A New Model for the New Higher Education Context
Ángel F. Villarejo-Ramos, Manuel J. Sánchez-Franco
Department of Business Management and Marketing, University of Seville, Av. Ramón y Cajal, s/n, Seville, Spain
curro@us.es, majesus@us.es
Fernando Criado-García-Legaz
Department of Business Management and Marketing, University of Seville, Av. Ramón y Cajal, s/n, Seville, Spain
Keywords: ICT, EHEA, Students` satisfaction, Skills development, Active learning methodologies.
Abstract: The important changes in learning methodologies in the context of the European Higher Education Area
(EHEA) improve new educational methods. Therefore, the use of information and communication
technologies (ICT) and their application in the new higher education model are considered as the
background to student satisfaction and their development of generic and specific skills for professional
results after graduating. This paper, firstly, provides an analysis of the expectations of a sample of second
course undergraduate students in the business and management area (University of Seville, Spain).
Secondly, it analyzes a causal model related to the use of participative teaching methodologies, perceived
institutional support, and the ICT use in the teaching-learning process, as determinants of students'
satisfaction and skills development in the context of the EHEA. The results of the descriptive analysis
showed that students consider the use of specific materials and the use of e-learning platform to be
important. The contrast with the estimation of the structural equations model and the results were
satisfactory. Finally, the paper proposes some indications for higher education institutions and educators to
further the right adaptation to the new context of the European Higher Education Area; for example,
institutional promotion of learning technologies (e-learning instruments), training programs in ICT and
teaching innovation.
The context of university teaching and management
is the result of numerous changes in past decades.
The quantitative and qualitative increase in the
university offer in the 80s meant a growth in the
number of students and professors, as well as the
incorporation of new study plans adapted to the
technological, cultural and social changes. The new
university management model in the 90s was the
paradigm of the quality improvement of the teaching
service. Concepts of business management were
adapted, such as continuous improvement, process
assessment and quality standards. The 21st
has begun with the process of convergence towards
the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). This
context means that important methodological
changes, the involvement of the university
institutions and the development and use of
information and communication technologies (ICT)
have become key elements to achieve success in the
teaching-learning process. As Hernández, González
and Guerra (2006) remark, this change in the EHEA
is, mainly, a cultural change, a new vision of the
professor-student relationship that implies a
conception of learning in higher education in line
with the changing demands of the labor environment
and a new model of university management.
Currently, having surpassed the first phase of
adaptation towards European convergence, the broad
offer of Degree studies in Spanish universities has us
facing the need to reflect about how these changes
will be met with and adopted in the university
context during the next decade.
This convergence framework does not mean
homogenizing curriculums or procedures but rather
Villarejo-Ramos A., Sanchez-Franco M. and Criado-Garcà a-Legaz F.
DOI: 10.5220/0004458700710079
In Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Business Modeling and Software Design (BMSD 2011), pages 71-79
ISBN: 978-989-8425-68-3
2011 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
the abilities and the skills that are characteristics of
each degree (Fernández, Suárez and Villarejo,
2008). This is why each university has tried to
develop plans and strategies that are coherent with
their socio-educational and professional realities (De
Miguel, 2005a). The key to the success of
implanting Degree studies can therefore be in
detecting those needs and in adapting the new study
plans to the achievement of the specific skills and
the accomplishing of the students' expectations in
the socio-professional placement that they will
experience in the 21st. century. A high satisfaction
level as a student and as a graduate will then be
attained. Yet, as Correa and Paredes (2009)
remarked, Spanish universities do not always
incentivize the teaching staff taking part in
processes of transforming their methods, which is
why the need for a change in the teaching training
model has been detected. This implies real
adjustments towards more participatory
On the other hand, learning with these
characteristics requires methods that favour
reflection about what is done, how it is done and
what results are achieved. The students will in this
way be able to use this as a strategy to improve their
own performance, thus developing the most complex
competence of all: that of learning how to learn with
a critical sense (Fernández, 2006).
