A

BAYESIAN APPROACH TO 3D OBJECT RECOGNITION USING

LINEAR COMBINATION OF 2D VIEWS

Vasileios Zografos and Bernard F. Buxton

Department of Computer Science, University College London, Malet Place, London, WC1E 6BT, UK

Keywords:

Object recognition, linear combination of views, Bayes, Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo.

Abstract:

We introduce Bayes priors into a recent pixel-based, linear combination of views object recognition technique.

Novel views of an object are synthesized and matched to the target scene image using numerical optimisation.

Experiments on a real-image, public database with the use of two different optimisation methods indicate

that the priors effectively regularize the error surface and lead to good performance in both cases. Further

exploration of the parameter space has been carried out using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling.

1 INTRODUCTION

In this work, we examine computational aspects of

a pixel-based linear combination of views approach

to the recognition of objects that vary due to changes

in the viewpoint from which they can be seen. This

method works directly with a search over pixel val-

ues and avoids the need for low-level feature extrac-

tion and solution of the correspondence problem. In

this paper we illustrate how, by using a Bayesian ap-

proach, we can restrict our search to regions where

valid and meaningful solutions are likely to exist.

The method works by recovering a set of linear

coefﬁcients that will combine a small number of 2-

D views of an object and synthesise a novel image

which is as similar as possible to a target image of

the object. Bayes priors are constructed and shown to

regularize optimisation of the synthesized image. For

one selected object recognition example, Monte Carlo

Markov Chain (MCMC) sampling is used to explore

the form of the posterior distribution.

2 PROPOSED METHOD

By using the linear combination of views (LCV) the-

ory (Shashua, 1995; Ullman and Basri, 1991) we can

deal with the variations in an object’s appearance due

to viewpoint changes. Thus, given two different views

I

0

(x

0

,y

0

) and I

00

(x

00

,y

00

) of an object (Fig. 1(a), (b)), we

can represent any corresponding point (x, y) in a novel

target image I

T

as:

x = a

0

+ a

1

x

0

+ a

2

y

0

+ a

3

x

00

+ a

4

y

00

y = b

0

+ b

1

x

0

+ b

2

y

0

+ b

3

x

00

+ b

4

y

00

. (1)

These equations are overcomplete (Ullman and Basri,

1991) and other choices may be made (Koufakis and

Buxton, 1998). The novel view may then be synthe-

sised by warping and blending the images I

0

and I

00

as

follows:

I

T

(x, y) = w

0

I

0

(x

0

,y

0

) + w

00

I

00

(x

00

,y

00

) + ε(x, y). (2)

Only 5 or more corresponding landmark points are

necessary in the two views (Fig. 1(a), (b)), and the

weights w

0

and w

00

are calculated as described in (Ko-

ufakis and Buxton, 1998).

We extend (1) and (2) by incorporating prior infor-

mation on the coefﬁcients (a

i

,b

j

), based on previous

training with synthetic data, and building a Bayesian

model. On the assumption that ε(x, y) in (2) is i.i.d.

random noise drawn from a Gaussian distribution and

similarly using Gaussian priors for the LCV coefﬁ-

cients (here considered statistically independent) with

means and standard deviations estimated from train-

ing data, we get the log posterior as, devoid of any

uninteresting constants:

295

Zografos V. and F. Buxton B. (2008).

A BAYESIAN APPROACH TO 3D OBJECT RECOGNITION USING LINEAR COMBINATION OF 2D VIEWS.

In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications, pages 295-298

DOI: 10.5220/0001081902950298

Copyright

c

SciTePress

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Figure 1: Example of real data from the COIL-20 database.

The two basis view images I

0

(a) and I

00

(b) with landmark

points selected at prominent features. I

T

(c) is the target im-

age. The synthesised image (d) is at the correct pose identi-

ﬁed by our algorithm. .

−log[P(~a

i

,

~

b

j

|I

T

,I

0

,I

00

)] ∝

∑

x,y

[I

T

(x,y)−I

S

(x,y)]

2

σ

2

ε

+

∑

4

i=0

(~a

i

−µ

a

i

)

2

σ

2

a

i

+

∑

4

j=0

(

~

b

j

−µ

b

j

)

2

σ

2

b

j

.

(3)

This deﬁnes the probability of observing the target

image I

T

given the vectors of coefﬁcients (~a

i

,

~

b

j

) and

the basis views I

0

and I

00

. We usually require a single

synthesised image to be presented as the most prob-

able result. A typical choice is the one which max-

imises the posterior probability (MAP) or minimises

the negative log-posterior (3) with respect to the pa-

rameters a

i

and b

j

. The latter can be minimised using

standard optimisation techniques.

