Measurement of Heel-Rise Test Results using a Mobile Device

Ivan Miguel Pires, Márcia Andrade, Nuno M. Garcia, Rute Crisóstomo, Francisco Florez-Revuelta


The heel-rise test measures the ability to perform eccentric and concentric muscle actions of the plantar flexor muscles with unilaterally consecutive elevations of the heel. This test is easy to administer and is a non-invasive test for strength and endurance of the calf muscle. Despite the part that this test has proven reliability, it has been difficult to measure its results, as it depends on the subjectivity of the examiner and conditions of the place of testing. This research consists in the design and development of a mobile application for the heel-rise test. The algorithm makes use of sensors to measure the exercise, implementing the rules to detect a pattern of the accelerometry sensors during the test. The heel-rise test consists in detecting periodically the number of correct exercise repetitions. Then, physiotherapists can use this heel-rise automatic test in their examinations.


  1. Andreas, B., Ulf, B. & Bernt, S. 2014. A Tutorial On Human Activity Recognition Using Body-Worn Inertial Sensors. Acm Comput. Surv. %@ 0360-0300, 46, 1-33. Doi: 10.1145/2499621.
  2. Apple. 2014a. Iaccelerometer Capture On The App Store On Itunes [Online]. Apple. Available: Https://Itunes.Apple.Com/Us/App/IaccelerometerCapture/Id860264551?Mt=8 [Accessed May 23rd 2014].
  3. Apple. 2014b. Ifatigue Detector On The App Store On Itunes [Online]. Apple. Available: Https:// Itunes.Apple.Com/Ca/App/Ifatigue-Detector/ Id875088059?Mt=8 [Accessed May 23rd 2014].
  4. Barton, A. J. 2012. The Regulation Of Mobile Health Applications. Bmc Med, 10, 46. Doi: 10.1186/1741- 7015-10-46.
  5. Bennett, J. E., Reinking, M. F. & Rauh, M. J. 2012. The Relationship Between Isotonic Plantar Flexor Endurance, Navicular Drop, And Exercise-Related Leg Pain In A Cohort Of Collegiate Cross-Country Runners,
  6. Biel, B., Grill, T. & Gruhn, V. 2010. Exploring The Benefits Of The Combination Of A Software Architecture Analysis And A Usability Evaluation Of A Mobile Application. Journal Of Systems And Software, 83, 2031-2044. Doi: 10.1016/J.Jss.2010.03.079.
  7. Brusco, J. M. 2012. Mobile Health Application Regulations And Compliance Review. Aorn J, 95, 391-4. Doi: 10.1016/J.Aorn.2011.12.010.
  8. Caudill, A., Flanagan, A., Hassani, S., Graf, A., Bajorunaite, R., Harris, G. & Smith, P. 2010. Ankle Strength And Functional Limitations In Children And Adolescents With Type I Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Pediatr Phys Ther, 22, 288-95. Doi: 10.1097/Pep.0b013e3181ea8b8d.
  9. Chen, W. M., Park, J., Park, S. B., Shim, V. P. & Lee, T. 2012. Role Of Gastrocnemius-Soleus Muscle In Forefoot Force Transmission At Heel Rise - A 3d Finite Element Analysis. J Biomech, 45, 1783-9. Doi: 10.1016/J.Jbiomech.2012.04.024.
  10. Chernbumroong, S., Atkins, A. S. & Yu, H. Activity Classification Using A Single Wrist-Worn Accelerometer. Software, Knowledge Information, Industrial Management And Applications (Skima), 2011 5th International Conference On, 2011. Ieee, 1-6.
  11. Crossley, K. M., Thancanamootoo, K., Metcalf, B. R., Cook, J. L., Purdam, C. R. & Warden, S. J. 2007. Clinical Features Of Patellar Tendinopathy And Their Implications For Rehabilitation. J Orthop Res, 25, 1164-75. Doi: 10.1002/Jor.20415.
  12. Dutta, A., Khattar, B. & Banerjee, A. 2012. Nonlinear Analysis Of Electromyogram Following Gait Training With Myoelectrically Triggered Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation In Stroke Survivors. Eurasip Journal On Advances In Signal Processing, 2012, 153. Doi: 10.1186/1687-6180-2012-153.