As is logical, insecurity and uncertainty have
appeared in the renovation process in the university
area. This has been particularly so when they are
linked to a change that has the scope of the
adaptation to the new pedagogical methods and a
new philosophy of university teaching (Monereo y
Pozo, 2003; Álvarez y Pérez, 2004). All this is
immersed in a framework of the students'
delocalization and globalization (Mavondo,
Tsarenko and Gabbott, 2004) and the
multiculturality of the educational communities at
which it is aimed (Castells 2000a; 2000b). Also,
constant ICT development is opening routes to
disseminate information and generate new learning
modalities, but it is also opening digital gaps of
varying importance between the students, the
professors and the university administration staff
(Área, 2000; Cabero, 2000; Zabalza, 2002).
The main aim of this current work is to analyze
the students' perceptions about their university
experience in the new Degree study plans and the
incorporation of new didactical methods, the
involvement of the university institution and ICT use
as a tool in the teaching-learning process. All of this
is from the students' perspective: accomplishing
their expectations with the satisfaction level and the
skills development needed in their future
professional work. This general aim can be specified
in the following particular objectives: (1) to detect
the methodology that the students consider should be
the aim of preferential attention by their class
professors and how knowledge and the assessment
process should be acquired; (2) to explore the degree
of ICT use by the teaching staff; and (3) to analyze
the influence of the institutional support, the
teaching methodology and the ICT use on the
satisfaction and learning of the university student,
both of them within the framework of the change of
the teaching-learning process design model with
respect to the traditional method of higher education
(Fernández and Cabreiro, 2003).
To attain these aims we have carried out an
empirical study whose target population is the
current second year students of different social
sciences Degrees that are taught in the faculties of
the University of Seville. The information gathering
was carried out during the beginning of the 2010-11
course via an own questionnaire in which previous
research was taken into account (De Miguel, 2005a;
2005b; Fernández et al., 2008).
The final sample is made up of 402 valid
surveys. The information from the sample has been
analyzed via the statistical software PASW 18.
2.1 Characteristics of the Survey
In the questionnaire we included an initial block of
variables that allows us to identify the most relevant
characteristics of those who make up the sample.
Specifically, we know the gender, age, marital
status, type of High School and the average marks
achieved, the degree of command in computer
studies and their main software applications, the
availability of a computer in the home and Internet
access and the average time of daily computer use,
both for study and leisure. The sample was extracted
from undergraduate students of EHEA degrees.
They are of an average age of 19.9 years, 54.7 % are
female, 66.6 % studied in state schools and had
Good or above in High School grades. The great
majority of them (95.3%) have Internet access at
home, and they mainly use the Microsoft Office
pack. 68.4% of the students spend more than an hour
per day on Internet-leisure, and almost half of the
BMSD 2011 - First International Symposium on Business Modeling and Software Design
sample spends more than an hour per day on
2.2 Basic Descriptive Analysis
The variables were analyzed via reflective indicators
measured on the Likert 1-5 scale (1 - strongly
disagree; 5 - strongly agree).
We can see that the main perceived institutional
support is the promoting of virtual communication
through web pages and virtual teaching platforms
(68.2%). To a lesser extent (40.2%), the students
consider that this support simplifies administrative
tasks. However, a great number of them reckon that
institutional support does not sufficiently respond to
their study needs, training, exchange programs and
internships; nor does it cover their communication
and information needs either within or outside the
We analyze the main concerns of professors in
the organizing of classes. Students have shown a
great interest in the teachers' orienting towards
comprehending the contents they transmit and
encouraging the students' interest in their subjects.
On the other hand, students give less importance to
the fact that the professors foster their taking part in
classes and make them responsible for the learning
Regarding the resources they consider the
teaching staff should use, the students prefer
specifically-prepared printed materials to other
types of support materials, both the classic ones and
those connected with new technologies. 24% of the
students do not consider the use of the books of
publishing houses or the teachers' recommendation
of them to be relevant.
With regards to the professors' means for
knowledge transmission, more than 70% have
shown an interest in the development of cases and
simulation activities and class notes. They show a
strong disinterest in traditional oral presentations,
but also in methods linked to bibliographical
investigation and self-learning. Nor do they give
much importance to the organization of debates and
work preparation, be it individual or in a group.
Finally, the majority of the students (75.2%)
consider that when marking the diverse materials,
the professor should take into account the quality of
the work carried out. What's more, it seems
important to them for the level of knowledge
attained in connection with the aims set out to be
valued. The quality of the answers in oral tests
(60.4%) and taking part in class and set activities
(62.2%) has a lesser importance. The least valued
assessment systems are classroom tutorials and
argued self-assessment: less than half of the sample
does not consider them of much importance.
