Synthesizing Realistic Shadows with Bumpy Surface and Object Model Estimated by Shadows in Single Image

Jung-Hsuan Wu, Suguru Saito

Abstract

Shadows play an important role in the human perception of 3D geometry in photographs, and properly synthesized shadows produce a realistic rendering result. Shadows, especially hard shadows, define powerful constraints between a light source, occluders, and the surfaces onto which shadows are cast. We aim to create a pseudo 3D scene in which the light produces shadows that are the same as those in the input image by taking the shadow constraints into account. Our method requires only a few user annotations and an input image, with the objects and their cast-shadows segmented in advance. The segmentation and the user annotations are used to create a shadow-free texture and a 3D scene, and users can then interactively edit the image by moving the objects and changing the lighting. Our system produces realistic shadows in real-time while enabling interactive editing.

References

  1. Abeles, P. (2013). Ejml: Efficient java matrix library. Retrieved July 2, 2013, from https://code. google.com/p/efficient-java-matrix-library.
  2. Barnes, C., Shechtman, E., Finkelstein, A., and Goldman, D. B. (2009). Patchmatch: a randomized correspondence algorithm for structural image editing. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2009 papers, SIGGRAPH 7809, pages 24:1-24:11, New York, NY, USA. ACM.
  3. Bousseau, A., Paris, S., and Durand, F. (2009). Userassisted intrinsic images. ACM Trans. Graph., 28(5):130:1-130:10.
  4. Horry, Y., Anjyo, K.-I., and Arai, K. (1997). Tour into the picture: Using a spidery mesh interface to make animation from a single image. In Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, SIGGRAPH 7897, pages 225-232, New York, NY, USA. ACM Press/AddisonWesley Publishing Co.
  5. Iizuka, S., Kanamori, Y., Mitani, J., and Fukui, Y. (2011). An efficient modeling system for 3d scenes from a single image. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 99.
  6. Johnston, S. F. (2002). Lumo: Illumination for cel animation. In Proceedings of the 2Nd International Symposium on Non-photorealistic Animation and Rendering, NPAR 7802, pages 45-ff, New York, NY, USA. ACM.
  7. Karsch, K., Hedau, V., Forsyth, D., and Hoiem, D. (2011). Rendering synthetic objects into legacy photographs. In Proceedings of the 2011 SIGGRAPH Asia Conference, SA 7811, pages 157:1-157:12, New York, NY, USA. ACM.
  8. Kee, E., O'Brien, J. F., and Farid, H. (2013). Exposing photo manipulation with inconsistent shadows. ACM Trans. Graph., 32(3):28:1-28:12.
  9. Khan, E. A., Reinhard, E., Fleming, R. W., and Bü lthoff, H. H. (2006). Image-based material editing. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Papers, SIGGRAPH 7806, pages 654-663, New York, NY, USA. ACM.
  10. Kholgade, N., Simon, T., Efros, A., and Sheikh, Y. (2014). 3d object manipulation in a single photograph using stock 3d models. ACM Trans. Graph., 33(4):127:1- 127:12.
  11. Matthews, L. (2010). long shadows on 21 december 2010 - day 355. From flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/ mythoto/5279547375/. Attribution-NonCommercialShareAlike 2.0 Generic license released by Creative Commons (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0).
  12. Savarese, S., Andreetto, M., Rushmeier, H. E., Bernardini, F., and Perona, P. (2007). 3d reconstruction by shadow carving: Theory and practical evaluation. International Journal of Computer Vision, 71(3):305-336.
  13. Sidorenko, O. (2010). Luka, ira and their long shadows. From flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/ oksidor/5083256263/. Attribution 2.0 Generic license released by Creative Commons (CC BY 2.0).
  14. Sorkine, O. and Alexa, M. (2007). As-rigid-as-possible surface modeling. In Proceedings of EUROGRAPHICS/ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Geometry Processing, pages 109-116.
  15. themactep (2005). Kaliningrad night lights. From flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/themactep/42854712/. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic license released by Creative Commons (CC BY-NCSA 2.0).
  16. Wang, J. and Wang, X. (2012). Vcells: Simple and efficient superpixels using edge-weighted centroidal voronoi tessellations. IEEE Trans. PAMI, 34(6): pp. 1241- 1247.
  17. Williams, L. (1978). Casting curved shadows on curved surfaces. In Proceedings of the 5th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, SIGGRAPH 7878, pages 270-274, New York, NY, USA. ACM.
  18. Wu, T.-P., Tang, C.-K., Brown, M. S., and Shum, H.-Y. (2007). Natural shadow matting. ACM Trans. Graph., 26(2).
  19. Zheng, Y., Chen, X., Cheng, M.-M., Zhou, K., Hu, S.-M., and Mitra, N. J. (2012). Interactive images: cuboid proxies for smart image manipulation. ACM Trans. Graph., 31(4):99:1-99:11.
Download


Paper Citation


in Harvard Style

Wu J. and Saito S. (2015). Synthesizing Realistic Shadows with Bumpy Surface and Object Model Estimated by Shadows in Single Image . In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 1: GRAPP, (VISIGRAPP 2015) ISBN 978-989-758-087-1, pages 35-45. DOI: 10.5220/0005298200350045


in Bibtex Style

@conference{grapp15,
author={Jung-Hsuan Wu and Suguru Saito},
title={Synthesizing Realistic Shadows with Bumpy Surface and Object Model Estimated by Shadows in Single Image},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 1: GRAPP, (VISIGRAPP 2015)},
year={2015},
pages={35-45},
publisher={SciTePress},
organization={INSTICC},
doi={10.5220/0005298200350045},
isbn={978-989-758-087-1},
}


in EndNote Style

TY - CONF
JO - Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 1: GRAPP, (VISIGRAPP 2015)
TI - Synthesizing Realistic Shadows with Bumpy Surface and Object Model Estimated by Shadows in Single Image
SN - 978-989-758-087-1
AU - Wu J.
AU - Saito S.
PY - 2015
SP - 35
EP - 45
DO - 10.5220/0005298200350045