Priors were constructed by examination of the

variation of the LCV coefﬁcients using a synthetic 3D

model. It was found that a

0

follows a quadratic curve,

coefﬁcients a

1

and a

3

are linear whilst the remaining

coefﬁcients are almost constant. Appropriate Gaus-

sian priors were deﬁned whose effect can be seen in

Fig. 2(a). Here we show negative log probability of

the likelihood, prior and posterior for the coefﬁcient

a

2

. The plot was generated by isolating and varying

this coefﬁcient while having conditioned the remain-

ing coefﬁcients to the optimal prior values identiﬁed

previously during training. We note the effect of the

prior on the likelihood, especially near the tails of the

p.d.f. where we have large error residuals. The prior

widens the likelihood’s basin of attraction resulting

in much easier minimisation, even if we initialise our

optimisation algorithm far away from the optimal so-

lution.

On the other hand, near the global optimum we

wish the prior to have as little impact as possible in

order for the detailed information as to the value of

a

2

to come from the likelihood alone. This allows

for small deviations from the values for the coefﬁ-

cients encoded in the prior means, since every synthe-

sis and recognition problem differs slightly due to ob-

ject type, location, orientation and perspective camera

effects.

Using the LCV for object recognition is straight-

forward. The ﬁrst component of our system is the

two stored basis views I

0

and I

00

which deﬁne the li-

brary of known modelled objects. These are rectangu-

lar bitmap images that contain grey-scale (or colour)

pixel information of the object without any additional

background data. It is important not to choose a very

wide angle between the basis views to avoid I

0

and I

00

belonging to different aspects of the object with land-

mark points being occluded.

Having selected the two basis views, we pick a

number of corresponding landmark points, in par-

ticular lying on edges and other prominent fea-

tures. We then use constrained Delaunay triangula-

tion (Shewchuk, 2002) and the correspondence to pro-

duce similar triangulations on both the images. The

above processes may be carried out during an off-line,

model-building stage and are not examined here.

The set of LCV coefﬁcients is then determined by

minimising the negative log posterior (3) and the ob-

ject of interest in the target image I

T

recognised by

selecting the best of the models, as represented by

the basis views, that explain I

T

sufﬁciently well. Es-

sentially, we are proposing a ﬂexible template match-

ing system in which the template is allowed to de-

form in the LCV space, restricted by the Bayesian

priors to regions where there is a high probability of

meaningful solutions, until it matches the target im-

age. To do this we need to search a high-dimensional

parameter space using an efﬁcient optimisation algo-

rithm. We have tested Differential Evolution (Storn

and Price, 1997) and a reformulation of the simplex

algorithm (Zografos and Buxton, 2007; Nelder and

Mead, 1965).

3 EXPERIMENTS

We have performed a number of experiments on real

images using the publicly available COIL-20 database

(Nene et al., 1996). This database contains exam-

ples of 20 objects imaged under varying pose (hori-

zontal rotation around the view-sphere at 5

o

intervals)

against a constant background with the camera posi-

tion and lighting conditions kept constant. We con-

structed LCV models from 5 objects, using as basis

views the images at ±20

o

from a frontal view, while

VISAPP 2008 - International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications

296

−2 −1 0 1 2 3 4

0

2

4

6

8

10

x 10

4

a

2

−log probability

Likelihood

Prior

Posterior

(a)

Image

Model

1 3 5 7 9

1

3

5

7

9

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

(b)

Figure 2: (a) The negative log posterior resulting from the

combination of the prior and likelihood. (b) Model × im-

age heatmap array with high cross-correlation in the main

diagonal.

1 3 5 7 9

0.82

0.84

0.86

0.88

0.9

0.92

0.94

0.96

Model

Cross correlation

Responses averaged over test runs

DE

Simplex

(a)

1 3 5 7 9

20

40

60

80

100

Model

Recognition percentage %

Recognition % averaged over test runs

Simplex

DE

(b)

Figure 3: (a) Comparison of the average response between

the DE and simplex algorithm and (b) their average recog-

nition rates on the same dataset.

ensuring that the manually chosen landmarks were

visible in both I

0

and I

00

(Fig. 1). Comparisons were

carried out against target images from the same set of

modelled objects taken in the frontal pose at 0

o

.

In total, we carried out 500 experiments (250 with

each optimisation method × 10 tests for each model-

target image combination) and constructed two 5 × 5

arrays of model×image results. Each array contains

information about the matching scores represented by

the cross-correlation coefﬁcient. The highest scores

were along the main diagonal where each model of

an object is correctly matched to a target image of the

same object.