The assessment of the students about ICT show
that the effects most valued by the students are
associated with the better quality of access to the
didactic materials and the disposition of better
information access channels. The students give less
importance to the possibility of the teaching staff
orienting and following up the work carried out
thanks to ICT, and the development of search and
information selection skills. The least valued effects
are associated with the possibility of generating
contact and debate networks from virtual
communities and the chance of increasing the
student's interest and motivation. Lastly, we analyze
the difficulties that students perceive in the teaching
staff's ICT use. The factor that is considered to be
most relevant, though for less than half of the
sample, is the low training level perceived in the
teaching staff when they use new technologies. On
the other hand, a majority consider that the
technological resources are available and adapted for
their use in teaching.
The interest that the teaching staff shows in fostering
the students' communication and participation and
promoting their responsibility in learning are key
aspects in the skills that, once the years of study
have finished, these students will have obtained
(Fernández et al., 2008). To achieve the students'
participation via interaction with the teaching staff
and with their companions favors their satisfaction
level (Fredericksen, Shea and Pickett, 2000). A
systematic teaching methodology that is
intentionally organized to favor participation even it
does not directly promote learning does favor the
probability of this taking place (De Miguel, 2005b;
2009). What's more, when the development of skills
linked to higher teaching aims such as the
development of critical thought and autonomous
learning is sought, methods centered on the students
are more appropriate and efficient (Fernández,
As Fernández (2006) remarks, skills training
even brings about the students' contact with the
social and professional contexts in which the future
graduate will perform. It also fosters the capacity to
Model for the New Higher Education Context
learn with others, encouraging team work to
exchange ideas, opinions, points of view, etc. The
use of participatory teaching methods therefore
means the possibility of developing the abilities and
skills necessary for the university leaver in their
professional career (Villarejo, Fernández, Suárez,
Sánchez and Álvarez, 2010).
As a consequence of what has been presented,
we can put forward the following hypotheses:
- Hypothesis 1a: Participative learning methodology
proposed by the professor in the classroom has a
direct and positive impact on students' satisfaction.
- Hypothesis 1b: Participative learning methodology
proposed by the professor in the classroom has a
direct and positive impact on the skills the students
acquire through their academic training.
As well as the aspects referring to the use of the
most appropriate methodologies, we must study the
influence of the institutional support received during
the period as a university student. The students'
satisfaction is at times determined by multiple
factors connected with the institution, such as the
professors' level of preparation, the teaching styles
proposed and even the support for research
(Appleton-Knapp and Krentler, 2006).
Currently, universities need to implant e-learning
systems, virtual campuses and blended learning to
develop teaching practices in which research
communities take part (Bonk, 2003; Anderson,
2004; Correa and Paredes, 2009). Moreover, the
university institutions will be the ones in charge of
fostering the working out of training offers. These
are aimed at the teaching staff in order for them to
acquire the skills that are necessary for them to
attend to the new needs of Degree students and
facilitate the resources needed to carry out these
changes effectively (Álvarez and Romero, 2007).
In previous studies (Fernández et al., 2008;
Villarejo et al., 2010) it was shown that: (1) to favor
virtual communication via on-line teaching
platforms; (2) to facilitate access to carrying out
internships promoted by the University; (3) to
encourage mobility and exchange programs with
other universities; and (4) to simplify administrative
tasks are matters that can influence the satisfaction
levels attained by the students as well as the skills
that they finally acquire. We propose the following
hypotheses as a consequence of this:
- Hypothesis 2a: The institutional perceived support
that students receive during their university stay has
a positive influence on their greater satisfaction.
- Hypothesis 2b: The institutional perceived support
that students receive during their university stay has
a positive influence on the skills that they acquire.
Additionally, ICT use in university teaching is a
basic element of differentiation, compared to the
traditional system that bears witness to the
convergence of the teaching activity and the
technological advances present in society (Área,
2000; Cabero et al., 2003). Likewise, as in the
previous descriptive analysis, students' familiarity
with ICT is high and their expectations about
training in the handling of them once their university
studies are finished are also high. Technological
skills and abilities are evident even in studies among
pre-University students, in which a direct
relationship is observed between ICT use and the
development of specific skills in the subjects taught
(Oliver and Corn, 2008). Therefore, the active
learning methodologies using ICT have a positive
influence on technological skills development, such
as the use of Web 2.0 tools by students (Guerra,
González and García, 2010).
