Defending Autonomous Agents Against Attacks in Multi-Agent Systems Using Norms

Jan Kantert, Sarah Edenhofer, Sven Tomforde, Jörg Hähner, Christian Müller-Schloer

Abstract

The Trusted Desktop Grid (TDG) is a self-organised, agent-based organisation, where agents perform computational tasks for others to increase their performance. In order to establish a fair distribution and provide counter-measures against egoistic or malicious elements, technical trust is used. A fully self-organised approach can run into disturbed states such as a trust breakdown of the system that lead to unsatisfying system performance although the majority of participants is still behaving well. We previously introduced an additional system-wide control loop to detect and alleviate disturbed situations. Therefore, we describe an Observer/Controller loop at system level that monitors the system status and intervenes if necessary. This paper focuses on the controller part which instantiates norms as reaction to observed suspicious situations. We demonstrate the benefit of our approach within a Repast-based simulation of the TDG. Therein, the impact of disturbances on the system performance is decreased significantly and the time to recover is shortened.

References

  1. Anderson, D. and Fedak, G. (2006). The Computational and Storage Potential of Volunteer Computing. In Proc. of CCGRID 2006, pages 73-80. IEEE.
  2. Anglano, C., Brevik, J., Canonico, M., Nurmi, D., and Wolski, R. (2006). Fault-aware Scheduling for Bag-ofTasks Applications on Desktop Grids. In Proc. of GRID 2006, pages 56-63. IEEE.
  3. Anglano, C., Canonico, M., Guazzone, M., Botta, M., Rabellino, S., Arena, S., and Girardi, G. (2008). Peer-toPeer Desktop Grids in the Real World: The ShareGrid Project. Proc. of CCGrid 2008, pages 609-614.
  4. Artikis, A. and Pitt, J. (2009). Specifying Open Agent Systems: A Survey. In Artikis, A., Picard, G., and Vercouter, L., editors, Engineering Societies in the Agents World IX, volume 5485 of LNCS, pages 29- 45. Springer.
  5. Balke, T. et al. (2013). Norms in MAS: Definitions and Related Concepts. In Normative Multi-Agent Systems, volume 4 of Dagstuhl Follow-Ups, pages 1-31. Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik.
  6. Bennett, J. and Zhang, H. (1996). WF2Q: Worst-case Fair Weighted Fair Queueing. In INFOCOM 7896. Fifteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer Societies. Networking the Next Generation. Proceedings IEEE, volume 1, pages 120-128.
  7. Bernard, Y., Klejnowski, L., Hähner, J., and Müller-Schloer, C. (2010). Towards Trust in Desktop Grid Systems. Proc. of CCGrid 2010, pages 637-642.
  8. Billington, D. (1993). Defeasible Logic is Stable. Journal of Logic and Computation, 3(4):379-400.
  9. Boella, G., Pigozzi, G., and van der Torre, L. (2009). Normative Systems in Computer Science - Ten Guidelines for Normative Multiagent Systems. In Boella, G., Noriega, P., Pigozzi, G., and Verhagen, H., editors, Normative Multi-Agent Systems, number 09121 in Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Dagstuhl, Germany. Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik, Germany.
  10. Castelfranchi, C. and Falcone, R. (2010). Trust Theory: A Socio-Cognitive and Computational Model, volume 18. John Wiley & Sons.
  11. Chakravarti, A. J., Baumgartner, G., and Lauria, M. (2004). Application-Specific Scheduling for the Organic Grid. In Proc. of GRID 2004 Workshops, pages 146-155, Washington, DC, USA. IEEE.
  12. Choi, S., Buyya, R., Kim, H., and Byun, E. (2008). A Taxonomy of Desktop Grids and its Mapping to State of the Art Systems. Technical report, Grid Computing and Dist. Sys. Laboratory, The University of Melbourne.
  13. Choi, S., Kim, H., Byun, E., Baik, M., Kim, S., Park, C., and Hwang, C. (2007). Characterizing and Classifying Desktop Grid. In Proc. of CCGRID 2007, pages 743- 748.
  14. Conte, R., Castelfranchi, C., and Dignum, F. (1999). Autonomous Norm Acceptance. In Müller, J., Rao, A., and Singh, M., editors, Intelligent Agents V: Agents Theories, Architectures, and Languages, volume 1555 of LNCS, pages 99-112. Springer.
  15. Demers, A., Keshav, S., and Shenker, S. (1989). Analysis and Simulation of a Fair Queueing Algorithm. In Symposium Proceedings on Communications Architectures & Protocols, SIGCOMM 7889, pages 1-12, New York, NY, USA. ACM.
  16. Domingues, P., Sousa, B., and Moura Silva, L. (2007). Sabotage-tolerance and Trustmanagement in Desktop Grid Computing. In Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 23, 7, pages 904-912.
  17. Governatori, G. and Rotolo, A. (2008). BIO Logical Agents: Norms, Beliefs, Intentions in Defeasible Logic. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 17(1):36-69.
  18. Hardin, G. (1968). The Tragedy of the Commons. Science, 162(3859):1243-1248.
  19. Hewitt, C. (1991). Open Information Systems Semantics for Distributed Artificial Intelligence. Artificial intelligence, 47(1):79-106.
  20. Hollander, C. D. and Wu, A. S. (2011). The current state of normative agent-based systems. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 14(2):6.
  21. Jarn, R. e. a. (1996). Fairness, Call Establishment Latency and Other Performance Metrics. ATM-Forum, 96(1173).
  22. Kantert, J., Bernard, Y., Klejnowski, L., and MüllerSchloer, C. (2014a). Estimation of Reward and Decision Making for Trust-Adaptive Agents in Normative Environments. In Maehle, E., Römer, K., Karl, W., and Tovar, E., editors, Architecture of Computing Systems - ARCS 2014, volume 8350 of LNCS, pages 49-59. Springer.
  23. Kantert, J., Scharf, H., Edenhofer, S., Tomforde, S., Hähner, J., and Müller-Schloer, C. (2014b). A Graph Analysis Approach to Detect Attacks in Multi-Agent-Systems at Runtime. accepted for publication at SASO 2014.
  24. Klejnowski, L. (2014). Trusted community : a novel multiagent organisation for open distributed systems. PhD thesis, Leibniz Universität Hannover.
  25. Nute, D. (1988). Defeasible Reasoning: A Philosophical Analysis in Prolog. In Aspects of Artificial Intelligence, pages 251-288. Springer.
  26. Nute, D. (1994). Defeasible Logic. Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, 3:353-395.
  27. Nute, D. (2003). Defeasible Logic. In Proceedings of the Applications of Prolog 14th International Conference on Web Knowledge Management and Decision Support, INAP'01, pages 151-169, Berlin, Heidelberg. Springer.
  28. Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge university press.
  29. Pitt, J., Schaumeier, J., and Artikis, A. (2011). The Axiomatisation of Socio-Economic Principles for SelfOrganising Systems. In Self-Adaptive and SelfOrganizing Systems (SASO), 2011 Fifth IEEE International Conference on, pages 138-147.
  30. Rosenschein, J. S. and Zlotkin, G. (1994). Rules of Encounter: Designing Conventions for Automated Negotiation Among Computers. MIT Press, Cambridge.
  31. Sartor, G. (2005). Legal Reasoning: A Cognitive Approach to Law. Springer.
  32. Savarimuthu, B. T. R. and Cranefield, S. (2011). Norm Creation, Spreading and Emergence: A Survey of Simulation Models of Norms in Multi-Agent Systems. Multiagent and Grid Systems, 7(1):21-54.
  33. Schmeck, H., Müller-Schloer, C., C¸ akar, E., Mnif, M., and Richter, U. (2010). Adaptivity and Self-organization in Organic Computing Systems. ACM Trans. on Aut. and Adap. Sys., 5(3):1-32.
  34. Singh, M. P. (1999). An ontology for commitments in multiagent systems. Artificial Intelligence and Law, 7(1):97-113.
  35. Steghöfer, J.-P., Kiefhaber, R., Leichtenstern, K., Bernard, Y., Klejnowski, L., Reif, W., Ungerer, T., André, E., Hähner, J., and Müller-Schloer, C. (2010). Trustworthy Organic Computing Systems: Challenges and Perspectives. In Proc. of ATC 2010. Springer.
  36. Tomforde, S., Prothmann, H., Branke, J., Hähner, J., Mnif, M., Müller-Schloer, C., Richter, U., and Schmeck, H. (2011). Observation and Control of Organic Systems. In Organic Computing - A Paradigm Shift for Complex Systems, pages 325 - 338. Birkhäuser.
  37. Tuomela, R. and Bonnevier-Tuomela, M. (1995). Norms and Agreements. E. J. of Law, Philosophy and Computer Science, 5:41-46.
  38. Urzica?, A. and Gratie, C. (2013). Policy-Based Instantiation of Norms in MAS. In Fortino, G., Badica, C., Malgeri, M., and Unland, R., editors, Intelligent Distributed Computing VI, volume 446 of Studies in Computational Intelligence, pages 287-296. Springer.
  39. von Wright, G. H. (1963). Norms and action: a logical enquiry. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  40. Wang, Y. and Vassileva, J. (2004). Trust-Based Community Formation in Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Networks. In Proc. on Web Intelligence, pages 341-348.
Download