  13. Emarketer. 2014. Smartphone Users Worldwide Will Total 1.75 Billion In 2014 [Online]. Emarketer. Available: Http://Www.Emarketer.Com/Article/SmartphoneUsers-Worldwide-Will-Total-175-Billion2014/1010536 [Accessed May 23rd 2014].
  14. Foundation, T. A. S. 2014. Apache Cordova [Online]. The Apache Software Foundation. Available: Http:// Cordova.Apache.Org/ [Accessed May 23rd 2014].
  15. Fulk, G. D., Edgar, S. R., Bierwirth, R., Hart, P., LopezMeyer, P. & Sazonov, E. 2012. Identifying Activity Levels And Steps Of People With Stroke Using A Novel Shoe-Based Sensor. J Neurol Phys Ther, 36, 100-7. Doi: 10.1097/Npt.0b013e318256370c.
  16. Gefen, A., Megido-Ravid, M., Itzchak, Y. & Arcan, M. 2002. Analysis Of Muscular Fatigue And Foot Stability During High-Heeled Gait. Gait & Posture, 15, 56-63. Doi: 10.1016/S0966-6362(01)00180-1.
  17. Google. 2014a. Iaccelerometer Capture - Aplicações Android No Google Play [Online]. Google. Available: Https://Play.Google.Com/Store/Apps/Details?Id=Com .Imspdev.Iaccelerometer [Accessed 23rd May 2014].
  18. Google. 2014b. Ifatigue Detector - Aplicações Android No Google Play [Online]. Google. Available: Https://Play.Google.Com/Store/Apps/Details?Id=Com .Imspdev.Ifatiguedetector [Accessed 23rd May 2014].
  19. Haber, M. 2004. Reliability Of A Device Measuring Triceps Surae Muscle Fatigability. British Journal Of Sports Medicine, 38, 163-167. Doi: 10.1136/Bjsm.2002.002899.
  20. Hastings, M. K., Sinacore, D. R., Woodburn, J., Paxton, E. S., Klein, S. E., Mccormick, J. J., Bohnert, K. L., Beckert, K. S., Stein, M. L., Strube, M. J. & Johnson, J. E. 2013. Kinetics And Kinematics After The Bridle Procedure For Treatment Of Traumatic Foot Drop. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon), 28, 555-61. Doi: 10.1016/J.Clinbiomech.2013.04.008.
  21. Islam, R., Islam, R. & Mazumder, T. A. 2010. Mobile Application And Its Global Impact. International Journal Of Engineering & Technology, 10.
  22. Kasahara, S., Ebata, J. & Takahashi, M. 2007. Analysis Of The Repeated One-Leg Heel-Rise Test Of Ankle Plantar Flexors In Manual Muscle Testing. Journal Of Physical Therapy Science, 19, 251-256. Doi: 10.1589/Jpts.19.251.
  23. Lunsford, B. R. & Perry, J. 1995. The Standing Heel-Rise Test For Ankle Plantar Flexion: Criterion For Normal. Physical Therapy, 75, 694-698.
  24. Monteiro, D. P., Britto, R. R., Lages, A. C., Basilio, M. L., De Oliveira Pires, M. C., Carvalho, M. L., Procopio, R. J. & Pereira, D. A. 2013. Heel-Rise Test In The Assessment Of Individuals With Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease. Vasc Health Risk Manag, 9, 29-35. Doi: 10.2147/Vhrm.S39860.
  25. Moran, K. A. & Marshall, B. M. 2006. Effect Of Fatigue On Tibial Impact Accelerations And Knee Kinematics In Drop Jumps. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 38, 1836-42. Doi: 10.1249/01.Mss.0000229567.09661.20.
  26. Österberg, U., Svantesson, U., Takahashi, H. & Grimby, G. 1998. Torque, Work And Emg Development In A Heel-Rise Test. Clinical Biomechanics, 13, 344-350. Doi: 10.1016/S0268-0033(98)00100-4.
  27. Pieper, B., Templin, T. N., Birk, T. J. & Kirsner, R. S. 2008. The Standing Heel-Rise Test: Relation To Chronic Venous Disorders And Balance, Gait, And Walk Time In Injection Drug Users. Ostomy/Wound Management, 54, 18-22, 24, 26-30 Passim.
  28. Plux 2010. bioPlux research user manual, Lisboa, PLUX.
  29. Russell, S. D., Bennett, B. C., Kerrigan, D. C. & Abel, M. F. 2007. Determinants Of Gait As Applied To Children With Cerebral Palsy. Gait Posture, 26, 295- 300. Doi: 10.1016/J.Gaitpost.2006.09.079.
