Ruixia Li, Dan Chang
School of Economics and Management, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China
Siyuan, East Building, Beijing Jiaotong University, Haidian District, Beijing, China
Ying Chen
School of Economics and Management, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing China
Siyuan, East Building, Beijing Jiaotong University, Haidian District, Beijing, China
Keywords: Pervasive Computing, Management Information System, Library, Intelligent.
Abstract: This paper describes pervasive computing, library intelligent space base on pervasive computing, then
introduces library information systems based RFID. In the library management system, it uses advanced
RFID technology to optimize and integrate the libraries’ collection of resources and management mode.
This library system realizes automation and intelligent of library management, maximizes the effectiveness
of collection, and improves the library’s current management mode, and receives the highest reader service
efficiency. Library management becomes more and more intelligent.
With the development of companies information
technology and people thirst for knowledge,
companies begin to have their own libraries.
Enterprise Library as a documentation and
information center is academic institutions of
enterprise for learning and scientific research
services, so when design library, it is necessary to
meet the needs of collection and also to meet service
needs. With entering 2lth century, the combination
of smart space and the library information system
become more closely. Information era makes the
library service model begin to innovate and be more
and more intelligent. Library based on pervasive
computing is built on three features those are the
digital library resources, network services and
characteristic technology. All libraries want to be
intelligent library. It is clear that the existing bar
code-based automatic identification system has been
unable to meet the needs of intelligent, while RFID
technology meets these needs very well, so it begins
to emerge in the library automated management.
Using RFID technology can drive reader service
quality and documentation management level from
the content and form, and make libraries intelligent.
Intelligent library management system based on
RFID can greatly enhance library efficiency.
Pervasive computing is a new computing model,
which is different from mainframe computing or
desktop computing. In 1991, Mr. Mark Weiser said
that using pervasive computing aims to enable
computers are available throughout the physical
environment, while users are not aware of the
existence of the computer. Pervasive computing is
not to develop new computing equipment, but to
develop a new calculation model and the
corresponding human-computer interaction way.
With this interactive model, computing equipment
and technology being used in the user tasks of daily
life makes users can get the computing services
without needing to be aware of the existence of
computers, which maybe make the users distraction,
at the same time, make the attention return to the
Li R., Chang D. and Chen Y..
DOI: 10.5220/0003595804760481
In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (EIT-2011), pages 476-481
ISBN: 978-989-8425-55-3
2011 SCITEPRESS (Science and Technology Publications, Lda.)
Pervasive computing has two essential
characteristics: Integration of cyberspace and
physical space. The pervasive computing model of
cyberspace and physical space will be integrated.
(Satyanamyanan M 2001) On the one hand, the
matters in physical space and the object in
cyberspace will be bound in various forms. On the
other hand, the computer system will fully recognize
and utilize a variety of context information in the
physical space, and then show different actions.
Calculation is transparent to the humans. That is,
people do not need to go out first and find the
computer. The computer's point of interaction should
be embedded or removable; Secondly, computers
should have the initiative to provide services, not
just passively waiting for orders; The last, various
modules require that organization and coordination
process should be more autonomy in the provision
of services.
People need information interaction and information
services during the processing of specific task, and
eager to get information services at anytime and
anywhere to realize “ubiquitous information
services” in pervasive computing environment.
Therefore, libraries need to create a pervasive
computing environment and integrate into the whole
process of user's current task and understand the
before and after relation of information need and
information exchange. Then, they need to establish
context information of user’s tasks, and provide
proactive and dynamic information services based
on that.
3.1 The Integration of Libraries’
Physical Space and Cyberspace
Pervasive computing makes it clear that the
integration of physical space and cyberspace is to
provide a seamless, transparent computing
environment. Libraries want to create a pervasive
computing environment and to realize the
integration of libraries’ physical space and libraries’
cyberspace. Physical spaces of libraries are all
entities, things and activities what people engaged in
of the real world that require the libraries
information services, such as the user “enter
electronic reading room browser.” Libraries
cyberspace includes various computers and
telecommunications equipment, digital resources
and information services of libraries, and also
includes various information devices used by users
(such as Mobile, PDA etc).The integration of
physical space and cyberspace in libraries fully
reflects the “ubiquitous” and interactive capabilities
of pervasive computing.