Paper Citation


in Harvard Style

Kantert J., Edenhofer S., Tomforde S., Hähner J. and Müller-Schloer C. (2015). Defending Autonomous Agents Against Attacks in Multi-Agent Systems Using Norms . In Proceedings of the International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 1: ICAART, ISBN 978-989-758-073-4, pages 149-156. DOI: 10.5220/0005202101490156


in Bibtex Style

@conference{icaart15,
author={Jan Kantert and Sarah Edenhofer and Sven Tomforde and Jörg Hähner and Christian Müller-Schloer},
title={Defending Autonomous Agents Against Attacks in Multi-Agent Systems Using Norms},
booktitle={Proceedings of the International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 1: ICAART,},
year={2015},
pages={149-156},
publisher={SciTePress},
organization={INSTICC},
doi={10.5220/0005202101490156},
isbn={978-989-758-073-4},
}


in EndNote Style

TY - CONF
JO - Proceedings of the International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 1: ICAART,
TI - Defending Autonomous Agents Against Attacks in Multi-Agent Systems Using Norms
SN - 978-989-758-073-4
AU - Kantert J.
AU - Edenhofer S.
AU - Tomforde S.
AU - Hähner J.
AU - Müller-Schloer C.
PY - 2015
SP - 149
EP - 156
DO - 10.5220/0005202101490156