  30. Schmid, S., Hilfiker, R. & Radlinger, L. 2011. Reliability And Validity Of Trunk Accelerometry-Derived Performance Measurements In A Standardized HeelRise Test In Elderly Subjects. The Journal Of Rehabilitation Research And Development, 48, 1137. Doi: 10.1682/Jrrd.2011.01.0003.
  31. Segura-Orti, E. & Martinez-Olmos, F. J. 2011. Test-Retest Reliability And Minimal Detectable Change Scores For Sit-To-Stand-To-Sit Tests, The Six-Minute Walk Test, The One-Leg Heel-Rise Test, And Handgrip Strength In People Undergoing Hemodialysis. Phys Ther, 91, 1244-52. Doi: 10.2522/Ptj.20100141.
  32. Silbernagel, K. G., Nilsson-Helander, K., Thomee, R., Eriksson, B. I. & Karlsson, J. 2010. A New Measurement Of Heel-Rise Endurance With The Ability To Detect Functional Deficits In Patients With Achilles Tendon Rupture. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 18, 258-64. Doi: 10.1007/S00167-009-0889-7.
  33. Sman, A. D., Hiller, C. E., Imer, A., Ocsing, A., Burns, J. & Refshauge, K. M. 2014. Design And Reliability Of A Novel Heel Rise Test Measuring Device For Plantarflexion Endurance. Biomed Res Int, 2014, 391646. Doi: 10.1155/2014/391646.
  34. Sole, C. C., Milosavljevic, S., Sole, G. & Sullivan, S. J. 2010. Exploring A Model Of Asymmetric Shoe Wear On Lower Limb Performance. Phys Ther Sport, 11, 60-5. Doi: 10.1016/J.Ptsp.2010.02.002.
  35. Turner, D. E., Helliwell, P. S., Emery, P. & Woodburn, J. 2006. The Impact Of Rheumatoid Arthritis On Foot Function In The Early Stages Of Disease: A Clinical Case Series. Bmc Musculoskelet Disord, 7, 102. Doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-7-102.
  36. Van Uden, C. J. T., Van Der Vleuten, C. J. M., Kooloos, J. G. M., Haenen, J. H. & Wollersheim, H. 2005. Gait And Calf Muscle Endurance In Patients With Chronic Venous Insufficiency. Clinical Rehabilitation, 19, 339-344. Doi: 10.1191/0269215505cr809oa.
  37. Veilleux, L., Rauch, F., Lemay, M. & Ballaz, L. 2012a. Agreement Between Vertical Ground Reaction Force And Ground Reaction Force Vector In Five Common Clinical Tests. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact, 12, 219-223.
  38. Veilleux, L. N., Cheung, M., Ben Amor, M. & Rauch, F. 2012b. Abnormalities In Muscle Density And Muscle Function In Hypophosphatemic Rickets. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 97, E1492-8. Doi: 10.1210/Jc.2012-1336.
  39. Vuillerme, N. & Boisgontier, M. 2010. Changes In The Relative Contribution Of Each Leg To The Control Of Quiet Two-Legged Stance Following Unilateral Plantar-Flexor Muscles Fatigue. Eur J Appl Physiol, 110, 207-13. Doi: 10.1007/S00421-010-1449-Z.
  40. Yocum, A., Mccoy, S. W., Bjornson, K. F., Mullens, P. & Burton, G. N. 2010. Reliability And Validity Of The Standing Heel-Rise Test. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr, 30, 190-204. Doi: 10.3109/01942631003761380.

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Miguel Pires I., Andrade M., M. Garcia N., Crisóstomo R. and Florez-Revuelta F. (2015). Measurement of Heel-Rise Test Results using a Mobile Device . In Doctoral Consortium - DCPhyCS, (PhyCS 2015) ISBN , pages 9-18

in Bibtex Style

author={Ivan Miguel Pires and Márcia Andrade and Nuno M. Garcia and Rute Crisóstomo and Francisco Florez-Revuelta},
title={Measurement of Heel-Rise Test Results using a Mobile Device},
booktitle={Doctoral Consortium - DCPhyCS, (PhyCS 2015)},

in EndNote Style

JO - Doctoral Consortium - DCPhyCS, (PhyCS 2015)
TI - Measurement of Heel-Rise Test Results using a Mobile Device
SN -
AU - Miguel Pires I.
AU - Andrade M.
AU - M. Garcia N.
AU - Crisóstomo R.
AU - Florez-Revuelta F.
PY - 2015
SP - 9
EP - 18
DO -