1: LAFLang, (ICAART 2013)},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 1: LAFLang, (ICAART 2013)
TI - Learning, Agents and Formal Languages - State of the Art
SN - 978-989-8565-38-9
AU - Becerra Bonache L.
AU - Jiménez-López M.
PY - 2013
SP - 470
EP - 478
DO - 10.5220/0004359704700478