Monitoring the Mental Status of Football Players

Elena Smets, Pieter Joosen, Joachim Taelman, Vasileios Exadaktylos, Daniel Berckmans


This work has tested heart rate to measure anxiety during a penalty shootout. Until now, anxiety is measured through questionnaires, where online monitoring is not possible. Therefore there is a need for physiological parameters to represent anxiety online. Since it is proven that the level of anxiety is a good predictor of penalty outcome, it was hypothesised that this outcome can be estimated with heart rate and activity. To test this hypothesis an experiment has been conducted with 54 participants (age= 23±4,54 years). They each performed three sessions of a penalty shootout, where heart rate and activity were measured. An adapted version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used as reference for anxiety level. The data have been analysed using a static and dynamic approach. These resulted in parameters that were used to predict the anxiety level and penalty performance of the participant with a multinomial logistic regression model. The results show that 47,11% of the participants were correctly classified into three classes of anxiety. Based on a classification into penalty performance 55,11 % of the participants were correctly classified. It can be concluded that heart rate in combination with activity shows promising results as predictor for anxiety.


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Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Smets E., Joosen P., Taelman J., Exadaktylos V. and Berckmans D. (2013). Monitoring the Mental Status of Football Players . In Proceedings of the International Congress on Sports Science Research and Technology Support - Volume 1: PerSoccer, (icSPORTS 2013) ISBN 978-989-8565-79-2, pages 206-213. DOI: 10.5220/0004679302060213

in Bibtex Style

author={Elena Smets and Pieter Joosen and Joachim Taelman and Vasileios Exadaktylos and Daniel Berckmans},
title={Monitoring the Mental Status of Football Players},
booktitle={Proceedings of the International Congress on Sports Science Research and Technology Support - Volume 1: PerSoccer, (icSPORTS 2013)},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the International Congress on Sports Science Research and Technology Support - Volume 1: PerSoccer, (icSPORTS 2013)
TI - Monitoring the Mental Status of Football Players
SN - 978-989-8565-79-2
AU - Smets E.
AU - Joosen P.
AU - Taelman J.
AU - Exadaktylos V.
AU - Berckmans D.
PY - 2013
SP - 206
EP - 213
DO - 10.5220/0004679302060213