Watermarking PDF Documents using Various Representations of Self-inverting Permutations

Maria Chroni, Stavros Nikolopoulos

Abstract

Portable Document Format (PDF) documents are extensively used over the internet for information exchange and due to the ease of copying and distributing they are susceptible to threats like illegal copying, redistribution, and plagiarism. This work provides to web users copyright protection of their PDF documents by proposing efficient and easily implementable techniques for PDF watermarking; our techniques are based on the ideas of our recently proposed watermarking techniques for software, image, and audio, expanding thus the digital objects that can be efficiently watermarked through the use of self-inverting permutations. In particular, we present various representations of a self-inverting permutation p* namely 1D-representation, 2D-representation, and RPG-representation, and show that theses representations can be efficiently applied to PDF watermarking. Indeed, we first present an audio-based technique for marking a PDF document T by exploiting the 1D-representation of a permutation p*, and then, since pages of a PDF document T are 2D objects, we present an image-based algorithm for encoding p* into T by first mapping the elements of p* into a matrix A* and then using the information stored in A* to mark invisibly specific areas of PDF document T. Finally, we describe a graph-based watermarking algorithm for embedding a self-inverting permutation p* into the document structure of a PDF file T by exploiting the RPG-representation of p* and the structure of a PDF document. We have evaluated the embedding and extracting algorithms by testing them on various and different in characteristics PDF documents.

