Communicative Strategy in a Formal Model of Dispute

Mare Koit


We study human-human dialogues in a natural language where the communicative goal of the initiator of dialogue is to bring the partner to a decision to do a certain action. If the partner does not accept the goal then dispute will start. Arguments for and against of doing the action will be presented by the participants and finally, one of them wins and another loses the dispute. We present a formal model of dispute which includes a model of argument. We discuss involvement of the notion of communicative strategy in the model. A communicative strategy is considered as an algorithm used by a participant for achieving his or her communicative goal. A communicative strategy determines also how a participant is moving in ‘communicative space’ during interaction. Communicative space is characterized by a number of coordinates (e.g. social distance between participants, intensity of communication, etc.). A limited version of the model of dispute is implemented on the computer.


  1. P. Besnard, and A. Hunter. 2008. Elements of Argumentation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  2. P. Brown, and S. C. Levinson. 1999. Politeness: Some universals in language usage. In The Discourse Reader. A. Jaworski and N. Coupland, Eds. London: Routledge, 321-335.
  3. C. Chesñevar, A. Maguitman, and R. Loui. 2000. Logical models of argument. In ACM Computing Surveys, 32(4), 337-383.
  4. P. G. T. Healey, G. White, A. Eshghi, A. J. Reeves, and A. Light. 2008. Communication spaces. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work. Springer, 17:169-193. DOI: 10.1007/s10606-007-9061-4.
  5. T. Hennoste, O. Gerassimenko, R. Kasterpalu, M. Koit, A. Rääbis, and K. Strandson. 2008. From human communication to intelligent user interfaces: corpora of spoken Estonian. In Proc. of the 6th International Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08). Marrakech, Morocco: European Language Resources Association (ELRA), 2025-2032.
  6. I. Hutchby, and R. Wooffitt. 1998. Conversation Analysis. Principles, Practices and Applications. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
  7. M. Koit. 2014. Towards automatic recognition of the negotiation strategies: Analysis of human-human dialogues. In 2014 IEEE International Symposium on Innovations in Intelligent Systems and Applications (INISTA 2014) Proceedings. Alberobello, Italy: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 170-176.
  8. M. Koit, and H. Õim. 2014a. Modelling debates on the computer. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Ontology Development (KEOD 2014). B. Duval, J. van den Herik, S. Loiseau and J. Filipe, Eds. Rome, Italy: SciTePress, 361-368.
  9. M. Koit, and H. Õim. 2014b. A computational model of argumentation in agreement negotiation processes. In Argument & Computation, 5 (2-3), 209-236, Taylor & Francis Online. DOI: 10.1080/19462166.2014.915233.
  10. M. Koit, and H. Õim. 2013. From study of human-human dialogues to reasoning model. Conversational agent in argumentation dialogue. In: Proc. of the 5th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART 2013). J. Filipe and A. Fred, Eds. Barcelona, Spain: SciTePress, 210-216.
  11. H. Prakken, and G.A.W. Vreeswijk 2002. Logics for defeasible argumentation. In Handbook of Philosophical Logic. D.M. Gabbay and F. Guenthner, Eds. Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2nd edition, Vol 4, 219-318.
  12. I. Rahwan, S. D. Ramchurn, N. R. Jennings, P. Mcburney, S. Parsons, and L. Sonenberg. 2004. Argumentationbased negotiation. In The Knowledge Engineering Review. Cambridge University Press. Vol. 18:4, 343- 375. DOI: 10.1017/S0269888904000098.
  13. G. Wagner. 1998. Foundations of Knowledge Systems with Applications to Databases and Agents. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  14. D. Walton, and E. C. W. Krabbe. 1995. Commitment in Dialogue. Albany: SUNY Press.

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Koit M. (2015). Communicative Strategy in a Formal Model of Dispute . In Proceedings of the International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 2: ICAART, ISBN 978-989-758-074-1, pages 489-496. DOI: 10.5220/0005274904890496

in Bibtex Style

author={Mare Koit},
title={Communicative Strategy in a Formal Model of Dispute},
booktitle={Proceedings of the International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 2: ICAART,},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 2: ICAART,
TI - Communicative Strategy in a Formal Model of Dispute
SN - 978-989-758-074-1
AU - Koit M.
PY - 2015
SP - 489
EP - 496
DO - 10.5220/0005274904890496