For the simplex method, we set the maximum

number of function evaluations (NFEs) to 1000 and a

ﬁxed initialisation of: a

o

,a

1

,a

3

,b

0

,b

1

=1, a

2

,a

4

,b

3

=0.5,

b

2

=0.9, b

4

=1.4, deliberately chosen far away from the

expected prior solution in order not to inﬂuence the

optimisation algorithm with a good initialisation. In

the case of DE, we chose a much higher NFEs=20000

(100 populations × 200 generations) and speciﬁed

the boundaries of the LCV space as: -5≤ a

0

,b

0

≤5,

-1≤ a

1

,a

2

,a

3

,a

4

≤1, -1≤ b

1

,b

2

,b

3

,b

4

≤1.

The results of the above experiments, averaged

over 10 test runs, are summarised in the heatmap plot

Fig. 2(b). As expected, we can see a well deﬁned

diagonal of high cross-correlation where the correct

model is matched to the target image. This obser-

vation, combined with the absence of any signiﬁcant

outlying good matches when model6=image, leads us

to the conclusion that, on average, both methods per-

form well in terms of recognition results. The ques-

tion is how close these methods can get to the global

optimum, and in how great a NFEs.

We have also included the plots in Fig. 3(a) and

(b) which compare the average cross-correlation re-

sponses and the recognition rates for both methods re-

spectively. A recognition is deemed a failure if the re-

covered cross-correlation value is below the 95

th

per-

centile of the ground truth solution in each case. This

threshold is empirical and some test runs with much

lower scores produce visually acceptable matching re-

sults.

Both methods have a consistently good perfor-

mance with the DE converging to solutions of higher

cross-correlation in most cases while producing re-

sults over 95% of the ground truth in every case. The

simplex failed to converge to the correct solution in a

few cases, particularly in some of the tests for models

1 and 9, while producing acceptable recognition re-

sults in the majority of test runs. This of course may

be explained in part by the smaller NFEs that were

allowed for this algorithm although preliminary ex-

periments had indicated the NFE value chosen should

A BAYESIAN APPROACH TO 3D OBJECT RECOGNITION USING LINEAR COMBINATION OF 2D VIEWS

297

generally have sufﬁced.

From these experiments we have also observed

that there is little diversity in the 10 coefﬁcients in

the recovered solutions along the main diagonal in-

dicating a stability in the coefﬁcients across different

objects that is consistent with the prior training data.

Also, we have detected a difference in the optimisa-

tion behaviour of the two algorithms, DE and sim-

plex, and how much earlier the latter can reach the

global minimum. DE is much slower, but it has the

advantage that it can avoid locally optimum solutions,

which the simplex sometimes cannot.

Finally, in order to obtain a more speciﬁc and

complete idea of the characteristics of the posterior

surface, we have used a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo

(MCMC) (Gelman et al., 1995) approach in order to

generate a sample of the distribution and further anal-

yse it. We chose a single experiment (matching to a

frontal view of object 1 at 0

0

) and generated a set of

10000 samples of the posterior (3) from areas of high

probability using a single Markov Chain. We then ran

a k-means clustering algorithm (Bishop, 1995) which

recovered 3 main clusters in close proximity and all

near the global optimum. This indicates that, for this

example, the distribution is approximately unimodal

though perhaps with some subsidiary, nearby peaks

caused by noise effects. The main point is that there

is no signiﬁcant local optimum elsewhere nearby in

the distribution.

A ﬁnal examination of the kurtosis and skew-

ness of the sample has shown that the distributions

of the samples of all coefﬁcients, except b

1

, are quite

strongly skewed, reﬂecting strong inﬂuence of the

likelihood near the optimum posterior, a property that

is highly desirable. This is due to the shape of the

likelihood function since the priors are symmetric.

The values for the kurtosis are small for some coefﬁ-

cients whose posteriors are therefore almost Gaussian

near the optimum, whilst other coefﬁcients strongly

affected by the priors are leptokurtic.

4 CONCLUSIONS

Our approach to view-based object recognition in-

volves synthesising intensity images using a linear

combination of views and comparing the sythesised

images to the target, scene image. We incorporate

prior probabilistic information on the LCV parame-

ters by means of a Bayesian model. Matching and

recognition experiments carried out on data from the

COIL-20 public database have shown that our method

works well for pose variations where the target view

lies between the basis views. The experiments further

show the beneﬁcial effects of the prior distributions in

“regularising” the optimisation. In particular, priors

could be chosen that produced a good basin of attrac-

tion surrounding the desired optimum without unduly

biasing the solution.

Nevertheless, additional work is required. In order

to avoid the overcompleteness of the LCV equations,

we would like to reformulate the LCV equations (1)

by using the afﬁne tri-focal tensor and introducing the

appropriate constraints in the LCV mapping process.

In addition, in this paper we have only addressed ex-

trinsic viewpoint variations, but it should also be pos-

sible to include intrinsic, shape variations using the

approach described by (Dias and Buxton, 2005).

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