However, and as Correa and Paredes (2009)
pointed out, incorporating ICT into university life
has fostered an important change in resources and
infrastructures. Above all, it has modified the
management and academic organization model,
though this change has been less in teaching
innovation. So, for students to satisfy their training
expectations, university professors must use
different technological resources to those that they
dispose of to give their classes. This will require the
teaching staff to control and handle ICT and
renovate certain methodological aspects that this
new form of teaching entails (Añel, 2008).
Nevertheless, the professors are not in all cases
prepared or accustomed to the use of these
technologies available in their centers (Cabero et al.,
2003), especially when some studies show a
difficulty in the teaching staff's ICT acceptation and
use (Mahdizadeh, Biemans and Mulder, 2008).
Our proposal thus sets out the following
- Hypothesis 3a: The degree of the professors' use of
ICT has a positive influence on the students' degree
of satisfaction.
- Hypothesis 3b: The degree of the professors' use of
ICT has a positive influence on the students'
acquiring of skills.
Students' satisfaction increases to the extent that
teaching methods based on inter-disciplinarity are
favored [inter-professional education (IPE); Barr,
Ivan, Reeves, Hammick and Freeth, 2005].This
entails an improvement in learning and putting it
BMSD 2011 - First International Symposium on Business Modeling and Software Design
into practice in the future professional work (Curran,
Sharpe, Forristall and Flynn, 2008). What's more,
and as Mavondo et al. (2004) pointed out, ICT use
as a source of students' satisfaction provides them
with the possibility of getting to know and trying out
hardware and software that can encourage the
development of skills needed in their professional
work. Finally, let us consider that skills development
can be influenced by the satisfaction level attained
by the student:
- Hypothesis 4: The student’s satisfaction experience
has a positive influence on the acquiring of skills.
In the conceptual model (Figure 1), we set out
relationships between the variables analyzed by our
work. The aim of this is to favor recommendations
for professors that may bring about a better
perception of the teaching quality and the achieving
of students' skills and abilities. Its contrast is carried
out through a system of structural equations, using
the statistical pack SmartPLS 2.0. The hypotheses
set forth are of an exploratory nature. This is
because their contrast gives rise to a more accurate
knowledge of the relationships between the behavior
of the professors, the institutional support and the
students' satisfaction and learning that will orientate
future research in an area that has not, until now,
been the aim of many studies.
Figure 1: Causal model
As a previous step to their use in the causal model,
we have assessed the reliability and validity of the
scales that make up the measurement model.
Initially, all the items in the questionnaire for the
five constructs of the causal model were considered.
Nevertheless, an exploratory analysis showed the
need to eliminate some of them to optimize the
making up of the scales. When assessing the
suitability of eliminating some of the initial items,
we have taken into account the value of the
Cronbach α coefficient, noticing, when its value was
less than 0.7, its improvement in the case of
suppressing some of the items.
Regarding the constructs ICT use and skills
development we have opted for keeping items with
values between 0.6 and 0.7 in their individual
reliability, with the aim of not losing information.
We checked that keeping them did not have a
negative repercussion on the reliability of the
construct measured. Throughout this process we
used the statistical packs PASW 18 and SmartPLS
2.0 (Ringe, Wende and Will, 2008).
4.1 Reliability and Validity of the
Measurement Scales
We based the individual reliability of the scales
(Table 1) on the correlation coefficients of the items
with the total of the measurement scale and the
compounded reliability index. This must reach a
value over 0.7. For each of the measurement models,
the correlations of each indicator with the total of the
scale satisfy the levels required, above 0.6 (Bagozzi
and Yee, 1988). Advancing in the analysis of the
psychometric properties of the scales, we went on to
study their validity. The validity of content is
accepted: the scales were designed from attributes
contained in measurement instruments validated in
previous studies.
Table 1: Convergent Validity.
CONSTRUCTS AVE Composite Reliability
Cronbach’s α
IPS .5577 .8345 .7372
SS .5864 .8501 .7659
ICTU .5608 .8355 .7359
PLM .5323 .8501 .7799
SD .6432 .8780 .8153
To check the convergent validity, we saw that
the reliability of the constructs and their average
variance extracted are over the recommended values
of 0.7 and 0.5, respectively (Carmines and Zeller,
1979; Fornell and Larcker, 1981). It was also seen
(see Table 2) that in all the constructs the reliability
index measured via Cronbach's alpha is high,
surpassing the 0.7 required in exploratory research
(Cronbach, 1970; Ninnally, 1978).
