Visualizing Hierarchy Changes by Dynamic Indented Plots

Michael Burch, Tanja Blascheck, Christine Louka, Daniel Weiskopf

Abstract

Visualizing static hierarchical organizations has been a focus of information visualization for many years, but it still remains challenging to produce visual representations of evolving, i.e. dynamic hierarchies. In this paper we extend the concept of indented plots to also support the depiction of changing hierarchies. We exploit the concept of static diagrams in order to support the preservation of a viewer’s mental map. Changes between subsequent hierarchies are precomputed and visually indicated by color coded straight or curved lines depending on the type of change. Interactive features can be used to aggregate or collapse the dynamic hierarchy data in the supported dimensions, i.e. the vertex as well as the time dimension on different levels of hierarchical and temporal granularity. The usefulness of our technique is illustrated by means of a bibliography dataset where we show the changes in the yearly prefix tree acquired by extracting words occuring most frequently in more than 2,000,000 paper titles from the digital library DBLP.

References

  1. Balzer, M., Deussen, O., and Lewerentz, C. (2005). Voronoi treemaps for the visualization of software metrics. In Proceedings of Software Visualization, pages 165-172.
  2. Beck, F., Burch, M., and Diehl, S. (2009). Towards an aesthetic dimensions framework for dynamic graph visualisations. In Proceedings of Information Visualisation, pages 592-597.
  3. Bruls, M., Huizing, K., and van Wijk, J. J. (2000). Squarified treemaps. In Proceedings of Joint Eurographics/IEEE TVCG Symposium on Visualization, pages 33- 42.
  4. Burch, M. and Diehl, S. (2006). Trees in a Treemap: Visualizing multiple hierarchies. In Visualization and Data Analysis, SPIE Press, 6060, pages 224-235.
  5. Burch, M. and Diehl, S. (2008). TimeRadarTrees: Visualizing Dynamic Compound Digraphs. Computer Graphics Forum, 27(3):823-830.
  6. Burch, M., Heinrich, J., Konevtsova, N., Höferlin, M., and Weiskopf, D. (2011a). Evaluation of traditional, orthogonal, and radial tree diagrams by an eye tracking study. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 17(12):2440-2448.
  7. Burch, M., Raschke, M., Greis, M., and Weiskopf, D. (2012). Enriching indented pixel tree plots with nodeoriented quantitative, categorical, relational, and timeseries data. In Proceedings of Diagrams, pages 102-116.
  8. Burch, M., Raschke, M., and Weiskopf, D. (2010). Indented Pixel Tree Plots. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Visual Computing, pages 338-349.
  9. Burch, M., Vehlow, C., Beck, F., Diehl, S., and Weiskopf, D. (2011b). Parallel edge splatting for scalable dynamic graph visualization. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 17(12):2344-2353.
  10. Card, S. K., Suh, B., Pendleton, B. A., Heer, B., and Bodnar, J. W. (2006). Time tree: Exploring time changing hierarchies. In IEEE VAST, pages 3-10.
  11. Diehl, S. and Görg, C. (2002). Graphs, they are changing. In Proceedings of Graph Drawing, pages 23-30.
  12. Eades, P. (1992). Drawing free trees. Bulletin of the Institute for Combinatorics and its Applications, 5(2):10-36.
  13. Frishman, Y. and Tal, A. (2007). Online dynamic graph drawing. In Proceedings of EuroVis, pages 75-82.
  14. Graham, M. and Kennedy, J. B. (2010). A survey of multiple tree visualisation. Information Visualization, 9(4):235-252.
  15. Holten, D. and van Wijk, J. J. (2008). Visual comparison of hierarchically organized data. Computer Graphics Forum, 27(3):759-766.
  16. Inselberg, A. and Dimsdale, B. (1990). Parallel coordinates: A tool for visualizing multi-dimensional geometry. In IEEE Visualization, pages 361-378.
  17. Johnson, B. and Shneiderman, B. (1991). Tree-Maps: A space-filling approach to the visualization of hierarchical information structures. In Proceedings of IEEE Visualization Conference, pages 284-291.
  18. Kruskal, J. and Landwehr, J. (1983). Icicle plots: Better displays for hierarchical clustering. The American Statistician, 37(2):162-168.
  19. Ley, M. (2009). DBLP: Some lessons learned. Proceedings of Very Large Data Bases, 2(2):1493-1500.
  20. McGuffin, M. J. and Robert, J.-M. (2010). Quantifying the space-efficiency of 2D graphical representations of trees. Information Visualization, 9(2):115-140.
  21. Misue, K., Eades, P., Lai, W., and Sugiyama, K. (1995). Layout adjustment and the mental map. Journal of Visual Languages and Computation, 6(2):183-210.
  22. Munzner, T., Guimbretiere, F., Tasiran, S., Zhou, Y., and Zhang, L. (2003). TreeJuxtaposer: Scalable tree comparison using focus+context with guaranteed visibility. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 22:453-462.
  23. Nocaj, A. and Brandes, U. (2012). Computing Voronoi treemaps: Faster, simpler, and resolution-independent. Computer Graphics Forum, 31(3):855-864.
  24. Purchase, H. C. (1997). Which aesthetic has the greatest effect on human understanding? In Proceedings of Graph Drawing, pages 248-261.
  25. Reingold, E. M. and Tilford, J. S. (1981). Tidier drawings of trees. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 7(2):223-228.
  26. Shneiderman, B. (1992). Tree visualization with tree-maps: 2-d space-filling approach. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 11(1):92-99.
  27. Shneiderman, B. (1996). The eyes have it: A task by data type taxonomy for information visualizations. In IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages, pages 336-343.
  28. Telea, A. and Auber, D. (2008). Code Flows: Visualizing structural evolution of source code. Computer Graphics Forum, 27(3):831-838.
  29. Tu, Y. and Shen, H.-W. (2007). Visualizing Changes of Hierarchical Data using Treemaps. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 13(6):1286-1293.
  30. Tufte, E. R. (1983). The visual display of quantitative information. Cheshire, CO: Graphics Press, p. 197.
  31. van Ham, F. (2003). Using multilevel call matrices in large software projects. In INFOVIS, pages 227-232.
  32. van Wijk, J. J. and van de Wetering, H. (1999). Cushion treemaps: Visualization of hierarchical information. In Proceedings of Information Visualization, pages 73-78.
Download


Paper Citation


in Harvard Style

Burch M., Blascheck T., Louka C. and Weiskopf D. (2014). Visualizing Hierarchy Changes by Dynamic Indented Plots . In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Visualization Theory and Applications - Volume 1: IVAPP, (VISIGRAPP 2014) ISBN 978-989-758-005-5, pages 91-98. DOI: 10.5220/0004652400910098


in Bibtex Style

@conference{ivapp14,
author={Michael Burch and Tanja Blascheck and Christine Louka and Daniel Weiskopf},
title={Visualizing Hierarchy Changes by Dynamic Indented Plots},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Visualization Theory and Applications - Volume 1: IVAPP, (VISIGRAPP 2014)},
year={2014},
pages={91-98},
publisher={SciTePress},
organization={INSTICC},
doi={10.5220/0004652400910098},
isbn={978-989-758-005-5},
}


in EndNote Style

TY - CONF
JO - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Visualization Theory and Applications - Volume 1: IVAPP, (VISIGRAPP 2014)
TI - Visualizing Hierarchy Changes by Dynamic Indented Plots
SN - 978-989-758-005-5
AU - Burch M.
AU - Blascheck T.
AU - Louka C.
AU - Weiskopf D.
PY - 2014
SP - 91
EP - 98
DO - 10.5220/0004652400910098