Transferring a Paper-based Simulation to a Workflow Management Application
René Börner
ProcessLab, Frankfurt School of Finance & Management, Sonnemannstr. 9-11, 60314 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Andreas Uremovic
Cirquent GmbH, Zamdorfer Str. 120, 81677 München, Germany
Keywords: Employee Motivation, Business Process Management, Six Sigma, Workflow Management System.
Abstract: In today’s management approaches, quality improvement focused on a company’s business processes plays
an ever more important role. Methodologies like Six Sigma are used to improve quality, cut costs and save
time by improving processes. Support and commitment of a company’s employees are crucial success
factors, so that training and motivation is essential. Role plays are a training method suitable for stimulating
employee involvement. The article describes how the paper-based role play KreditSim has been transformed
to a workflow management system. It shows how utilization of software can broaden the scope and
sometimes shift the focus of trainings. By delivering impressive results in process performance the software
inspires and motivates employees to learn Six Sigma tools and apply them to their daily business.
Organizational theory has seen a trend to business
process orientation in the last couple of years. The
improvement and management of a company’s
business processes form a competitive advantage
and are fundamental to its success (Becker, Kugeler
& Rosemann, 2004). On the one hand, there are
radical approaches to business process management
such as Business Reengineering (Hammer &
Champy, 1993). They are implemented top-down by
a company’s management. On the other hand,
evolutionary approaches follow a bottom-up
procedure that stresses the importance of employee
involvement. Six Sigma belongs to the latter
methodologies accentuating the importance of
employee commitment.
Service providers in particular face the challenge
that factors which are difficult to control, such as
human behaviour (e. g. friendliness and willingness
to help), have a decisive impact on the quality of the
final product, namely the actual service delivery
(Antony, 2004). Hence, well-trained and motivated
employees play an even more crucial role in the
execution of service providers’ process flows.
In a study conducted by Heckl and Moormann in
2008, more than 70 percent of the respondents
indicated that extensive and qualitatively excellent
training initiatives were required to increase the
chances of success for Six Sigma projects. The
success of such projects does thus not depend solely
on the Six Sigma methodology itself but on the
motivation and the commitment of employees.
Since Six Sigma originated in the production
sector, Six Sigma training often focuses on examples
from manufacturing industries or the logistics sector.
Subsequently, employees in the financial services
industry have a hard time identifying with these
processes. They find it very difficult to apply Six
Sigma to the (from their perspective) highly
individualized processes within the financial
services industry (Börner, Heckl & Hilgert, 2009).
In order to convince employees and senior managers
of financial service providers of the importance of
process management, ProcessLab at the Frankfurt
School of Finance & Management developed the
role play simulation KreditSim. In this role play,
participants simulate processing a loan application
and actively utilize Six Sigma tools to improve the
overall process. Observations to date indicate that
participants are highly receptive to the role play
orner R. and Uremovic A. (2010).
SPARKING EMPLOYEES’ INTEREST IN SIX SIGMA - Transferring a Paper-based Simulation to a Workflow Management Application.
In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Computer Supported Education, pages 203-210
simulation, because the elements of active
participation and first-hand experience serve to
highlight the relevance and applicability of the Six
Sigma tools for their day-to-day responsibilities.
Since a growing number of participants argued
that in reality different kinds of information
technology could be facilitated to improve the given
process, the idea of using software to enhance
KreditSim was born. In cooperation with jCOM1, a
workflow management systems provider, software
able to support the loan approval process has been
The following section describes the use of role
plays as a training methodology and their effect on
employee motivation. Section 3 explains the
underlying idea and the procedural implementation
of the role play KreditSim. Section 4 describes how
a workflow management system (WfMS) is used to
support employee training. The final section
consolidates observations and outlines particularities
of computer supported trainings. This article
demonstrates that software solutions, such as a
WfMS, that actively involve employees are highly
suited to supplementing methodological skills
Employee training represents a key to success for
Six Sigma. Simulations, including role plays, serve
as one possible instrument for employee training.
