Emotion Selection in a Multi-Personality Conversational Agent

Jean-Claude Heudin


Conversational agents and personal assistants represent an historical and important application field in artificial intelligence. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem of humanizing artificial characters by designing believable and unforgettable characters who exhibit various salient emotions in conversations. The proposed model is based on a multi-personality architecture where each agent implements a facet of its identity, each one with its own pattern of perceiving and interacting with the user. In this paper we focus on the emotion selection principle that chooses, from all the candidate responses, the one with the most appropriate emotional state. The experiment shows that a conversational multi-personality character with emotion selection performs better in terms of user engagement than a neutral mono-personality one.


  1. Baker, J.E., 1987. Reducing Bias and Inefficiency in the Selection Algorithm. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Genetic Algorithms and their Applications, 14-21, Hillsdale, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  2. Bates, J., 1994. The Role of Emotion in Believable Agents. Communications of the ACM, 37(7):122-125.
  3. Campos, J.J., Mumme, D.L., Kermoian, R., and Campos, R.G., 1994. A functionalist perspective on the nature of emotion.In N. A. Fox (Ed.), The development of emotion regulation, Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development,59(2-3):284-303.
  4. Dylaba, P., Ptaszynski, M., Maciejewski, J., Takahashi, M., Rzepka, R., and Araki, K., 2010. Multiagent system for joke generation: Humor and emotions combined in human-agent conversation. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments, 2(1):31-48.
  5. Ekman, P., 1999. Basic Emotions. In T. Dalgleish and M. Power (Eds.), Handbook of Cognition and Emotion, John Wiley & Sons, Sussex, U.K.
  6. Gebhard, P., 2005. ALMA - A Layered Model of Affect. In Proceedings of the Fourth ACM International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, 29-36.
  7. Guha, R., Gupta, V., Raghunathan, V., and Srikant, R., 2015. User Modeling for a Personal Assistant. In Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Web Search and Data Mining International Conference, Shanghai, China.
  8. Hayes-Roth, B., Maldonado, H., and Moraes, M., 2002. Designing for Diversity: Multi-Cultural Characters for a Multi-Cultural World. In Proceedings of IMAGINA 2002, 207-225, Monte Carlo, Monaco.
  9. Heck, L., 2014. Anticipating More from Cortana. Microsoft Research, http://research.microsoft.com/enus/news/features/cortana-041614.aspx
  10. Heudin, J.-C., 2004. Evolutionary Virtual Agent. In Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM Intelligent Agent Technology International Conference, 93-98, Beijing, China.
  11. Heudin, J.-C., 2011. A Schizophrenic Approach for Intelligent Conversational Agent. In Proceedings of the Third International ICAART Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence, 251-256, Roma, Italy, Scitepress.
  12. Heudin, J.-C., 2015. A Bio-inspired Emotion Engine in the Living Mona Lisa. In Proceedings of the ACM Virtual Reality International Conference, Laval, France.
  13. Langton, C.G., 1990. Computation at the Edge of Chaos: Phase transitions and emergent computation. Physica D: Non Linear Phenomena, 42(1-3):12-37.
  14. Leite, I., Pereira, A., Martinho, C., and Ana Paiva, A., 2008. Are Emotional Robots More Fun to Play With? In Proceedings of 17th IEEE Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 77-82, Munich, Germany.
  15. Linell, P., 1998. Approaching Dialogue: Talk, interaction and contexts in dialogical perspectives, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam.
  16. Lövheim, H., 2012. A new three-dimensional model for emotions and monoamine neurotransmitters. Med Hypotheses, 78:341-348.
  17. Marcus, D., 2015. Introducing Facebook M. https://www.facebook.com/Davemarcus/posts/101560 70660595195, Menlo Parc, CA.
  18. Myers, K., Berry, P., Blythe, J., Conley, K., Gervasio, M., McGuinness, D., Morley, D., Pfeffer, A., Pollack, M., and Tambe, M., 2007. An Intelligent Personal Assistant for Task and Time Management. AI Magazine, 28(2):47-61.
  19. McCrae, R.R., and Oliver P. John, O.P., 1992. An introduction to the five factor model and its Aplications. Journal of Personality, 60(2):171-215.
  20. Mehrabian, A., 1992. Pleasure-arousal-dominance: A general framework for describing and measuring individual differences in temperament. Current Psychology, 14(2):261-292.
  21. Morris, W.N., and Schnurr, P.P., 1989. Mood: The Frame of Mind. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  22. Reeves, B., and Clifford Nass, C., 1996. The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Televisions, and New Media Like Real People and Places. CSLI Publications, Stanford.
  23. Salovey, P., and John D. Mayer, J.D., 1990. Emotional Intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9:185-211.
  24. Seger, L., 1990. Creating Unforgettable Characters. Henry Holt, New York.
  25. Tomkins, S.S., 1991. Affect Imagery Consciousness, vol. I-IV, Springer, New York.
  26. Weizenbaum, J., 1966. ELIZA - A Computer Program for the Study of Natural Language Communication Between Man and Machine. Communications of the ACM, 9(1):36-45.
  27. Wolfram, S., 1984. Universality and Complexity in Cellular Automata. Physica D: Non Linear Phenomena, 10(1-2):1-35.

Paper Citation

in Harvard Style

Heudin J. (2017). Emotion Selection in a Multi-Personality Conversational Agent . In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 2: ICAART, ISBN 978-989-758-220-2, pages 34-41. DOI: 10.5220/0006113600340041

in Bibtex Style

author={Jean-Claude Heudin},
title={Emotion Selection in a Multi-Personality Conversational Agent},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 2: ICAART,},

in EndNote Style

JO - Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 2: ICAART,
TI - Emotion Selection in a Multi-Personality Conversational Agent
SN - 978-989-758-220-2
AU - Heudin J.
PY - 2017
SP - 34
EP - 41
DO - 10.5220/0006113600340041