DG-Query: An XQuery-based Decision Guidance Query Language

Alexander Brodsky, Shane G. Halder, Juan Luo


Decision optimization is broadly used for making business decisions such as those for finding the best production planning in manufacturing. An optimization model may indicate the total cost of a certain supply chain given the various sourcing and transportation options used; the corresponding optimization problem can be to select among all possible sourcing and transportation options to minimize the total cost. Optimization modelling requires considerable mathematical expertise and effort to generate effective models. Additionally, the optimization process is heavily dependent on data. However, optimization languages such as IBM’s ILOG CPLEX OPL and Bell Laboratories’ AMPL, do not provide native support for manipulation of XML data. On the other hand, XQuery is a language for querying and manipulating XML data, which has become a ubiquitous standard (W3C) for data exchange between organizations; although, XQuery has no decision optimization functionality. To resolve this gap, this paper proposes DG-Query, an XQuery-based Analytics Language that seamlessly merges the XML data transformation and decision optimization capabilities. This is accomplished by first annotating existing XQuery expressions to precisely express the optimization semantics, and second to translate the annotated queries into an equivalent mathematical programming (MP) formulation that can be solved efficiently using existing optimization solvers. This paper presents DG-Query with an example, provides its formal semantics, and describes implementation through a reduction to MP formulation.


  1. IBM, 2013. Mathematical Programming vs. Constraint Programming. Data Sources Retrieved from http://www-01.ibm.com/software/integration/ optimization/cplex-cp-optimizer/mp-cp/
  2. IBM, 2011. OPL, the modeling language: Data Sources Retrieved from http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/cosinfoc/v12r4/inde x.jsp?topic=%2Filog.odms.ide.help%2FOPL_Studio% 2Fopllangref%2Ftopics%2Fuss_langref_datasources_ 1.html.
  3. AMPL, 2013. http://www.ampl.com/
  4. Boisvert, R. F., Howe, S. E., and Kahaner, D. K. Kahaner, 1985. Gams: a framework for the management of scientific software. ACM Trans. Math. Softw., 11(4):313-355.
  5. W3C, Jan. 2012, Extensible Markup Language (XML). Retrieved from http://www.w3.org/XML/
  6. Rick Jelliffe and Academia Sinica Computing Centre, 2002, The Schematron Assertion Language 1.6, Retrieved from http://xml.ascc.net/resource/ schematron/Schematron2000.html.
  7. W3C, Sep. 2006. Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.1 (Second Edition). Retrieved from http:// www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml11-20060816/#dtwellformed.
  8. W3C, Dec. 2010. XQuery 1.0: An XML Query Language (Second Edition). Retrieved from http:// www.w3.org/TR/xquery/
  9. Maplesoft, 2013. Overview of the XMLTools Package. Retrieved from http://www.maplesoft.com/support/ help/Maple/view.aspx?path=XMLTools.
  10. Brodsky, A. and Nash H., 2006. CoJava: Optimization modeling by nondeterministic simulation. In F. Benhamou, editor, Proceedings of Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming - CP, volume 4204 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 91-106. Springer.
  11. Brodsky A., Egge N. and Wang X.S., 2011. Reusing Relational Queries for Intuitive Decision Optimization, System Sciences (HICSS), 44th Hawaii International Conference on, pages 1-9.
  12. Brodsky, A., Bhot, M. M., Chandrashekar, M., Egge, N. E., and Wang, X. S., 2009. A Decisions Query Language (DQL): High-Level Abstraction for Mathematical Programming over Databases. Proceedings of the 35th SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data.
  13. Brodsky, A., Egge, N.E., and Wang X.S., 2012. Supporting Agile Organizations with a Decision Guidance Query Language, Journal of Management Information Systems 28 (4), 39-68.
  14. Shao G., Kibira D., Brodsky A., and Egge, N. E., 2011. Decision support for sustainable manufacturing using decision guidance query language, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering 4 (3), 251-265.

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Brodsky A., G. Halder S. and Luo J. (2014). DG-Query: An XQuery-based Decision Guidance Query Language . In Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems - Volume 1: ICEIS, ISBN 978-989-758-027-7, pages 152-163. DOI: 10.5220/0004868201520163

in Bibtex Style

author={Alexander Brodsky and Shane G. Halder and Juan Luo},
title={DG-Query: An XQuery-based Decision Guidance Query Language},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems - Volume 1: ICEIS,},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems - Volume 1: ICEIS,
TI - DG-Query: An XQuery-based Decision Guidance Query Language
SN - 978-989-758-027-7
AU - Brodsky A.
AU - G. Halder S.
AU - Luo J.
PY - 2014
SP - 152
EP - 163
DO - 10.5220/0004868201520163