A Survey of Formal Business Process VerificationFrom Soundness to Variability

Heerko Groefsema, Doina Bucur


Formal verification of business process models is of interest to a number of application areas, including checking for basic process correctness, business compliance, and process variability. A large amount of work on these topics exist, while a comprehensive overview of the field and its directions is lacking. We provide an overview and critical reflections on existing approaches.


  1. Aiello, M., Bulanov, P., and Groefsema, H. (2010). Requirements and tools for variability management. In Proc. IEEE 34th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops, COMPSACW 7810, pages 245-250, Washington, DC, USA.
  2. Anderson, B., Hansen, J. V., Lowry, P., and Summers, S. (2005). Model checking for E-business control and assurance. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Reviews, IEEE Transactions on, 35(3):445-450.
  3. Arbab, F., Kokash, N., and Meng, S. (2009). Towards using Reo for compliance-aware business process modeling. In Margaria, T. and Steffen, B., editors, Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation, volume 17 of Communications in Computer and Information Science, pages 108-123. Springer.
  4. Awad, A., Decker, G., and Weske, M. (2008). Efficient compliance checking using BPMN-Q and temporal logic. In Proc. 6th Int. Conf. on Business Process Management, BPM 7808, pages 326-341. Springer.
  5. Bi, H. H. and Zhao, J. L. (2004). Applying propositional logic to workflow verification. Information Technology and Management, 5:293-318.
  6. Bulanov, P., Lazovik, A., and Aiello, M. (2011). Business process customization using process merging techniques. In Int. Conference on Service-Oriented Computing and Applications (SOCA 2011), pages 1-4.
  7. Chesani, F., Mello, P., Montali, M., and Torroni, P. (2009). Web services and formal methods. chapter Verification of Choreographies During Execution Using the Reactive Event Calculus, pages 55-72. Springer.
  8. Choi, Y. and Zhao, J. L. (2005). Decomposition-based verification of cyclic workflows. In Proc. Third Int. Conf. on Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis, ATVA'05, pages 84-98. Springer.
  9. Cimatti, A., Clarke, E., Giunchiglia, F., and Roveri, M. (1999). NUSMV: a new Symbolic Model Verifier. In N. Halbwachs and D. Peled, editors, Proc. 11th Conference on Computer-Aided Verification (CAV), volume 1633 of LNCS, pages 495-499. Springer.
  10. Backer, M., Snoeck, M., Monsieur, G., Lemahieu, W., and Dedene, G. (2009). A scenario-based verification technique to assess the compatibility of collaborative business processes. Data Knowl. Eng., 68(6):531- 551.
  11. Demeyer, R., Van Assche, M., Langevine, L., and Vanhoof, W. (2010). Declarative workflows to efficiently manage flexible and advanced business processes. In Proc. 12th International ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles and Practice of Declarative Programming, PPDP, pages 209-218. ACM.
  12. Deutsch, A., Hull, R., Patrizi, F., and Vianu, V. (2009). Automatic verification of data-centric business processes. In Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Database Theory, ICDT, pages 252-267. ACM.
  13. Feja, S., Speck, A., and Pulvermüller, E. (2009). Business process verification. In GI Jahrestagung, pages 4037- 4051.
  14. Fisteus, J. A., Fernández, L. S., and Kloos, C. D. (2005). Applying model checking to bpel4ws business collaborations. In Proc. ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC), pages 826-830. ACM.
  15. Foster, H., Uchitel, S., Magee, J., and Kramer, J. (2003). Model-based verification of web service compositions. In Proc. 18th IEEE Int. Conf. on Automated Software Engineering (ASE), pages 152-163.
  16. Gerede, C. and Su, J. (2007). Specification and verification of artifact behaviors in business process models. In Krämer, B. J., Lin, K.-J., and Narasimhan, P., editors, Service-Oriented Computing (ICSOC), volume 4749 of LNCS, pages 181-192. Springer.
  17. Ghose, A. and Koliadis, G. (2007). Auditing business process compliance. In Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Service-Oriented Computing, ICSOC, pages 169- 180. Springer.
  18. Goedertier, S. and Vanthienen, J. (2006). Designing compliant business processes with obligations and permissions. In Proc. Int. Conf. on Business Process Management Workshops, BPM, pages 5-14. Springer.
  19. Governatori, G., Olivieri, F., Scannapieco, S., and Cristani, M. (2011). Designing for compliance: norms and goals. In Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Rule-based modeling and computing on the semantic web, RuleML, pages 282-297. Springer.
  20. Groefsema, H., Bulanov, P., and Aiello, M. (2011). Declarative enhancement framework for business processes. In Int. Conference on Service-Oriented Computing, ICSOC, LNCS 7084, pages pp 495-504.
  21. Hofstede, A. H., Russell, N., Aalst, W. M., and Adams, M. (2010). Modern Business Process Automation: YAWL and its Support Environment. Springer.
  22. Holzmann, G. (2004). The SPIN Model Checker. A Primer and Reference Manual.
  23. Janssen, W., Mateescu, R., Mauw, S., and Springintveld, J. (1998). Verifying business processes using SPIN. In Proc. of the 4th Int. SPIN Workshop, pages 21-36.
  24. Karamanolis, C. T., Giannakopoulou, D., Magee, J., and Wheater, S. M. (2000). Model checking of workflow schemas. In Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Enterprise Distributed Object Computing, EDOC, pages 170-181. IEEE Computer Society.
