Breaking the Flow - Examining the Link between Flow and Learning in Computer-Mediated Learning Environments

Daniel P. Auld, Fran C. Blumberg

Abstract

In the context of research concerning computer-mediated learning environments (CMLEs), the construct of flow, or optimal experience, has been positively linked with students' learning outcomes, such as affective and cognitive perceptions of learning and the development of academic skills. However, this linkage is compromised by inconsistent characterizations of flow across studies and divergent measures of when flow may have occurred during learning. Further, characterizations of learning have differed across studies (i.e. self-reported attitudes about one's learning experience or one's academic achievement). In this paper, we review these inconsistencies and discuss how meta-analysis may be one means by which we can examine whether flow does impact learning within CMLEs, given the differing operationalizations of flow and learning that are found within the extant literature.

References

  1. Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2010). Class Differences: Online Education in the United States, 2010. Babson Survey Research Group.
  2. Allen, M., Mabry, E., Mattrey, M., Bourhis, J., Titsworth, S., & Burrell, N. (2004). Evaluating the effectiveness of distance learning: a comparison using metaanalysis. Journal of Communication, 54 (3). 402-420.
  3. Arbaugh, J. B. (2010). Sage, guide, both, or even more? An examination of instructor activity in online MBA courses. Computers & Education, 55, 1234-1244.
  4. Carli, M., Delle Fave, A., & Massimini, F. (1988). The quality of experience in flow channels: comparison of Italian and U.S. students. In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I.S. Csikszentmihalyi, (Eds.), Optimal Experience: Psychological Studies of Flow in Consciousness (pp. 288-306). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  5. Chen, H., Wigand, R. T., & Nilan, M. (1998). Optimal flow experience in Web navigation. In Effective utilization and management of emerging information technologies (pp. 633-636). The 9th Information Resources Management Association International Conference, 17-19 May, Boston, MA. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing.
  6. Choi, D. H., Kim, J., Kim, S. H. (2007). ERP training with a web-based electronic learning system: The flow theory perspective. International Journal of HumanComputer Studies, 65, 223-243.
  7. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1988). The flow experience and its significance for human psychology. In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I. S. Csikszentmihalyi, (Eds.), Optimal Experience: Psychological Studies of Flow in Consciousness (pp. 15-35). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  8. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow the Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper & Row.
  9. Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, I.S. (1988). (Eds.), Optimal Experience: Psychological Studies of Flow in Consciousness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  10. Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Larson, R. (1987). Validity and reliability of the experience-sampling method. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 175, 525-536.
  11. Csikszentmihalyi, M., Larson, R., & Prescott, S. (1977). The ecology of adolescent experience. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 6, 281-294.
  12. Csikszentmihalyi, M., & LeFevre, J. (1989). Optimal experience in work and leisure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 815-822.
  13. De Freitas, S., & Neumann, T. (2009). The use of 'exploratory learning' for supporting immersive learning in virtual environments. Computers & Education, 52(2), 343-352.
  14. Finneran, C. M., & Zhang, P. (2002). The challenges of studying flow within a computer-mediated environment. Paper presented at the Eighth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Dallas, TX.
  15. Ghani, J. (1995). Flow in human computer interactions: test of a model. In J. Carey (Ed.), Human Factors in Information Systems: Emerging Theoretical Bases (pp. 291-311). Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corp.
  16. Hoffman, D. L., & Novak, T. P. (1996). Marketing in hypermedia computer-mediated environments: conceptual foundations. Journal of Marketing, 60, July, 50-68.
  17. Konradt, U., Filip, R., & Hoffman, S. (2003). Flow experience and positive affect during hypermedia learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 34 (3), 309-327.
  18. Larson, R. (1988). Flow and writing. In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I. S. Csikszentmihalyi, (Eds.), Optimal Experience: Psychological Studies of Flow in Consciousness (pp. 150-171). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  19. Liao, L. (2006). A flow theory perspective on learner motivation and behavior in distance education. Distance Education, 27(1), 45-62.
  20. Liu, C-C., Cheng, Y-B., Huang, C-W. (2011). The effect of stimulation games on the learning of computational problem solving. Computers & Education, 57(3), 1907-1918.
  21. Massimini, F., & Carli, M. (1988). The systematic assessment of flow in daily experience. In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I. S. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds.), Optimal experience: Psychological studies of flow in consciousness (pp. 266-287). Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.
  22. Novak, T. P., Hoffman, D. L., & Yung, Y. (2000). Measuring the customer experience in online environments: a structural modeling approach. Marketing Science, 19(1), 22-42.
  23. O'Broin, D., & Clarke, S. (2006). Inka: using flow to enhance the mobile learning experience. In P. Isaias, P. Kommers, & I. Arnedillo Sánchez, (Eds.), Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning 2006 (Dublin, July 14 - 16, 2006), 139-146.
  24. Pearce, J. M., Ainley, M. & Howard, S. (2005). The ebb and flow of online learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 21(5), 245-255.
  25. Ryu, H., & Parsons, D. (2012). Risky business or sharing the load? - Social flow in collaborative mobile learning. Computers & Education, 58(2), 707-720.
  26. Sato, I. (1988). Bosozoku: flow in Japanese motorcycle gangs. In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I.S. Csikszentmihalyi, (Eds.), Optimal Experience: Psychological Studies of Flow in Consciousness (pp. 92-117). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  27. Shernoff, D. J., Csikszentmihalyi, M., Schneider, B., & Steele Shernoff, E. (2003). Student engagement in high school classrooms from the perspective of flow theory. School Psychology Quarterly, 18(2), 158-176.
  28. Shin, N. (2006). Online learner's 'flow' experience: an empirical study. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37(5), pp 705-720.
  29. Steuer, J. (1991). Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence. Journal of Communication, 42(4), 73-93.
  30. Voiskounsky, A. E. (2008). Flow experience in cyberspace: Current studies and perspectives. In A. Barak (Ed.), Psychological aspects of cyberspace: Theory, research, applications (70-101). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  31. Weber, R., Tamborini, R., Westcott-Baker, A., Kantor, B. (2009) Theorizing Flow and Media Enjoyment as Cognitive Synchronization of Attentional and Reward Networks. Communication Theory, 19, 397-422.
  32. Webster, J., Trevino, L. K., and Ryan, L. (1993). The dimensionality and correlates of flow in humancomputer interaction. Computers in Human Behavior 9(4), 411-426.
Download


Paper Citation


in Harvard Style

P. Auld D. and C. Blumberg F. (2013). Breaking the Flow - Examining the Link between Flow and Learning in Computer-Mediated Learning Environments . In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Computer Supported Education - Volume 1: CSEDU, ISBN 978-989-8565-53-2, pages 461-468. DOI: 10.5220/0004414304610468


in Bibtex Style

@conference{csedu13,
author={Daniel P. Auld and Fran C. Blumberg},
title={Breaking the Flow - Examining the Link between Flow and Learning in Computer-Mediated Learning Environments},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Computer Supported Education - Volume 1: CSEDU,},
year={2013},
pages={461-468},
publisher={SciTePress},
organization={INSTICC},
doi={10.5220/0004414304610468},
isbn={978-989-8565-53-2},
}


in EndNote Style

TY - CONF
JO - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Computer Supported Education - Volume 1: CSEDU,
TI - Breaking the Flow - Examining the Link between Flow and Learning in Computer-Mediated Learning Environments
SN - 978-989-8565-53-2
AU - P. Auld D.
AU - C. Blumberg F.
PY - 2013
SP - 461
EP - 468
DO - 10.5220/0004414304610468