Model for the New Higher Education Context
Table 2: Individual Reliability.
Try to understand the contents transmitted
Encourage students' interest in the subject(s)
Foster students' communication and
Stimulate students' responsibility for their
Gives an answer to my needs concerning
studies, internships, training, exchanges and
so on
Covers my communication needs –
information within and outside the
Simplifies administrative tasks (there are
support documents, data bases, etc.)
Favors virtual communication (Web CT,
domain us.es, etc.)
Projection systems (Rear projection of
slides, video-projector, etc)
Computer, canon or multimedia systems
Internet and telematic systems
Virtual platforms (Web CT, etc.)
The relationships that I establish
The interest shown in my speeches, in the
classroom, in the net and so on
The quality of the work and the tests that are
Passing the subjects based on the set criteria
A better quality of access to the didactic
An increase of our interest and motivation
The development of search and information
selection skills
The possibility of solving doubts about the
program and the subject in the most
efficient way
A good enough command of ICT to apply
them in my professional field
To set up the discriminant validity, the AVE
value must be above the variance shared between the
construct and the rest of the constructs represented.
For suitable discriminant validity, and to simplify
the comparison, each element of the main diagonal
(the square root of the AVE) must be above the
remaining elements of their corresponding row and
column (correlations between constructs) (Barclay,
Higgins and Thompson, 1995). In the model set out,
the constructs satisfy the condition imposed, which
leads us to accept the discriminant validity, as we
can see in Table 3.
Once the suitability of the
measurement model scales has been checked, the
next phase of the empirical study is the estimation of
the causal model to contrast the hypotheses set out.
Table 3: Discriminant Validity.
PIS .7467
SS .4179 .7657
ICTU .4051 .4342 .7488
PLM .3258 .2518 .2751 .7295
SD .4446 .5349 .4512 .3542 .8019
4.2 Contrast of the Model Set Out
Through the development of a system of structural
equations, we have studied the relationships between
the latent variables, the estimation of the parameters
and their level of meaning (see Figure 2). We can
accept five hypotheses set out in the model: H2a,
H2b, H3a, H3b and H4. However, the relationships
between participative learning methodologies and
students' satisfaction and skills development, have
not been able to be accepted due to the lack of
significance of the relationship with the confidence
level required.
Note: t-value in brackets. Based on t
. Two-tailed test; t
(0.05; 499)
= 1.9635; ; t
(0.1; 499)
= 1.6479
Figure 2: Results.
From the contrast of the model, we highlight that
the participatory methodology does not affect the
students' satisfaction. This is justified because the
BMSD 2011 - First International Symposium on Business Modeling and Software Design
students perceive that the methods directly affect
their learning and skills development. The students
consider that the teaching activity serves to generate
and develop skills and abilities.
Institutional support directly affects the students'
satisfaction (H2a). This reflects the need for
institutional support for the adaptation to the new
EHEA as a priority of university institutions:
directly or indirectly, it influences the development
of the students' competences and skills through
satisfaction (H2b).
ICT use significantly affects the students'
satisfaction level (H3a), which corroborates the
importance that Degree students give to new ICT in
carrying out their work as students. ICT use in
teaching directly and significantly affects the skills
the student acquires (H3b). Fulfilling this last
hypothesis serves to emphasize that students'
learning in the context of university teaching is
linked to the personal characteristics of the teaching
staff. That is, their personal disposition and interest
shown in ICT use, as well as the level of use of
resources linked to ICT in teaching.
Finally, the students' satisfaction positively and
significantly influences the development of their
competences as university students (H4). This is
justified by the fact that the students find, in the
satisfaction of their needs, a possibility for the
development of their skills needed for later
professional work.
To sum up, the results of our research allow us to
accept the positive influence of perceived
institutional support on the students' satisfaction
level and the development of their professional skills
in the study area. Likewise, we can establish the
positive influence that ICT use in university teaching
has on the satisfaction level attained by the students
in their study period and on the development of their
skills for their future professional work. However,
the positive influence of the use of participatory
teaching methodologies on students' satisfaction or
on the development of their skills is not accepted,
though the latter could be accepted as significant for
a lower confidence level. Finally, the satisfaction
attained by the student favors the development of
their skills.