Typically, role plays are used as one of various
different teaching methods within the course of a
training seminar and are a widely used method for
training employees. Role plays represent a specific
type of simulation in which participants assume
particular responsibilities, i.e. a “role.” The
following discussion analyzes the suitability of role
plays in support of achieving different learning
Whenever companies send employees to training
courses or seminars, they are interested in having
their employees learn something. The exact nature
of this “something,” i.e. what is actually learnt,
always depends on the particular context. Moreover,
one specific training activity may actually aim at
meeting multiple objectives. The training initiators
may not have explicitly articulated these objectives
and may not even be fully aware of them. For
example, in order to convey information about and
know-how of new legislation, the head of a loan
department could easily provide each employee with
a book outlining regulatory changes in the financial
services industry. But why would the manager send
the employees to a training seminar instead? This
question can be best answered by looking at the
different types of learning. Learning is generally
divided into four categories (Klippert, 2007):
Content and factual learning: The acquisition of
knowledge and facts, understanding explanations
and phenomena, recognizing relationships and
evaluating hypotheses provide together the basis
for all other types of learning.
Methodological and strategic learning: The focus
is on structuring, organizing, and arranging the
acquired knowledge. This entails the ability to
independently apply, reflect, or further develop
learnt lines of reasoning, working techniques,
problem-solving or learning strategies within a
subject-matter or cross-functional context
(Hechenleitner & Schwarzkopf, 2006).
Employers are increasingly expecting this type of
methodological competence, in addition to
subject-matter competence, from prospective
Social and communicative learning: Utilizing the
learnt facts and knowledge as a basis for
argumentation and discussion with other
members in society, social competence can be
developed. Central to this type of learning is a
rational and responsible discourse, as such
behaviour fosters teamwork, which in turn serves
to enhance social-communicative abilities.
Affective learning: The so-called self-
competence encompasses the development of
self-confidence, commitment, and motivation.
Affective learning enables the individual to
recognize and bring out his or her own talents
and abilities and to develop reasoned ethical
values and moral concepts (Hechenleitner &
Schwarzkopf, 2006).
Referring back to the example above, handing a
book to each employee would certainly suffice to
enable content and factual learning. However, the
other three types of learning usually occur
automatically during any training seminar and thus
positively influence employees’ willingness and
ability to perform. Moreover, these four types of
learning are typically highly interrelated.
Role plays support especially the three latter
types of learning. Commonly articulated objectives
of role plays include the ability to deal with difficult
CSEDU 2010 - 2nd International Conference on Computer Supported Education
situations, developing self-assurance, improving
auto-perceptive and self-reflection skills, increasing
motivation, and raising communicative effectiveness
(Bliesener, 1994). However, it is important not to
pursue too many objectives with a role play, as an
overload of differing objectives may unsettle
participant groups with little previous role play
experience and thus inadvertently result in a
defensive attitude towards the role play (Broich,
1994). Cognitive Load Theory (Sweller, 1988)
provides one explanation for this phenomenon.
Particularly the usage of software, as described in
section 4, can lead to a cognitive overload on the
participants’ side (Brünken, Plass & Leutner, 2003).
The role play KreditSim which will be described
in the following section originally targeted
methodological and strategic learning. However,
experience shows that it covers social and
communicative as well as affective learning, too.
Therefore, employee motivation has become another
core aspect of trainings in which KreditSim is used.
The Six Sigma simulation KreditSim has been
developed in order to sensitize employees from the
financial services industry to process problems and
corresponding process improvements. KreditSim is a
paper-based role play in which participants simulate
the processing of a loan application from a new
customer, i.e. the loan approval process. Simulation
participants assume the roles of loan processing
specialists, department head, controller, and
managing director of the fictitious Home Loan Bank
Ltd., and they have to process loan applications in
accordance with their given job descriptions. Since
each participant is responsible for handling only a
small portion of the entire process, it becomes
quickly apparent that while each participant fulfils
his or her process tasks at their very best, the entire
process nevertheless yields an unsatisfactory result.
Eliminating errors on the loan applications as well as
reducing the long overall processing time can only
be accomplished through a holistic, cross-functional
analysis. Six Sigma offers the methodological
support for conducting such an analysis. The starting
point and subsequent phases of the role play
KreditSim are illustrated in the following.
3.1 Initial Situation in the Role Play
The role play KreditSim is typically conducted as as
part of a one-day or multiple-day training seminar.
At the very beginning, the moderator introduces the
current situation that serves as a starting point for the
role play KreditSim, providing the following
overview: “Home Loan Bank Ltd. is a regional bank
that specializes in real estate financing. The bank
maintains four branch offices. In these branch
offices, sales specialists for real estate loans and
financing advise potential customers. The decision
whether or not to approve a loan application is made
at headquarters. Sales specialists attach particular
importance to timely and accurate processing of the
applications they have submitted to headquarters.