In order to realize this function, we need to
establish mutual corresponding relationship and
interaction mechanism automatically between
cyberspace object and the physical space object in
libraries. Some sensor technologies (such as touch
screen), tagging technology which used to identify
the physical entity can be well applied, so that these
physical entities become a direct entrance to access
cyberspace services. Cyberspace can automatically
sense change of physical state in the physical space,
and also automatic understand human behavior, and
on the basis of the understanding provide active
information services without human intervention.
This wait-service has been called as “active
computing” or “implicative human-computer
interaction”. When a user enters a given scene, the
library cyberspace will set personalized
automatically for the user. While when the user
carry out a specific task, the libraries cyberspace will
feel the user's specific behavior and provide
personalized information service.
3.2 Fully Integrate Context
in the Process of User Activity
and Provide Dynamic Information
In the integration of physical space and cyberspace
in the libraries, the libraries fully integrate into the
process of the user’s activities, understand users’
needs, identify the relationship between user activity
and information needs, get the physical space status
and user behavior actively, then provide dynamic
information services for users. The process of
understanding user activity generally takes the way
of “context computing”. The importance of libraries
cyberspace for context understanding in the user
activity lies in: The interface of the physical space is
multiplayer share rather than individuals;
Implicative interaction can reduce users’ distractions
and make them focus on actual tasks. For different
users, they input the same context may have
different semantics results.
From the perspective of pervasive computing,
context is information that can be used for
characterizing the state of entity and the user’s
action and context calculation is when the user needs
to provide information and services which is suitable
for the task at that time. The context of libraries
dynamic information services include: (1) Context
of the scene that needs to provide information
services, such as information resources which are
available for teaching in the classroom. (2)The
context of the user features, such as the professional
background of users, users’ previous research and so
on. (3)The context of user action, the dynamic
information needs of the user’s current task.
The context information of the physical space in
libraries can be obtained through a variety of sensors,
existing information, users’ tasks and interaction
between devices or user direct setting. High and low
are two level of context information. A number of
low-level information can be obtained by the sensor
or pre-set. High-level information such as the user's
current action can be obtained by computer vision to
track and identify. Then, it creates a probability
3.3 Library is an Intelligent Knowledge
Intelligent space is defined as a work space which is
embedded computing and information equipment
and multi-modal sensors by American National
Standards Institute.It’s purpose is to enable users
access information easily and access to the computer
services in order to separate work and work with
others efficiently. The purpose of establishing
intelligent knowledge space based on pervasive
computing for a library is to make computing and
information services integrate into the people’s
living space. Intelligent knowledge space of libraries
should at least provide the following functional
services: (1) Recognize and perceive users and their
behavior information, understand and predict
information needs in the process of completing the
task by users. (2)Users can easily interact with a
variety of information sources, including explicit
and implicative interact. (3)The library should
provide the user seamless connection with intelligent
space using mobile devices carried at any time and
any place.(4)Libraries should provide abundant
information resources and proactive information
services.(5) Libraries should be able to support
collaborative work between the users or tasks. Based
on this goal, intelligent space framework based on
pervasive computing for libraries was proposed. (Xu
Qiang, 2006) The intelligent libraries should be
considered as an object-oriented, distributed network
architecture model. It is composed by the client,
server, scheduling systems, retrieval systems, library
server, object libraries, and resource processing
system, and adapts to a variety of different computer
systems, and It supports the user through the mobile
phone, PDA and other mobile computing devices
which call a large number of computing resources
embedded in the environment at any time in order to
access to information and computing services. With
the deepening of pervasive computing theory and the
platform of software, the library can get involved in
the applications of intelligent knowledge room,
intelligent meeting, intelligent home, intelligent
health care, intelligent distance education,
knowledge among the community and other
applications, and also can realize invisible
information exchange between users at anytime and
anywhere, and provide information services
3.4 Ubiquitous Learning Environment
of Libraries
An important reason of libraries creating a pervasive
computing environment is to build a “ubiquitous
learning environment”. Rich information resources,
the integration of the mobile environments and
pervasive computing technology affects people’s
learning mode and process. The learning can be
obtained at anytime and anywhere and can call
“ubiquitous learning”. A “ubiquitous learning
environment” is an integrated learning environment,
which integrates multiple layers and dimensions
including physical, social, information and
technology. The face of ubiquitous learning
environment, the challenges of libraries is not only
providing information for learners by what manners,
but also whether or not this can make learners use
accurate information in the right way at the right
occasion. In a ubiquitous learning environment, a
variety of educational institutions, workspace,
community and home will be organically integrated.