As a result of the exploratory study carried out, there
is a series of contributions related to the students'
perceptions that we consider relevant:
- The importance of perceived institutional support
for the development of their university activities.
They have shown a special interest in the
development of techniques that favor virtual
communication through e-learning platforms (Bonk,
2003; Anderson, 2004). This is the result of a
growing interest of the universities in involving
themselves in the adaptation process towards
European convergence and the favoring of a more
participatory teaching.
- The students give great importance to the concern
shown by the teaching staff in the development of
the training activity. They consider that it is very
important to encourage interest in the subjects and to
favor the communication and participation of the
students. This is why they prefer specific materials
for the subject and more practical classes via the use
of cases and simulations.
- On the other hand, the professors do not show a
special interest in the development of new teaching
methodologies that substitute more traditional
methods. Indeed, the students have shown little
interest in self-assessment and assisting tutorials as
assessment mechanisms. This leads us to think that
the teaching staff will need to not only adapt their
teaching methods to the new demands of the EHEA,
but also take part in the design and use of these new
methods to get more out of their work.
- The students' valuing of the lecturers' ICT use is
especially favorable when it has a positive influence
on the possibility of accessing to information or
problem solving. However, they do not perceive that
much importance is given to their motivation, the
generating of networks of flexible contacts or the
setting up of virtual learning communities. These
aspects mean an important lack for students who
find themselves, beginning a university career in
which they are starting to build their own systems of
relationships. We add to this the importance that
students give to the low training level for ICT use
that they perceive among the teaching staff (Cabero
et al., 2003).
- The students are not very satisfied with the interest
that the teaching staff shows in their participation in
the classroom and online as well as the quality of
work and tests that the professors present in the
development of the teaching-learning process.
In a previous paper (Fernández et al., 2008), we
analyzed the perceptions of students from two
Spanish universities about the educational
methodology used, as well as their opinion about the
Model for the New Higher Education Context
possible aspects of ¿es un “the”? improvement in
the ICT use. Establishing comparisons between the
expectations of the present and previous studies
related to the management and business area, the
results have shown that the EHEA students give less
importance to ICT use in learning methodologies
and they think that professors have a good level of
access to ICT and consider that they are trained in
their use.
From the analysis of the causal model, it emerges
that institutional support is important to achieve the
adaptation of these new systems and the
involvement of the university institution and the
teaching staff in the setting up of new methods
adapted to the new technological environment
(Ávarez and Romero, 2007). This perceived
institutional support positively affects the students'
satisfaction level and the possibility of developing
the specific and generic skills necessary for their
professional work after graduation.
ICT use in teaching favorably affects the Degree
students' level of satisfaction and the development of
their professional skills. We must, however, pay
special attention to this point as the restructuring of
the educational and training systems may not be
enough. Especially so when the ICT development
programs in university training are only centered on
technological aspects (Gromaz, Rodríguez and
García, 2008), thus abandoning the true
methodological character that the teaching-learning
process should signify. In this sense, an efficient
ICT use by the professors depends on, amongst other
factors, the talents and skills that they devlop
(Martín-Sobrado, Ceinos and Fernández, 2010).
Due to all this, with regards to the university
institutions and from the perspective of the teaching
staff, it seems necessary to develop: 1) institutional
policies to promote and deploy technological
infrastructures and ICT access ; 2) spaces for
personal and cooperative work, bearing in mind the
communication tools available via ICT–mails/
emails/ notice boards and messages, forums and chat
groups, videoconferences, and so on; 3) systems of
inter and intra-institutional information
dissemination ; 4) training models paying attention
to the indicators diagnosed, taking into account the
most deficient projects, areas and variables ; and 5)
stimulating change processes oriented at reducing
the digital gap in the teaching sectors that are least
adapted to ICT use, as well as processes associated
with the use of technologies to improve teaching in
all its dimensions.
This paper has been supported by the Consejería de
Economía, Innovación y Ciencia (Junta de
Andalucía-Spain) through the Excellence Research
Project (P09-SEJ-4568 and SEJ-5801).
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Sánchez, M. (Coord.), Cambiar con la sociedad,
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