DipBlue: A Diplomacy Agent with Strategic and Trust Reasoning

André Ferreira, Henrique Lopes Cardoso, Luis Paulo Reis


Diplomacy is a multi-player strategic and zero-sum board game, free of random factors, and allowing negotiation among players. The majority of existing artificial players (bots) for Diplomacy do not exploit the strategic opportunities enabled by negotiation, instead trying to decide their moves through solution search and the use of complex heuristics. We present DipBlue, an approach to the development of an artificial player that uses negotiation in order to gain advantage over its opponents, through the use of peace treaties, formation of alliances and suggestion of actions to allies. A simple trust assessment approach is used as a means to detect and react to potential betrayals by allied players. DipBlue was built to work with DipGame, a multi-agent systems testbed for Diplomacy, and has been tested with other players of the same platform and variations of itself. Experimental results show that the use of negotiation increases the performance of bots involved in alliances, when full trust is assumed. In the presence of betrayals, being able to perform trust reasoning is an effective approach to reduce their impact.


  1. Calhamer, A. B. (2000). The Rules of Diplomacy. Avalon Hill, 4th edition.
  2. DAIDE (2013). DAIDE Homepage. http://www.daide. org.uk / w/index.php? title=Main Page. Accessed: 15-07-2013.
  3. Deyllot, R. J. G. (2010). Diplomacy Base de Dados de Movimentos para Controlar Províncias. Master thesis, Universidade de Aveiro.
  4. Fabregues, A. and Sierra, C. (2009). A Testbed for Multiagent Systems (Technical Report IIIA-TR-2009-09). Technical report, IIIA-CSIC.
  5. Hall, M. R. and Loeb, D. E. (1995). Thoughts on Programming a Diplomat. Heuristic Programming in Artificial Intelligence.
  6. Hunter, E. (2014). Solo Percentages. http:// www.diplom.org/Zine/W2003A/Hunter/SoloPercentages.html. Accessed: 04-01-2014.
  7. Johansson, S. J. and Ha°a° rd, F. (2005). Tactical coordination in no-press diplomacy. Proceedings of the fourth international joint conference on Autonomous agents and multiagent systems - AAMAS 7805, page 423.
  8. Jonge, D. D. (2010). Optimizing a Diplomacy Bot Using Genetic Algorithms. Master thesis, UAB.
  9. Norman, D. (2013). David Norman's DumbBot. http://www.daide.org.uk/w/index.php? title=DumbBot Algorithm. Accessed: 12-07-2013.
  10. Polberg, S., Paprzyck, M., and Ganzha, M. (2011). Developing intelligent bots for the Diplomacy game. In Computer Science and Information Systems, pages 589-596.
  11. Ribeiro, J. a., Mariano, P., and Seabra Lopes, L. (2009). Darkblade: A program that plays diplomacy. In Lopes, L. S., Lau, N., Mariano, P., and Rocha, L. M., editors, Progress in Artificial Intelligence, volume 5816 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 485-496. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
  12. Russell, S., Norvig, P., Canny, J., Malik, J., and Edwards, D. (1995). Artificial intelligence: a modern approach. Prentice Hall, 3rd edition.
  13. Sarit Kraus, D. L. (1987). Diplomat, an Agent in a Multi Agent Environment: An Overview. Technical report, Leibniz Center for Research in Computer Science.
  14. van Hal, J. (2013). Jason van Hal's Homepage. https:// sites.google.com/site/diplomacyai/ home. Accessed: 15-07-2013.
  15. Webb, A., Chin, J., and Wilkins, T. (2008). Automated negotiation in the game of diplomacy. Technical report, Imperial College London.

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Ferreira A., Lopes Cardoso H. and Reis L. (2015). DipBlue: A Diplomacy Agent with Strategic and Trust Reasoning . In Proceedings of the International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 1: ICAART, ISBN 978-989-758-073-4, pages 54-65. DOI: 10.5220/0005205400540065

in Bibtex Style

author={André Ferreira and Henrique Lopes Cardoso and Luis Paulo Reis},
title={DipBlue: A Diplomacy Agent with Strategic and Trust Reasoning},
booktitle={Proceedings of the International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 1: ICAART,},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 1: ICAART,
TI - DipBlue: A Diplomacy Agent with Strategic and Trust Reasoning
SN - 978-989-758-073-4
AU - Ferreira A.
AU - Lopes Cardoso H.
AU - Reis L.
PY - 2015
SP - 54
EP - 65
DO - 10.5220/0005205400540065