Intelligent knowledge space of libraries is the
organic component of the ubiquitous learning
environment and will help to ubiquitous learning of
Libraries want to become intelligent libraries, it
is clear that the existing bar code-based automatic
identification system has been unable to meet the
needs of pervasive computing, so we need a new and
non-contact automatic identification system without
human intervention. RFID technology meets these
needs very well, so it began to emerge in the library
automation management.
ICEIS 2011 - 13th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
Automatic identification technology is a technology
which automatically obtains relevant information of
objects that been identified by approaching activities
between identification devices using identification
device of certain the application, and provides those
information for the background computer processing
system completing relevant and following handling.
Automatic identification technology has been widely
used in many service areas since the beginning of
research in the 20th century.
4.1 Advantages and Disadvantages
of Bar Code Technology in Library
Information System
Bar code is now widely used. Bar code technology
has several advantages as following: First, input fast.
Speed of bar code input is 4 times than keyboard and
can achieve instant data inputs. Second, it has high
reliability. Error rate of bar code technology is less
than 1/1000000. Third, it has an ability of the large
amount of information gathering. Two-dimensional
bar code can carry thousands of characters
information. Fourth, the cost of inputs is low. Bar
code labels are easy to make without special
requirements for equipment and materials.
Bar code technology in library management
information system also has the following
shortcomings: First, the use of bar code is inefficient.
Bar code cannot be changed after printed. Second. A
bar code reader can scan when light source irradiates
bar codes. People need open the book and find the
bar codes to scan bar codes in the existing processes
of circulation of books. This operation process is
cumbersome and inefficient. Bar codes are easy to
be damaged. This will not only affect the efficiency
of borrowing and returning books, but also affect the
readers’ satisfaction of the library (Cai Mengxin,
4.2 RFID Technology and Library
Information System
4.2.1 Radio Frequency Identification
Radio frequency identification technology is an
automatic identification technology by the way of
radio frequency for non-contact and bidirectional
data communication to identify and obtain the target
and relevant data. RFID technology can finish
information input and hand without manual
intervention, direct contact and can work in a variety
of harsh environments. Rapid moving objects and
multiple tags can be identified by RFID quickly and
Using RFID technology is not simply replace bar
codes, but need to change the existing management
model. To create new service concepts and business
models as a guide, this drives improvement of the
reader service quality and document management
from the content and form. RFID-based intelligent
library management system can manage the location,
distribution, circulation and flow of books and
objects in the library, and can enhance the
classification of books, markers, positioning and
data collection, thus greatly improve efficiency of
libraries (Radmanesh, Matthew, 2007).
4.2.2 Library Intelligent Space
based on Pervasive Computing
Intelligent space technology has a very important
position in the development of ubiquitous computing,
and is universally regarded as a test bed that
embodies the pervasive computing thought and
researches key technology of pervasive computing.
Library intelligent space is the essential
characteristic of pervasive computing on the scale of
library building, as following:
The entire space of intelligent space that is the
entire library becomes a continuous three-
dimensional interactive channel, at the same time
embedded computing systems can fully identify and
utilize the context of space. This reflects the
integration of cyberspace and physical space.
Another important feature of intelligent space is a
nomadic service. Wireless handheld device users
carried or electronic devices in physical space can
take advantage of its surrounding infrastructure
resources. While its’ modules can also interact and
collaborate with the other modules in order to allow
users’ get a variety of related services in local space.