Their requirements are expressed with the following
quality criteria:
Processing of the loan application with an
approval or rejection decision within four days
(in the role play this equates to four minutes),
Determination of the correct credit rating, and
Consideration of customer requirements (e.g.
interest rates or payment terms).”
The moderator prepared the process for the first
simulation round and therefore knows that based on
conducting and thus experiencing the loan approval
process at Home Loan Bank Ltd. participants
quickly realize that these requirements cannot be
met. In most cases, the decision concerning a
particular loan application will take nine or ten days
(i.e. minutes). In addition, there will be frequent
errors in the credit rating, resulting in incorrect
decisions concerning the approval of loan
applications. Finally, very often specific customer
requirements will not have been sufficiently
addressed during the processing of the loan
application. Therefore, the moderator can easily
convince participants of the necessity to analyze and
optimize the loan approval process.
To support the first-hand experience of the loan
approval process and its subsequent optimization,
moderators often divide the seminar into three
phases: The first phase consists of conducting the
simulation of the pre-described loan approval
process of Home Loan Bank Ltd., i.e. the current
process. This phase is standardized and
predetermined through the use of the game materials
and adherence to the role play instructions. The
second phase focuses on optimizing the existing
process. The moderator guides the participants in the
use of the tools within the DMAIC (Define,
Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) cycle, which
is the central procedural method of Six Sigma
(Pande, Neuman & Cavanagh, 2000). This approach
serves as the foundation for developing a new and
SPARKING EMPLOYEES' INTEREST IN SIX SIGMA - Transferring a Paper-based Simulation to a Workflow
Management Application
optimized loan approval process. In phase three,
participants simulate the optimized process design.
Results from the new process are captured and
compared with the results from the original process.
3.2 Phase I: Simulation of the Loan
Approval Process
In phase I, the loan approval process of the Home
Loan Bank is simulated. Prior to starting phase I, the
moderator has to prepare the simulation room. He
arranges the work stations in the predefined floor
layout (Fig. 1) and distributes the job descriptions.
Each participant chooses one of the prepared work
stations randomly. The job descriptions help the
participants to become familiar with their working
Branch North
Branch West
Branch South
Branch East
DM Loan
Loan Approvals
Service Quality
without fixed position
= Chair
= Table
DM = Department Manager
Branch North
Branch West
Branch South
Branch East
DM Loan
Loan Approvals
Service Quality
without fixed position
= Chair
= Table
DM = Department Manager
Figure 1: Floor plan.
In order to address potential start-up problems
and to avoid any misunderstanding, a trial run of the
simulation is conducted first. Then, the actual
simulation of the loan approval process begins. The
objective is to process as many error-free loan
applications within 20 minutes as possible. This
objective has to be achieved within the requirements
of the quality criteria, namely time (a maximum of
four minutes per application), correct credit rating,
and consideration of additional customer
requirements. Each minute the branch offices submit
loan applications via a branch courier to
headquarters. Within a short time, it becomes
apparent that the given process results in significant
Subsequent to the simulation run, the moderator
leads participants in the analysis of the process. In a
first step, the incorrect loan applications are
analyzed and documented according to quantity and
types of errors.
Generally, most applications will contain a time
error, i.e. their processing required more than the
allotted four minutes. An incorrect credit rating
occurs frequently as well. An analysis of “Work-in-
Process” provides an indication of how many
incomplete loan applications have accumulated at
each step of the process, highlighting bottlenecks
within the process. An analysis of the processing
times provides insights concerning the individual
processing times of each function within the overall
loan approval process (e.g. Collateral Rating). An
optional analysis can be conducted for the total
processing time for each loan application, since such
data has been captured on each loan document. The
significant differences in the processing times echo
participants’ perception that some colleagues were
unable, in spite of greatest work efforts, to handle
the volume of incoming loan applications while
other colleagues spent a significant amount of time
waiting for work to arrive.
In accordance with the moderator’s expectations,
seminar participants easily recognize the need for
process optimization when looking at the large
number of processing errors and the long processing
times. The moderator can then move on to phase II,
the optimization of the loan approval process.
