Study of Training Cycles in Kayak Rowers during Yearly Training Cycle

Ruta Dadeliene

Abstract

1 OBJECTIVES The aim of our research was to investigate Lithuanian elite kayak rowers’ (K-2) preparation during yearly training cycle, as well as to evaluate development of aerobic capacity. 2 METHODS The research was carried out in the first year of Olympic four-year cycle (from October till October), preparing for 2013 World Championship, where the two (1,2) athletes became the winners of the 10th place in 1000 m event (K-2). The carried out training load for aerobic development was brought into five zones of intensity: • first zone – working intensity under aerobic threshold, HR - 140±10 b/min, blood lactate concentration – up to 2 mmol/l. • second zone – working intensity HR - 155±5 b/min, blood lactate concentration – 2,1-3 mmol/l. • third zone – working intensity HR - 165±5 b/min, blood lactate concentration – 3,1-5 mmol/l. • fourth zone – working intensity HR - 175±5 b/min, blood lactate concentration – 5,1-8 mmol/l. • fifth zone – working intensity HR – 180-185 b/min, blood lactate concentration – 8,1 mmol/l and higher. Our elaborated training program underwent discussion by athletes, coaches and scientists; it hardly experienced any changes within the process of athlete’ preparation. Boat speed, distance and athletes’ heart rate had been estimated using computer system Garmin Connect Forerunner 910 XT (Figure 1). Figure 1. Data from system Garmin Connect Forerunner 910 XT. Work intensity had been evaluated by examine lactate concentration (La) (mmol/l), which was measured by analyzer Lactate Pro LT-1710 (ver. 1,0), ARKRAY, taking capillary blood from finger. Gas analyzer Oxycon Mobile 781023-052 version 5.2 (Cardinal Health Germany 234 GmbH, Germany) was used for establishment of the athletes’ aerobic capacity indices: pulmonary ventilation (PV) (1/min), heart rate (HR) (beats/min), oxygen uptake (VO2) (1/min, ml/min/kg), oxygen pulse (OP) (ml/beat), working capacity (W), rowing economy (1 W/ml) at the point of the anaerobic threshold and the point of the critical intensity. Aerobic capacity indices were tested three times: at the beginning of one year cycle in October, in the middle of one year cycle in Mart and before competitor period – in July. 3 RESULTS According to the results of the research, preparation of the athletes for 2013 World Championship was compiled of one macro-cycle, and possessed characteristic for it features (Table 1). During this macro-cycle, the athletes’ carried out training load was not great and amounted to 707 hours. Considering the zones of intensity, the greatest training load was carried out in the third zone and made up 31.2 percent. In the fourth zone (mixed aerobic-anaerobic) such work compiled 12 percent, and only 1.2 percent of the training load was carried out in the fifth zone of intensity. Training sessions, which were carried out during the competitive period, were not of increased intensity, the athletes participated in eight competitions (28 starts). During the preparatory period, aerobic capacity indices under investigation used to progress remarkably for the both of the athletes (Table 2). The obtained research data on aerobic capacity have disclosed individual skills of the athletes, as well as the evolution of such skills. Table 1. Characteristics of workload of kayak rowers in the first year of Olympic four-year cycle. Proc. time in five zones of intensity Month 1 2 3 4 5 14 17 49 20 0 1 16 40 38 5 1 2 6 13 48 31 2 3 18 19 41 21 1 4 24 27 22 25 2 5 43 23 19 13 2 6 39 19 23 18 1 7 37 21 25 16 1 8 39 18 27 15 1 9 47 17 25 10 1 10 40 23 28 8 1 11 36 22 29 12 1 12 29.9 21.6 31.2 16.2 1.2 Total Table 2. Changes in kayak rowers’ aerobic capacity indices during the first year of Olympic four-year cycle. Tes- ting Ath- letes Critical intensity limit La HR b/min VO2 ml/min/kg W I 1 168 56.1 280 11.9 2 156 61.2 240 7.2 II 1 178 67.5 320 12.2 2 135 64.7 280 12.3 III 1 174 66.7 340 12.1 2 147 73.4 320 12.9 4 DISCUSSION Training load which is being carried out in preparing athletes is divided into different zones of intensity basing on various indices. Scientists (Bompa, Haff, 2009) explain such division into zones for the sport with prevailing aerobic capacity due to biochemical processes in muscles. According Vescovi et al (2011) in the beginning of the season, in the first block (months of October and November), training on the boat is introduced three times a week, dedicated to the development or recovery of aerobic capacity with long outings (60-90 minutes), performed at a heart rate between 50 and 60% of the maximum. With the pre-competition phase, which begins in April, the work out on the boat increases and reaches up to six times a week. The total amount of work out is decreased with a further intensification of the introduced exercises, which are usually of a 4 minute duration at the first half of the week and a 2 minute duration in the second half. The goal is to achieve the increase of the aerobic potency. Our investigation showed decreased amount of workload hours in competitive period in the first and the second zones of intensity, and it was increased in the third zone of intensity. According Issurin (2008) the work in this zone improves the function of cardio respiratory systems without great acidity effect on the body. Rowing 1000 m distance causes reaching critical intensity limit and VO2max (Bishop et al., 2002). Analysis of the intensity and volume of our investigated athletes’ training sessions in competitive period shows that very little workload used to be carried out in the fifth zone of intensity while preparing for first competition of the season (World Cup event). Although flat water kayaking performance (mainly 500-m and 1000-m races) is highly supported by aerobic metabolism, it does require a large anaerobic contribution what reduces the absolute importance of the aerobic energetic pathway (Galrcia-Pallares et al., 2010). The training prescription for elite athletes should emphasize aerobic high-intensity training for the 1,000 m and anaerobic short-term training for the 500-m race (Zouhal, 2012). The obtained research data on aerobic capacity have disclosed individual skills of the athletes, as well as the evolution of such skills. The results provide preconditions for more individualized preparation of the athletes, and prove the fact that training load should not be decreased remarkably in a short transitory period, as the purpose of such load is to maintain aerobic capacity. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study was supported by funding from Lithuanian Olympic Comity. REFERENCES Bishop, D., Bonetti, D., Dawson, B., 2002. The influence of pacing strategy on VO2 and supramaximal kayak performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 34(6): 1041-7. Bompa, T., Haff, G.G., 2009. Periodization. Theory and Methodology for training. Human Kinetics. 5th edition. Garcia-Palleres, J., Garcia-Fernandez, M., Sancher-Medina, L., Izquierdo, M., 2010. Performance changes in world-class kayakers following two different training periodization models. European Journal Applying Physiology. 110. 99-107. Issurin V., 2008. Block Periodization: Breakthrough in Sport Training. Yessis M. ed. Michigan: Ultimate Athlete Concepts. Vescovi, M. M.D., Bronzini, D., Bruttini, F.M.D., Mortara, A., Nakou, I.M.D., 2011. Building kayak excellence: from the adolescent to the elite athlete. International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings. 5 (2). Article 8. Zouhal, H., Le Douairon, L.S., Abderrahaman, A.B., Minter, G., Herbez, R., Castagna, C., 2012. Energy System Contribution to Olympic Distances in Flat Water Kayaking (500 and 1,000 m) in Highly Trained Subjects Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 26 (3). 825-831.

