# Efficient Computing of the Bellman Equation in a POMDP-based Intelligent Tutoring System

### Fangju Wang

#### Abstract

The Bellman equation is a core component in the POMDP model, which is an effective tool for handling uncertainty in computer supported teaching. The equation is also a cost bottleneck in implementing a POMDP. The cost to compute it is typically exponential. To build a POMDP-based intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for practical tutoring, we must develop efficient techniques for computing the equation. In this paper, we first analyze the cost in computing the equation, identifying the major factors that contribute to the complexity. We then report our techniques for efficient computing of the Bellman equation. The techniques were developed on the basis of close examination of features of tutoring processes. They are especially suitable for building POMDP-based tutoring systems.

Download#### Paper Citation

#### in Harvard Style

Wang F. (2019). **Efficient Computing of the Bellman Equation in a POMDP-based Intelligent Tutoring System**.In *Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Supported Education - Volume 1: CSEDU,* ISBN 978-989-758-367-4, pages 15-23. DOI: 10.5220/0007676000150023

#### in Bibtex Style

@conference{csedu19,

author={Fangju Wang},

title={Efficient Computing of the Bellman Equation in a POMDP-based Intelligent Tutoring System},

booktitle={Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Supported Education - Volume 1: CSEDU,},

year={2019},

pages={15-23},

publisher={SciTePress},

organization={INSTICC},

doi={10.5220/0007676000150023},

isbn={978-989-758-367-4},

}

#### in EndNote Style

TY - CONF

JO - Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Supported Education - Volume 1: CSEDU,

TI - Efficient Computing of the Bellman Equation in a POMDP-based Intelligent Tutoring System

SN - 978-989-758-367-4

AU - Wang F.

PY - 2019

SP - 15

EP - 23

DO - 10.5220/0007676000150023