Enhanced Stability and Re-usability of the Optical Sensor for pH Monitoring Using a Layer-by-layer Deposition Technique

Nahid Raoufi, Frederic Surre, Muttukrishnan Rajarajan, Tong Sun, Kenneth T. V. Grattan


Stable and reliable pH optical sensor is important for many industrial applications. The layer-by-layer deposition technique is a simple and versatile method used to deposit a sensitive thin film on such an optical fibre-based device but creating a coating which can often be destroyed in use in highly acid or alkali solutions. It is thus important to create stable and durable sensors for operation under these extreme environments. The main aim of this study has been to prepare a number of such sensors and compare the performance of three different stabilization approaches used for the development of an effective wavelength-dependent pHsensitive optical sensor. Techniques such as employing heat treatment, the deposition of two layers of a PAH/SiO2 thin film and the deposition of two layers APTMS/SiO2 as topping layers have been studied to determine the optimum approach to creating a desirable sensor – one yielding the same value of peak wavelength for a measurement of a known value of pH and to do so repeatedly. An improvement in performance and in shelf-life, stability and re-usability of the sensor has been achieved by the addition of two bilayers of APTMS/SiO2 in the work carried out and the results of the investigation undertaken are reported.


  1. Ai, J., Jones, S. A. and Lvov, Y. M. 2003. Biomedical Applications of Electrostatic Layer-By-Layer NanoAssembly of Polymers, Enzymes, and Nanoparticles. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, 39, 23-43.
  2. Bertrand, P., Jonas, A., Laschewsky, A. and Legras, R. 2000. Ultrathin Polymer Coatings by Complexation of Polyelectrolytes at Interfaces: Suitable Materials, Structure and Properties. Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 21, 319-348.
  3. Cassagneau, T., Mallouk, T. E. and Fendler, J. H. 1998. Layer-by-layer Assembly of Thin Film Zener Diodes from Conducting Polymers and Cdse Nanoparticles. Journal Of The American Chemical Society, 120, 7848- 7859.
  4. De Villiers, M. M., Otto, D. P., Strydom, S. J. and Lvov, Y. M. 2011. Introduction to Nanocoatings Produced by Layer-by-layer (Lbl) Self-Assembly. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 63, 701-715.
  5. Decher, G., Hong, J. D. and Schmitt, J. 1992. Buildup Of Ultra Thin Multi Layer Films By A Self Assembly Process: Ii. Consecutively Alternating Adsorption Of Anionic And Cationic Poly Electrolytes On Charged Surfaces. Thin Solid Films, 831, 210-211.
  6. Decher, G., Lvov, Y. and Schmitt, J. 1994. Proof Of Multilayer Structural Organization In Self-Assembled Polycation-Polyanion Molecular Films. Thin Solid Films, 244, 772-777.
  7. Decher, G. and Schlenoff, J. B. 2002. Multilayer Thin Films, Wiley-Vch Verlag Gmbh and Co.
  8. Dubas, S. T., Kumlangdudsana, P. and Potiyaraj, P. 2006. Layer-by-layer Deposition of Antimicrobial Silver Nanoparticles on Textile Fibers. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 289, 105-109.
  9. Egawa, Y., Hayashida, R. and Anzai, J.-I. 2007. Covalently Cross-Linked Multilayer Thin Films Composed of Diazoresin And Brilliant Yellow for an Optical Ph Sensor Polymer, 48, 1455-1458.
  10. Ichinose, I., Muzuki, S., Ohno, S., Shiraishi, H. and Kunitake, T. 1999. Preparation of Cross-Linked Ultrathin Films Based on Layer-by-layer Assembly of Polymers. Polymer Journal, 31, 1065-1070.
  11. Johnston, A. P. R., Cortez, C., Angelatos, A. S. and Caruso, F. 2006. Layer-By-Layer Engineered Capsules and Their Applications. Current Opinion In Colloid and Interface Science, 11, 203-209.
  12. Kotov, N. A., Magonov, S. and Tropsha, E. 1998. LayerBy-Layer Self-Assembly of AlumosilicatePolyelectrolyte Composites:? Mechanism of Deposition, Crack Resistance, and Perspectives for Novel Membrane Materials. Chemistry of Materials, 10, 886-895.
  13. Lee, D. and Cui, T. 2012 A Role of Silica Nanoparticles In Layer-by-layer Self-Assembled Carbon Nanotube and In2o3 Nanoparticle Thin-Film Ph Sensors: Tunable Sensitivity And Linearity. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 188, 203-211.
  14. Li, Q., Quinn, J. F. and Caruso, F. 2005. Nanoporous Polymer Thin Films Via Polyelectrolyte Templating. Advanced Materials, 17, 2058-2062.
  15. Liu, Y. and Cui, T. 2007. Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor Based Ph Sensors Using Nano SelfAssembled Polyelectrolyte/Nanoparticle Multilayer Films. Sensors And Actuators B 123, 148-152.
  16. Llobet, E. 2013. Gas Sensors Using Carbon Nanomaterials: A Review. Sensors And Actuators B 179, 32- 45.
  17. Nallathambi, G., Ramachandran, T., Rajendran, V. and Palanivelu, R. 2011. Effect of Silica Nanoparticles and Btca on Physical Properties of Cotton Fabrics. Materials Research, 14, 552-559.
