Extending the Business Model Canvas - A Dynamic Perspective

Boris Fritscher, Yves Pigneur


When designing and assessing a business model, a more visual and practical ontology and framework is necessary. We show how an academic theory such as Business Model Ontology has evolved into the Business Model Canvas (BMC) that is used by practitioners around the world today. We draw lessons from usage and define three maturity level. We propose new concepts to help design the dynamic aspect of a business model. On the first level, the BMC supports novice users as they elicit their models; it also helps novices to build coherent models. On the second level, the BMC allows expert users to evaluate the interaction of business model elements by outlining the key threads in the business models’ story. On the third level, master users are empowered to create multiple versions of their business models, allowing them to evaluate alternatives and retain the history of the business model’s evolution. These new concepts for the BMC which can be supported by Computer-Aided Design tools provide a clearer picture of the business model as a strategic planning tool and are the basis for further research.


  1. Blank, S. G. and Dorf, B. (2012). The startup owner's manual: the step-by-step guide for building a great company. K&S Ranch, Incorporated.
  2. Boland, R. J. and Collopy, F. (2004). Managing as designing. Stanford University Press.
  3. Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building Theories from Case Study Research. The Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532.
  4. Eisenmann, T., Parker, G., Alstyne, M. Van. (2006). Strategies for two-sided markets. Harvard Business Review.
  5. Fritscher, B., Pigneur, Y. (2014b). Computer Aided Business Model Design: Analysis of Key Features Adopted by Users. Proceedings of the 47 Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Computer Society Press (Ed.)
  6. Fritscher, B., Pigneur, Y. (2014c). Business Model Design: an Evaluation of Paper-Based and Computer-Aided Canvases. Fourth International Symposium on (BMSD) Business Modeling and Software Design. Scitepress
  7. Fritscher, B., Pigneur, Y. (2014d). Visualizing Business Model Evolution with the Business Model Canvas: Concept and Tool. Published in Proc. 16th IEEE Conference on Business Informatics (CBI'2014), IEEE Computer Society Press
  8. Fritscher, B., Pigneur, Y. (2015). A Visual Approach to Business IT Alignment between Business Model and Enterprise Architecture. IJISMD
  9. Golnam, A., Ritala, P., Viswanathan, V., Wegmann, A. (2012). Modeling Value Creation and Capture in Service Systems. In Exploring Services Science (pp. 155-169). Springer.
  10. Gordijn, J. and Akkermans, H. (2001). Designing and Evaluating E-Business Models, (August), 11-17.
  11. Gordijn, J., Osterwalder, A., Pigneur, Y. (2005). Comparing two business model ontologies for designing e-business models and value constellations. Proceedings of the 18th Bled eConference, Bled, Slovenia, 6-8.
  12. Gregor, S. and Hevner, A. (2013). Positioning and Presenting Design Science Research for Maximum Impact. MIS Quarterly, 37(2), 337-355.
  13. Gregor, S. and Jones, D. (2007). The anatomy of a design theory. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 8(5), 312-335.
  14. Johnson, M. W. (2010). Seizing the white space. Harvard Business Press Boston.
  15. McCarthy, W. (1982). The REA accounting model: A generalized framework for accounting systems in a shared data environment. Accounting Review.
  16. Osterwalder, A. and Pigneur, Y. (2002). An eBusiness model ontology for modeling eBusiness, 15th Bled Electronic Commerce Conference, Bled, Slovenia, June 17-19
  17. Osterwalder, A. (2004). The Business Model Ontology-a proposition in a design science approach. Academic Dissertation, Universite de Lausanne, Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales.
  18. Osterwalder, A. Pigneur, Y., Tucci C.L. (2005) "Clarifying Business Models: Origins, Present, and Future of the Concept," Communications of the Association for Information Systems: Vol. 16
  19. Osterwalder, A. and Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business model generation?: a handbook for visionaries, game changers, and challengers. Wiley.
  20. Osterwalder, A. and Pigneur, Y. (2013). Designing Business Models and Similar Strategic Objects?: The Contribution of IS Designing. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 14(5), 237-244.
  21. Schoemaker, P. (1995). Scenario planning: a tool for strategic thinking. Sloan management review, 28(3)
  22. Wegmann, A. (2003). On the Systemic Enterprise Architecture Methodology (SEAM. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, 483-490.
  23. Weill, P. and Vitale, M. R. (2001). Place to space: Migrating to eBusiness Models. Harvard Business Press.

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Fritscher B. and Pigneur Y. (2015). Extending the Business Model Canvas - A Dynamic Perspective . In Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Business Modeling and Software Design - Volume 1: BMSD, ISBN 978-989-758-111-3, pages 86-95. DOI: 10.5220/0005885800860095

in Bibtex Style

author={Boris Fritscher and Yves Pigneur},
title={Extending the Business Model Canvas - A Dynamic Perspective},
booktitle={Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Business Modeling and Software Design - Volume 1: BMSD,},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Business Modeling and Software Design - Volume 1: BMSD,
TI - Extending the Business Model Canvas - A Dynamic Perspective
SN - 978-989-758-111-3
AU - Fritscher B.
AU - Pigneur Y.
PY - 2015
SP - 86
EP - 95
DO - 10.5220/0005885800860095