  25. Keller, G., Nüttgens, M., and Scheer, A. W. (1992). Semantische Prozeßmodellierung auf der Grundlage Ereignisgesteuerter Prozeßketten (EPK). Technical Report 89, Universität des Saarlandes, Germany.
  26. Koehler, J., Tirenni, G., and Kumaran, S. (2002). From business process model to consistent implementation: a case for formal verification methods. In Proc. 6th Int. Conf. on Enterprise Distributed Object Computing (EDOC), pages 96-106.
  27. Liu, Y., Müller, S., and Xu, K. (2007). A static compliancechecking framework for business process models. IBM Syst. J., 46(2):335-361.
  28. Ly, L. T., Rinderle, S., and Dadam, P. (2008). Integration and verification of semantic constraints in adaptive process management systems. Data Knowl. Eng., 64(1):3-23.
  29. Ly, L. T., Rinderle-Ma, S., Knuplesch, D., and Dadam, P. (2011). Monitoring business process compliance using compliance rule graphs. In Proc. Confederated Int. Conf. On the move to meaningful internet systems - Volume I, OTM, pages 82-99. Springer-Verlag.
  30. Maggi, F., Montali, M., Westergaard, M., and Aalst, W. (2011). Monitoring business constraints with linear temporal logic: An approach based on colored automata. In Business Process Management, volume 6896 of LNCS, pages 132-147. Springer.
  31. Masalagiu, C., Chin, W.-N., Andrei, S., and Alaiba, V. (2009). A rigorous methodology for specification and verification of business processes. Formal Aspects of Computing, 21:495-510.
  32. Montali, M., Torroni, P., Chesani, F., Mello, P., Alberti, M., and Lamma, E. (2010). Abductive logic programming as an effective technology for the static verification of declarative business processes. Fundam. Inf., 102(3- 4):325-361.
  33. Morimoto, S. (2008). A survey of formal verification for business process modeling. In Proc. 8th Int. Conf.
  34. on Computational Science, Part II, ICCS, pages 514- 522. Springer-Verlag.
  35. Nakajima, S. (2002). Verification of Web service flows with model-checking techniques. In Proc. First Int. Symposium on Cyber Worlds, pages 378-385.
  36. Nakajima, S. (2006). Model-checking behavioral specification of BPEL applications. Electron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci., 151(2):89-105.
  37. Nigam, A. and Caswell, N. S. (2003). Business artifacts: An approach to operational specification. IBM Syst. J., 42(3):428-445.
  38. Oasis (2007). Web Services Business Process Execution Language Version 2.0. Technical report, Oasis.
  39. OMG (2011). Business Process Model And Notation (BPMN) Version 2.0. Technical Report 2011-01-03.
  40. OMG (2011). OMG Unified Modeling LanguageTM (OMG UML). Technical Report 2011-08-05.
  41. Pesic, M. and van der Aalst, W. M. P. (2006). A declarative approach for flexible business processes management. In Proc. Int. Conf. on Business Process Management Workshops, BPM, pages 169-180. Springer-Verlag.
  42. Pulvermueller, E., Feja, S., and Speck, A. (2010). Developer-friendly verification of process-based systems. Knowl.-Based Syst., 23(7):667-676.
  43. Rychkova, I., Regev, G., and Wegmann, A. (2008). Using declarative specifications in business process design. Int. J. of Computer Science and Applications, 5(3b):45-68.
  44. Sadiq, S. W., Orlowska, M. E., and Sadiq, W. (2005). Specification and validation of process constraints for flexible workflows. Inf. Syst., 30(5):349-378.
  45. van der Aalst, W. M. (1999). Formalization and verification of event-driven process chains. Information and Software technology, 41(10):639-650.
  46. van der Aalst, W. M. P. (1998). The application of Petri nets to workflow management. Journal of Circuits, Systems and Computers, 8(1):21-66.
  47. van der Aalst, W. M. P. and Pesic, M. (2006). DecSerFlow: Towards a truly declarative service flow language. LNCS: Web Services and Formal Methods, Volume 4184, pages 1-23.
  48. van Dongen, B. F., Jansen-Vullers, M. H., Verbeek, H. M. W., and van der Aalst, W. M. P. (2007). Verification of the SAP reference models using EPC reduction, state-space analysis, and invariants. Comput. Ind., 58(6):578-601.
  49. Weber, I., Governatori, G., and Hoffmann, J. (2008). Approximate compliance checking for annotated process models. In Advances in Enterprise EngineeringProceedings of the GRCIS workshop at CAiSE, volume 8.
  50. Weber, I., Hoffmann, J., and Mendling, J. (2010). Beyond soundness: on the verification of semantic business process models. Distrib. Parallel Databases, 27(3):271-343.
  51. Wynn, M. T., Verbeek, H., van der Aalst, W., ter Hofstede, A., and Edmond, D. (2009). Business process verification - finally a reality! Business Process Management Journal, 15(1):74-92.

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Groefsema H. and Bucur D. (2013). A Survey of Formal Business Process VerificationFrom Soundness to Variability . In Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Business Modeling and Software Design - Volume 1: BMSD, ISBN 978-989-8565-56-3, pages 198-203. DOI: 10.5220/0004775401980203

in Bibtex Style

author={Heerko Groefsema and Doina Bucur},
title={A Survey of Formal Business Process VerificationFrom Soundness to Variability},
booktitle={Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Business Modeling and Software Design - Volume 1: BMSD,},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Business Modeling and Software Design - Volume 1: BMSD,
TI - A Survey of Formal Business Process VerificationFrom Soundness to Variability
SN - 978-989-8565-56-3
AU - Groefsema H.
AU - Bucur D.
PY - 2013
SP - 198
EP - 203
DO - 10.5220/0004775401980203