  18. Potapov, V. V., Shitikov, E. S., Trutnev, N. S., Gorbach, V. A. and Portnyagin, N. N. 2011. Influence of Silica Nanoparticles on the Strength Characteristics of Cement Samples. Glass Physics And Chemistry, 37, 98- 105.
  19. Prakash, S., Chakrabarty, T., Singh, A. K. and Shahi, V. K. 2013. Polymer Thin Films Embedded With Metal Nanoparticles For Electrochemical Biosensors Applications. Biosensors And Bioelectronics, 41, 43- 53.
  20. Putzbach, W. and Ronkainen, N. 2013. Immobilization Techniques In The Fabrication Of Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Biosensors: A Review. Sensors, 13, 4811-4840.
  21. Rahman, I. A. and Padavettan, V. 2012. Synthesis of Silica Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel: Size-Dependent Properties, Surface Modification, and Applications In SilicaPolymer Nanocomposites-A Review. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2012, 1-15.
  22. Raoufi, N., Surre, F., Rajarajan, M., Sun, T. and Grattan, K. 2013. Fibre Optic Ph Sensor Using Optimized LayerBy-Layer Coating Approach Sensors Journal, Ieee In Press.
  23. Raoufi, N., Surre, F., Sun, T., Grattan, K. T. V. and Rajarajan, M. Improvement of Optical Properties of PhSensitive Nanolayers Coating Deposited Using Layerby-layer Technique. Sensors, 2012 Ieee, 28-31 Oct. 2012 2012a. 1-4.
  24. Raoufi, N., Surre, F., Sun, T., Rajarajan, M. and Grattan, K. T. V. 2012b. Wavelength Dependent Ph Optical Sensor Using The Layer-By-Layer Technique. Sensors And Actuators B: Chemical, 169, 374-381.
  25. Saeki, D., Imanishi, M., Ohmukai, Y., Maruyama, T. and Matsuyama, H. 2013. Stabilization Of Layer-By-Layer Assembled Nanofiltration Membranes By Crosslinking Via Amide Bond Formation And Siloxane Bond Formation. Journal Of Membrane Science, 447, 128- 133.
  26. Sen, A. K., Mukherjee, B., Bhattacharyya, A. S., De, P. P. and Bhowmick, A. K. 1992. Kinetics Of Silane Grafting And Moisture Crosslinking Of Polyethylene And Ethylene Propylene Rubber. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 44, 1153-1164.
  27. Sharma, R. K., Chan, P. C. H., Tang, Z., Yan, G., Hsing, I. M. and Sin, J. K. O. 2001. Sensitive, Selective And Stable Tin Dioxide Thin-Films For Carbon Monoxide And Hydrogen Sensing In Integrated Gas Sensor Array Applications. Sensors And Actuators B: Chemical, 72, 160-166.
  28. Shimazaki, Y., Nakamura, R., Ito, S. and Yamamoto, M. 2001. Molecular Weight Dependence of Alternate Adsorption Through Charge-Transfer Interaction. Langmuir, 17, 953-956.
  29. Singh, R., Goel, T. C. and Chandra, S. 2008. Rf Magnetron Sputtered La3+-Modified Pzt Thin Films: Perovskite Phase Stabilization And Properties. Materials Chemistry And Physics, 110, 120-127.
  30. Su, Y.-L. and Li, C. 2008. Stable Multilayer Thin Films Composed Of Gold Nanoparticles And Lysozyme. Applied Surface Science, 254, 2003-2008.
  31. Tang, Z., Wang, Y. and Kotov, N. A. 2002. Semiconductor Nanoparticles On Solid Substrates:? Film Structure, Intermolecular Interactions, And Polyelectrolyte Effects. Langmuir, 18, 7035-7040.
  32. Villar, I. D., Matias, I. R. and Arregui, F. J. 2008. FiberOptic Chemical Nanosensors By Electrostatic Molecular Self-Assembly. Current Analytical Chemistry, 4, 341-355.
  33. Villar, I. D., Matías, I. R., Arregui, F. J. and Claus, R. O. 2005. Esa-Based In Fiber Nanocavity For Hydrogen Peroxide Detection. Ieee Transactions On Nanotechnology, 4, 187-193.
  34. Wang, D., Shakeel, H., Lovette, J., Rice, G. W., Heflin, J. R. and Agah, M. 2013. Highly Stable Surface Functionalization Of Microgas Chromatography Columns Using Layer-By-Layer Self-Assembly Of Silica Nanoparticles. Analytical Chemistry, 85, 8135- 8141.
  35. Yamada, H., Imoto, T., Fujita, K., Okazaki, K. and Motomura, M. 1981. Selective Modification Of Aspartic Acid-101 In Lysozyme By Carbodiimide Reaction. Biochemistry, 20, 4836-4842.

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Raoufi N., Surre F., Rajarajan M., Sun T. and Grattan K. (2015). Enhanced Stability and Re-usability of the Optical Sensor for pH Monitoring Using a Layer-by-layer Deposition Technique . In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology - Volume 1: OSENS, (PHOTOPTICS 2015) ISBN 978-989-758-092-5, pages 156-167. DOI: 10.5220/0005432401560167

in Bibtex Style

author={Nahid Raoufi and Frederic Surre and Muttukrishnan Rajarajan and Tong Sun and Kenneth T. V. Grattan},
title={Enhanced Stability and Re-usability of the Optical Sensor for pH Monitoring Using a Layer-by-layer Deposition Technique},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology - Volume 1: OSENS, (PHOTOPTICS 2015)},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology - Volume 1: OSENS, (PHOTOPTICS 2015)
TI - Enhanced Stability and Re-usability of the Optical Sensor for pH Monitoring Using a Layer-by-layer Deposition Technique
SN - 978-989-758-092-5
AU - Raoufi N.
AU - Surre F.
AU - Rajarajan M.
AU - Sun T.
AU - Grattan K.
PY - 2015
SP - 156
EP - 167
DO - 10.5220/0005432401560167