A third characteristic of smart spaces is that interact
channel is a three-dimensional and continuous, while
computing systems are hidden. People can receive
computer services at anytime and anywhere without
a clear sense of the existence of computing systems
in space.
4.3 The Application of RFID
Technology in Libraries
Information System
Intelligent space is a work or living space which is
embedded computing, information equipment and
multi-modal sensing devices, with natural and
convenient interactive interface to support the
people access to computer systems services easy.
Working and living in intelligent space is the
process of using the computer system and process of
ongoing interaction between people and computer
systems. In this process, the computer is no longer
just a passive executor of the operation command
explicit information processing tools, but the helper
of the collaboration of people to complete the task,
is a human partner both parties interact in harmony
with the collaborative relationship. The harmony of
this interaction is mainly reflected of people using
computers which will reduce the burden of the
operation effectively, and interaction is entirely a
spontaneous act of the people. Spontaneous means
free, non-mandatory and not learning, while
spontaneous interaction is that the people can
interact with the computer system using the natural
first category of data (such as language, gestures and
writing, etc.).
The daily services in library usually involve
people management and materials management. It is
need to use of RFID technology as the identification
method in order to realize access control and
statistics a large number of readers and books, etc.,
and to drive reader service quality and
documentation management level from the content
and form. This makes modern library realize
intelligent. RFID-based intelligent library
management system can manage the location,
distribution, circulation and flow of books and
objects in library and also can enhance the
classification, markers, positioning and data
collection of books, even greatly improve the
efficiency of library. Implementation of the RFID-
based library management information system can
complete many functions that bar codes cannot
complete and can provide a lot of convenience for
the library management. The application modules of
RFID technology in libraries information system as
4.3.1 Self-borrowing and Returning Service
of Books
Readers often need to take a long time to wait in line
because a very large number of people want to
borrow or return books from libraries. If we use
RFID devices, such as RFID tag not only can search
for bibliographic information and loan information,
but also can search for the exact location of specific
libraries holdings in the library. This can speed up
the rate of circulation jobs, simplify borrow and
return aspects, and improve quality of services in
4.3.2 Entrance Guard System of Libraries
For all the libraries, book theft has been a small
problem. For the library it results in economic losses.
While for rare books, it cannot be measured by
money. The RFID technology itself is one of anti-
theft technologies. It is access control system using
RFID technology that makes library anti-theft
system easier. It will automatically alarm if
unauthorized library collection be removed from the
house to remind the reader coming back to the
library and completing procedures. Besides, it can
trigger the camera system to prevent books and files
been stolen. Combining lending card and work card
of readers and managers, you can access to know the
situation of who come in and come out, calculates
these numbers to provide accurate data for
improving the work mechanism.
4.3.3 Simplify Intensity of Library
Management System
RFID transfers signals by radio wave. It can read a
few RFID tag data at a time and simplify inventory
work. Sensor using radio waves make the library
work become extremely easy. Disorder and book
find difficult problems have been resolved.
Use of advanced technology can optimize and
integrate of the library’s collection of resources and
management model in library information system. It
can realize intelligent of library and improve the
library’s current management operation mode.
Through RFID tags attach to all objects can make
the objects in physical space and objects in
cyberspace build the corresponding relations. This
can provide a practical way for building intelligent
information processing entities (Jiang Lifen, Lu
Guizhagn, Xin Yunwei, 2007).
ICEIS 2011 - 13th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
Satyanamyanan M Pervasive Computing: Vision and
ChallengesIEEE PCM 2001(4)10-17
Xu Qiang, Preliminary study of the library based on
pervasive computing [J]. Modern Information, 2006,
(10):88-89, 92.
Cai Mengxin, The feasibility of RFID in libraries[J],
Journal of Academic Libraries, 2006(4)91-96
Radmanesh, MatthewRadio frequency and microwave
electronics illustrated[J]. Pearson Education North
Asia Limited, 2007(12)
Jiang Lifen, Lu Guizhagn, Xin Yunwei, The formal
context model pervasive computing environment
based on RFID, Computer Engineering, 2007(6).