3.3 Phase II: Optimization of the Loan
Approval Process
The moderator can freely decide how to conduct the
optimization of the loan approval process. In
principle, the optimization can utilize the entire
spectrum of available Six Sigma tools. Especially
those tools that are most frequently applied in the
financial services industry (Heckl & Moormann,
2008) can be nicely illustrated through KreditSim. If
seminar participants are already familiar with Six
Sigma, they should be given their free choice
concerning which of the tools to use.
Very often, participants use the Project Charter
and SIPOC (Supplier, Input, Process, Output,
Customer) from the Six Sigma toolbox to define the
framework for the project. The CTQ/CTB (Critical
to Quality/Critical to Business) matrix plays an
important role in the exact determination of the
requirements and subsequent calculation of the
Sigma level. These three tools have proven to be
especially useful during the Define-Phase. Process
measurement and analysis can be conducted on the
basis of the data that were collected during the first
phase of the simulation (quantity and types of error
analysis, Work-in-Process analysis, processing time
analysis). Additional suitable tools are the Ishikawa-
Diagram and the Value Stream Map (Lunau et al.,
2007). After the analysis, participants should be
given sufficient time for the Improve-Phase to
CSEDU 2010 - 2nd International Conference on Computer Supported Education
optimize the loan approval process. It is important to
note that there is not “one correct” solution for the
redesigned process, but that participants instead
learn to identify causes for process deficiencies,
such as duplicate tasks, redundant tasks, or
unnecessary transportation and idle times, and that
participants are in a position to accordingly adjust
and thus improve the process. Besides designing a
new process flow, participants also develop new job
descriptions and a different floor plan.
3.4 Phase III: Simulation of the
Optimized Loan Approval Process
The newly developed loan approval process is
validated by a new simulation. Now, the participants
prepare the simulation room, arrange the floor layout
of working places, and distribute the new job
descriptions. The new simulation only needs to take
10 minutes this time. The participants are now able
to measure to what extent they have been able to im-
prove the process by counting the amount of correct
loan approvals within the given time frame and
comparing the results to the previous simulation.
Experience shows that in every case a significant
improvement in process performance can be
observed. Participants are usually extremely pleased
with their results. Oftentimes, additional ideas for
further improvement are generated during or after
the second simulation run, resulting in lively and
fruitful discussions among participants.
After successfully applying KreditSim in multiple
scenarios of employee training, trainers and
participants came up with the idea of enhancing the
simulation by software. Thus, the authors of the role
play decided to develop a tool that simulates the
process and manages workflows electronically
instead of paper-based. In cooperation with a
workflow management systems provider, software
able to support the loan approval process described
in the above section has been developed. The
application of the software impressively shows how
automation of routing work items (which is only one
possibility of process improvement) and providing
work lists for the respective roles can radically
improve processes.
4.1 Technical Infrastructure
The software program is designed as a client-server
application. Three elements of the program are
installed on the server:
The workflow engine controls the sequence of
the single workflow items that are currently in
the workflow.
An administration tool is used to set e.g. the
number of loan approvals that enter the process
in a given time interval.
A graphical user interface for modelling business
processes enables the trainer to customize the
loan approval process individually. Changes
made to the process are automatically translated
into executable code and enacted by the
workflow engine.
The training participants can use either
computers provided in the training room or their
own laptops. Users can access the program by using
internet browsers such as Internet Explorer or
Mozilla Firefox, i.e. there is no need for the
installation of any software on the client computer.
Access to the server can be realized through the
Internet or a specially set up (wireless) local area
network (LAN). In both cases the clients have to be
connected to the network or the Internet
respectively. If computers are provided in the
training room these can be pre-configured so that
users can open their internet browsers and continue
with the log-in without configuring their network
access. Usually, the use of laptops needs some more
effort and time to enable all participants to access
the network. Although establishing this connection
should not pose a problem in most cases, difficulties
might occur due to the configuration of firewalls.
Once the network connection is established,
users can enter the IP address of the server hosting
the workflow engine. Now, they have to enter their
user name and password which are provided by the
trainer in their role description. If default browser
configurations are used (i.e. JavaScript activated,
etc.) no problems concerning the log-in procedure
are to be expected. The unlikely event of an
interruption of the client-server connection can lead
to a log-off from the system.
The server applications such as the
administration tool can be hosted on a traditional
server running at the training provider’s premises.