References

  1. Adobe (2006). Adobe systems incorporated, adobe portable document format version 1.7. In Website http://www.adobe.com.
  2. Atallah, M., Raskin, V., Hempelmann, C., Karahan, M., Sion, R., Topkara, U., and Triezenberg, K. (2003).
  3. Bindra, G. (2011). Invisible communication through portable document file (pdf) format. In Proc. 7th Int'l Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IIH-MSP'11), pages 173-176.
  4. Brassil, J., Low, S., Maxemchuk, N., and Gorman, L. (1995). Hiding information in document images. In Proc. of the 29th Annual Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, pages 482-489.
  5. Chroni, M., Fylakis, A., and Nikolopoulos, S. (2013). Watermarking images in the frequency domain by exploiting self-inverting permutations. In Proc. 9th Int'l Conference on Web Information Systems and Technologies (WEBIST'13), pages 45-54.
  6. Chroni, M., Fylakis, A., and Nikolopoulos, S. (2014). From image to audio watermarking using self-inverting permutations. In Proc. 10th Int'l Conference on Web Information Systems and Technologies (WEBIST'14), pages 177-184.
  7. Chroni, M. and Nikolopoulos, S. (2012). An efficient graph codec system for software watermarking. In Proc. 36th Int'l Conference on Computers, Software, and Applications (COMPSAC'12), pages 595-600.
  8. Collberg, C. and Nagra, J. (2010). Surreptitious Software. Addison-Wesley.
  9. Cox, I., Miller, M., Bloom, J., Fridrich, J., and Kalker, T. (2008). Digital Watermarking and Steganography. Morgan Kaufmann, 2nd edition.
  10. Golumbic, M. (1980). Algorithmic Graph Theory and Perfect Graphs. Academic Press, Inc., New York.
  11. Gu, Y. and Yang, Y. (2009). A text digital watermarking algorithm for pdf document based on scrambling technique. In Journal of Foshan University (Natural Science Edition), volume 2, pages 43-46.
  12. Huang, D. and Yan, H. (2001). Interword distance changes represented by sine waves for watermarking text images. In IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, volume 11(12), pages 1237-1245.
  13. Kankanhalli, M. and Hau, K. (2002). Watermarking of electronic text documents. Electronic Commerce Research, 2(1-2):169-187.
  14. Lee, I. and Tsai, W. (2010). A new approach to covert communication via pdf files. In Signal Processing, volume 90(2), pages 557-565.
  15. Liu, H., Li, L., Li, J., and Huang, J. (2012). Three novel algorithms for hiding data in pdf files based on incremental updates. In Digital Forensics and Watermarking, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pages 167-180.
  16. Liu, X., Zhang, Q., Tang, C., Zhao, J., and Liu, J. (2008). A steganographic algorithm for hiding data in pdf files based on equivalent transformation. In Int'l Symposiums on Information Processing (ISIP'08), pages 417-421.
  17. Liu, Y., Sun, X., and Luo, G. (2006). A novel information hiding algorithm based on structure of pdf document. In Computer Engineering, volume 32(17), pages 230- 232.
  18. Low, S. and Maxemchuk, N. (2000). Capacity of text marking channel. In IEEE Signal Processing Letters, volume 7(12), pages 345-347.
  19. Low, S., Maxemchuk, N., and Lapone, A. (1998). Document identification for copyright protection using centroid detection. In IEEE Transactions on Communications, volume 46(3), pages 372-381.
  20. Lu, P., Lu, Z., Zhou, Z., and Gu, J. (2008). An optimized natural language watermarking algorithm based on tmr. In Proc. 9th International Conference for Young Computer Scientists, pages 1459-1463.
  21. Maxemchuk, N. and Low, S. (1997). Marking text documents. In Proc. of the IEEE Int'l Conference on Image Processing, pages 13-16.
  22. Maxemchuk, N. and Low, S. (1998). Performance comparison of two text marking methods. In IEEE Journal of Selected Areas in Communications, volume 16(4), pages 561-572.
  23. Meral, H., Sankur, B., O zsoy, A., Güngör, T., and Sevinc¸, E. (2009). Natural language watermarking via morphosyntactic alterations. In Computer Speech and Language, volume 23(1), pages 107-125.
  24. Simin, H., Xingming, S., and .Zhangjie, F. (2011). A novel information hiding algorithm based on page object of pdf document. In 10th IEEE Int'l Symposium on Distributed Computing and Applications to Business, Engineering and Science (DCABES'11), pages 266-270.
  25. Sun, X. and Asiimwe, A. (2005). Noun-verb based technique of text watermarking using recursive decent semantic net parsers. In LNCS 3612, volume Part III, pages 968-971.
  26. Topkara, M., Topraka, U., and Atallah, M. (2007). Information hiding through errors: a confusing approach. In Proc. of SPIE, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IX, volume 6505, pages 1-12.
  27. Vybornova, O. and Macq, B. (2007). A method of text watermarking using presuppositions. In Proc. of SPIE, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IX, volume 6505, pages 1-10.
  28. Wang, Q. and Liu, X. (2009). A new watermarking algorithm of pdf document based on correct coding. In Computing Technology and Automation, volume 28, pages 137-141.
  29. Zhong, S., Cheng, X., and Chen, T. (2007). Data hiding in a kind of pdf texts for secret communication. In International Journal of Network Security, volume 4(1), pages 17-26.
  30. Zhou, X., Zhao, W., Wang, Z., and Pan, L. (2009). Security theory and attack anlysis for text watermarking. In Int'l Conference on E-Business and Information System Security (EBISS'09), pages 1-6.
Download


Paper Citation


in Harvard Style

Chroni M. and Nikolopoulos S. (2015). Watermarking PDF Documents using Various Representations of Self-inverting Permutations . In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Web Information Systems and Technologies - Volume 1: WEBIST, ISBN 978-989-758-106-9, pages 73-80. DOI: 10.5220/0005445800730080


in Bibtex Style

@conference{webist15,
author={Maria Chroni and Stavros Nikolopoulos},
title={Watermarking PDF Documents using Various Representations of Self-inverting Permutations},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Web Information Systems and Technologies - Volume 1: WEBIST,},
year={2015},
pages={73-80},
publisher={SciTePress},
organization={INSTICC},
doi={10.5220/0005445800730080},
isbn={978-989-758-106-9},
}


in EndNote Style

TY - CONF
JO - Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Web Information Systems and Technologies - Volume 1: WEBIST,
TI - Watermarking PDF Documents using Various Representations of Self-inverting Permutations
SN - 978-989-758-106-9
AU - Chroni M.
AU - Nikolopoulos S.
PY - 2015
SP - 73
EP - 80
DO - 10.5220/0005445800730080