Co-creating Digital Services for Citizens: Activity Theory Analysis

Jari Jussila, Joni Kukkamäki, Nina Helander


Smart city development relies heavily on creation of digital services that are available for the citizens and for the city authorities. At best, these services are co-created by the authorities, citizens and the digital solution supplier companies. Digital service co-creation is, however, a complex process and includes several contradictions due to presence of several stakeholders. In this paper, we present a case study of smart city initiated digital service co-creation process through the analytical lenses of activity theory.


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