Alternatively, they can be run on the trainer’s laptop
serving as a host. The advantage of the latter is that
the trainer can easily use the modelling and
administration tool and solve technical problems
directly at the laptop.
SPARKING EMPLOYEES' INTEREST IN SIX SIGMA - Transferring a Paper-based Simulation to a Workflow
Management Application
Table 1: Comparison of different implementation choices.
Desktops provided
at training site
- Pre-configuration makes network/internet
access easy
- Same infrastructure makes usage more
- Due to different floor plans from earlier
simulations, a separate room with desktops has to be
- The trainer’s effort is relatively small
- Configuration problems due to firewalls and
different browsers
- Usability problems due to different screen
- All participants have to bring a laptop
(Wireless) LAN
- Enhanced controllability
- Less security issues
- Guaranteed performance
- Trainer has to provide hardware, i.e. hub or access
point respectively
- Trainer needs technical skills to set up a network
- No special hardware needed for training
- Most firewalls configured for internet access
- External factors can influence performance and
overall functionality
- Security related issues have to be considered
Host on server
- No performance problems arising from
insufficient processing power
- Administration requires remote control procedures
Host on laptop
- Hosting of server applications on training site
- Performance problems may increase response time
while running simulation
The usage of the trainer’s laptop might, however,
lead to performance problems while simulating the
process when approximately 15 users access the
server application simultaneously.
Table 1 compares three main types of
implementation choices. Each of the implementation
possibilities can be chosen independently from one
another. However, there are typical combinations.
For instance, when a server in a remote location is
used for hosting the work-flow engine the Internet
would typically be used to connect the users to the
server. When desktops are provided at the training
site there is usually a LAN in place that can be used.
4.2 Roles and Workflows in the
Automated Process
Once all clients are successfully connected to the
network, all users can log on to the system with their
individual user names and passwords. Job
descriptions are provided to all participants as
described in section 3 for phases I and III. The
former entail the log-on information. Most likely,
there will be a number of participants whose roles
differ from those in phases I and III. Thus, the
trainer will have to allow a couple of minutes for
reading the job descriptions. Again, one loan
application file should be used for a trial run so that
all users are familiar with their screen form.
The workflow management system is responsible
for routing each loan application (so called
instances) in the correct sequence to each role in the
process. Thus, the system replaces the interoffice
messenger. Whenever one role has processed an
application, the latter is automatically routed to the
electronic inbox of the appropriate role that has to
execute the next task (Figure 2). The system keeps
track of every instance in the workflow until it is
processed completely and returns it to the original
“virtual” branch office.
Some tasks of the loan approval process take
more time than others. Often, participants consider
this by assigning two or more employees to one task
in phase III. Taking this into account, there are some
roles in the workflow management tool (e.g. staff
member “collateral rating”) that have more than one
user assigned to them. These users have a shared
electronic inbox so that each of them who has
finished one loan application can pick any one
waiting for processing. That way, the system avoids
both, employees waiting for work that is not
transported to their private inbox and loan
applications lying idle in inboxes of overstrained
employees. The software can be modified in so far
that items in the inbox cannot be picked by users but
loan applications are automatically assigned to users
once they finish the previous one (pull vs. push).
This solves the problem of items being processed in
CSEDU 2010 - 2nd International Conference on Computer Supported Education
Figure 2: Electronic inbox of the role Collateral Rating .
the wrong order (First-in-First-out vs. Last-in-First-
out). However, the feeling of choosing freely
between different items in a pool might improve
employees’ motivation to some degree.
The administration tool running on the server
replaces the branches when it comes to issuing loan
applications. Thus, applications are issued by and
returned to “virtual” branches respectively.
Whenever the sales manager decides to increase or
decrease the frequency of applications issued this
has to be entered into the administration tool.
Furthermore, the workflow management system
logs all waiting and processing times of each loan
application. Hence, the role of a controller is not
needed any more. All kinds of analyses (e.g. Work-
in-Process, quantity and errors, processing time,
etc.) can be generated automatically, immediately
after the simulation is stopped by the moderator.
4.3 Creating Additional Value for
Participants through Software
So far, changes brought about by the application of
software to the simulated process were described.
But is it worth while the effort? Does it create any
additional value for training participants and their
The most obvious and probably most impressive
feature of implementing software (i.e. a WfMS) to
support an already improved process is automation.
