# A Distributed Greedy Algorithm for Constructing Connected Dominating Sets in Wireless Sensor Networks

### Akshaye Dhawan, Michelle Tanco, Nicholas Scoville

#### Abstract

A Connected Dominating Set (CDS) of the graph representing a Wireless Sensor Network can be used as a virtual backbone for routing in the network. Since sensor nodes are constrained by limited on-board batteries, it is desirable to have a small CDS for the network. However, constructing a minimum size CDS has been shown to be a NP-hard problem. In this paper we present a distributed greedy algorithm for constructing a CDS that we call Greedy Connect. Our algorithm operates in two phases, first constructing a dominating set and then connecting the nodes in this set. We evaluate our algorithm using simulations and compare it to the two-hop K2 algorithm in the literature. Depending on the network topology, our algorithm generally constructs a CDS that is up to 30% smaller in size than K2.

#### References

- Akyildiz, I., Su, W., Sankarasubramaniam, Y., and Cayirci, E. (2002). A survey on sensor networks. IEEE Communications, 38(4):102-114.
- Alzoubi, K. M., Wan, P.-J., and Frieder, O. (2002). Message-optimal connected dominating sets in mobile ad hoc networks. In Proceedings of the 3rd ACM international symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking & computing, pages 157-164. ACM.
- Cardei, M. and Du, D.-Z. (May 2005). Improving wireless sensor network lifetime through power aware organization. Wireless Networks, 11:333-340(8).
- Chong, C.-Y. and Kumar, S. (2003). Sensor networks: evolution, opportunities, and challenges. Proceedings of the IEEE, 91(8):1247-1256.
- Clark, B., Colbourn, C., and Johnson, D. (1990). Unit disk graphs. Discrete Mathematics, 86:165-177.
- Dai, F. and Wu, J. (2004). An extended localized algorithm for connected dominating set formation in ad hoc wireless networks. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., 15(10):908-920.
- Ephremides, A., Wieselthier, J. E., and Baker, D. J. (1987). A design concept for reliable mobile radio networks with frequency hopping signaling. Proceedings of the IEEE, 75(1):56-73.
- Feeney, L. and Nilsson, M. (2001). Investigating the energy consumption of a wireless network interface in an ad hoc networking environment. In INFOCOM 2001. Twentieth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. Proceedings. IEEE, volume 3, pages 1548-1557 vol.3.
- Feeney, L. M. (2001). An energy consumption model for performance analysis of routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. Mob. Netw. Appl., 6(3):239-249.
- Funke, S., Kesselman, A., Meyer, U., and Segal, M. (2006). A simple improved distributed algorithm for minimum cds in unit disk graphs. ACM Trans. Sen. Netw., 2(3):444-453.
- Guha, S. and Khuller, S. (1998). Approximation algorithms for connected dominating sets. Algorithmica, 20(4):374-387.
- Iyengar, S. S. and Brooks, R. (2004). Computing and communications in distributed sensor networks.
- Li, Y., Thai, M. T., Wang, F., Yi, C.-W., Wan, P.-J., and Du, D.-Z. (2005). On greedy construction of connected dominating sets in wireless networks: Research articles. Wirel. Commun. Mob. Comput., 5(8):927-932.
- Moscibroda, T. and Wattenhofer, R. (2005). Maximizing the lifetime of dominating sets. In IPDPS 7805: Proceedings of the 19th IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS'05) - Workshop 12, page 242.2, Washington, DC, USA. IEEE Computer Society.
- Ruan, L., Du, H., Jia, X., Wu, W., Li, Y., and Ko, K.-I. (2004). A greedy approximation for minimum connected dominating sets. Theor. Comput. Sci., 329(1- 3):325-330.
- Wan, P.-J., Alzoubi, K. M., and Frieder, O. (2002). Distributed construction of connected dominating set in wireless ad hoc networks. In INFOCOM 2002. Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. Proceedings. IEEE, volume 3, pages 1597-1604. IEEE.
- Wu, J., Gao, M., and Stojmenovic, I. (2001). On calculating power-aware connected dominating sets for efficient routing in ad hoc wireless networks. In ICPP 7802: Proceedings of the 2001 International Conference on Parallel Processing, pages 346-356, Washington, DC, USA. IEEE Computer Society.
- Wu, J. and Li, H. (1999). On calculating connected dominating set for efficient routing in ad hoc wireless networks. In Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop on Discrete algorithms and methods for mobile computing and communications, pages 7-14. ACM.
- Zhang, H. and Hou, J. C. (2005). Maintaining sensing coverage and connectivity in large sensor networks. Ad Hoc & Sensor Wireless Networks, 1(1-2):89-124.

#### Paper Citation

#### in Harvard Style

Dhawan A., Tanco M. and Scoville N. (2014). **A Distributed Greedy Algorithm for Constructing Connected Dominating Sets in Wireless Sensor Networks** . In *Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Sensor Networks - Volume 1: SENSORNETS,* ISBN 978-989-758-001-7, pages 181-187. DOI: 10.5220/0004711901810187

#### in Bibtex Style

@conference{sensornets14,

author={Akshaye Dhawan and Michelle Tanco and Nicholas Scoville},

title={A Distributed Greedy Algorithm for Constructing Connected Dominating Sets in Wireless Sensor Networks},

booktitle={Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Sensor Networks - Volume 1: SENSORNETS,},

year={2014},

pages={181-187},

publisher={SciTePress},

organization={INSTICC},

doi={10.5220/0004711901810187},

isbn={978-989-758-001-7},

}

#### in EndNote Style

TY - CONF

JO - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Sensor Networks - Volume 1: SENSORNETS,

TI - A Distributed Greedy Algorithm for Constructing Connected Dominating Sets in Wireless Sensor Networks

SN - 978-989-758-001-7

AU - Dhawan A.

AU - Tanco M.

AU - Scoville N.

PY - 2014

SP - 181

EP - 187

DO - 10.5220/0004711901810187