References

  1. Bishop, D., Bonetti, D., Dawson, B., 2002. The influence of pacing strategy on VO2 and supramaximal kayak performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 34(6): 1041-7.
  2. Bompa, T., Haff, G.G., 2009. Periodization. Theory and Methodology for training. Human Kinetics. 5th edition.
  3. Garcia-Palleres, J., Garcia-Fernandez, M., SancherMedina, L., Izquierdo, M., 2010. Performance changes in world-class kayakers following two different training periodization models. European Journal Applying Physiology. 110. 99-107.
  4. Issurin V., 2008. Block Periodization: Breakthrough in Sport Training. Yessis M. ed. Michigan: Ultimate Athlete Concepts.
  5. Guellich A, Seiler S, Emrich E., 2009. Training methods and intensity distribution of young world-class rowers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 4(4):448-460.
  6. Vescovi, M. M.D., Bronzini, D., Bruttini, F.M.D., Mortara, A., Nakou, I.M.D., 2011. Building kayak excellence: from the adolescent to the elite athlete. International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings. 5 (2). Article 8.
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in Harvard Style

Dadeliene R. (2014). Study of Training Cycles in Kayak Rowers during Yearly Training Cycle . In - icSPORTS, ISBN , pages 0-0


in Bibtex Style

@conference{icsports14,
author={Ruta Dadeliene},
title={Study of Training Cycles in Kayak Rowers during Yearly Training Cycle},
booktitle={ - icSPORTS,},
year={2014},
pages={},
publisher={SciTePress},
organization={INSTICC},
doi={},
isbn={},
}


in EndNote Style

TY - CONF
JO - - icSPORTS,
TI - Study of Training Cycles in Kayak Rowers during Yearly Training Cycle
SN -
AU - Dadeliene R.
PY - 2014
SP - 0
EP - 0
DO -