Independent from their role all participants
experience a number of different advantages
automation brings to the process. First and foremost,
loan applications are routed to the respective inbox
immediately and correctly. The chaos caused by an
overburdened interoffice messenger ceases. Second,
users have a perfect overview over all items in their
(shared) electronic inbox. They could even alarm
managers if waiting queues get too long so that
additional users can be assigned to certain roles to
resolve bottlenecks. Since this is difficult to realize
“real time” while simulating the process, capacity
management is one of the improvements often
proposed afterwards by participants. Third, a
parallelization of two or more tasks can be realized
by the application. This leads to an additional
reduction of processing time. Fourth, the number of
processed loan applications is further increased and
the variance of processing time is reduced
significantly. Particularly the latter is an important
element of Six Sigma. Fifth, the quality of processed
loan applications is improved although a larger
number is processed in a shorter time. Sixth, a broad
data analysis regarding throughput and processing
time is immediately available. This leads to a real
time reporting and enables a powerful and flexible
capacity management by the management.
An important part of the optimization in phase II
was the development of a new floor plan in order to
improve the transportation of loan applications.
Thus, the layout in which the participants’ tables and
seats were organized played an important role.
Interestingly, usage of software provokes the
opposite, i.e. the location of users does not matter
any more. Participants will therefore experience how
information technology in general and WfMS in
particular influence both the operational level
(automation, capacity management, etc.) as well as
the strategic level (e.g. offshoring) of business
process management.
Another advantage of software application is that
it can serve different purposes. Not only the
methodology Six Sigma and its tools can be taught
using KreditSim. A general understanding of
business process management is also conveyed and
further supported by software. Finally, demonstra-
ting a WfMS joined with a well-known process that
has been improved by the participants themselves
proves how valuable such a system can be.
SPARKING EMPLOYEES' INTEREST IN SIX SIGMA - Transferring a Paper-based Simulation to a Workflow
Management Application
Role plays are a recognized methodology to support
methodological and strategic learning. Hence, they
are well-suited for trainings focused on Six Sigma
and the application of its tools. Since role plays also
encompass social and communicative learning as
well as affective learning, they also foster
involvement and motivation of employees
participating in trainings.
As shown in section 4, software can support and
enhance employee training. However, it might not
be useful to replace the paper-based simulation in
every case. For the purpose of teaching Six Sigma
tools and a general understanding of business
process management, use of the paper-based
simulation is strongly recommended before moving
on to the computer-based simulation. Participants
are usually impressed how powerful simple tools
and changes made to the process can be even
without using information technology. The
subsequent facilitation of the software entrenches
this experience. If the purpose of the training is to
show the value of automation through a WfMS, the
software can replace phase III of the original
simulation. After the analysis of the process
experienced in phase I, participants can directly
move on to simulate the computer-supported loan
application process.
Thanks to its structure, the simulation KreditSim
can be used to target management and staff members
alike. For a successful implementation of Six Sigma
it is indispensable to gain both management’s
support and employees’ commitment. Usually, the
former is easier to achieve than the latter. Most staff
members overcome an early scepticism and feel
enthusiastic about the improvements in time, costs
and quality of the optimized process. However,
some are afraid of falling victim of another cost
cutting initiative. They are anxious of loosing their
job once the process is optimized. Both the original
paper-based simulation and the computer-based
simulation tackle this problem in prohibiting any
layoffs so that all participants have a (new) role in
the improved process. Still, using the software
makes the abundance of certain activities (e.g.
interoffice manager, controller) even more visible.
Therefore, the trainer should be well-prepared to
argue that process improvement does not lead to
layoffs. A failure to convey this message convin-
cingly could lead to a loss of employees’ support
and commitment to a Six Sigma project or a process
improvement initiative in general.
The case of KreditSim shows that software can
complement existing non-electronic training
instruments such as paper-based role plays. Thus, it
can support already pursued educational goals (like
teaching Six Sigma tools) and add other aspects (like
introducing WfMS). Alternatively, it can replace
parts of the training and thus shift the focus from the
former to the latter. Depending on the intention of a
training, the moderator can deliberately choose how
to utilise the software. If the software is used for a
third run of the simulation it can be presented as an
independent alternative to the previously simulated
runs. If the training covers more than one day the
moderator could incorporate the participants’ ideas
from day one into the workflow and thus build the
third (computer-based) run of the simulation on the
findings of the first day’s improvement phase.
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