A Proposed Case for the Cloud Software Engineering in
Victor Chang and Muthu Ramachandran
School of Computing, Creative Technologies and Engineering, Leeds Metropolitan University,
Headinley, Leeds, LS6 3QR, U.K.
Abstract. This paper presents Cloud Software Engineering in Security (CSES)
proposal that combines the benefits from each of good software engineering
process and security. While other literature does not provide a proposal for
Cloud security as yet, we use Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) to
illustrate the concept of CSES from its design, implementation and test phases.
BPMN can be used to raise alarm for protecting Cloud security in a real case
scenario in real-time. Results from BPMN simulations show that a long execu-
tion time of 60 hours is required to protect real-time security of 2 petabytes
(PB). When data is not in use, BPMN simulations show that the execution time
for all data security rapidly falls off. We demonstrate a proposal to deal with
Cloud security and aim to improve its current performance for Big Data.
1 Introduction
The advantages of adopting Cloud Computing have been discussed in numerous
papers [1-2, 4-6, 14]. Although organizations that adopt Cloud Computing
acknowledge benefits offered by Cloud services, challenges such as security and
privacy remain a scrutiny for organizational adoption. While overseeing the im-
portance of security, the software engineering and development process should al-
ways design, implement and test security features. The software engineering process
should be robust enough to withstand attacks and unauthorized access. The secured
services on offer can be guaranteed to provide benefits for users and service providers
[13]. For example, users are safe and protected while using Cloud-based services.
Service providers can ensure that their services have high extent of security, so that
their customer satisfaction and company reputation can be improved. In order to
achieve this, service providers have preventive measures and rescued actions to re-
duce risk imposed by security breach.
While acknowledging the importance of Cloud software engineering in security
(CSES) in the previous paragraph, CSES should be undertaken early in the software
development cycle. We explain the design and implementation of the CSES, and
describe how we prototype a Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) as part of
our CSES service to test the performance with a cloud platform that contains 2 PB of
data. We review a number software engineering proposals, we notice that none of
them provides the full solution from design, implementation and services for Cloud
Chang V. and Ramachandran M..
A Proposed Case for the Cloud Software Engineering in Security.
DOI: 10.5220/0004985600710079
In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Emerging Software as a Service and Analytics (ESaaSA-2014), pages 71-79
ISBN: 978-989-758-026-0
2014 SCITEPRESS (Science and Technology Publications, Lda.)
security [1-3, 7-8, 13]. This motivates us to propose our Cloud software engineering
in security (CSES) solution focusing on design and implementation. Before present-
ing our proposal, we review a few selected literature. We discuss what should be
available in the design and then propose our own implementation by the use of
BPMN. The breakdown of the paper is as follows. Section 2 presents a review of
existing proposals suitable for our approach. Section 3 describes how BPMN can be
used from design to implementation. Section 4 shows how BPMN can be used for
implementation and results of simulations. Section 5 presents conclusion of this pa-
2 Review of Existing Proposals Relevant to Our Research
We review a few selected literature that is relevant for CSES described as follows.
Gonzalez-Castillo [7] defines further classify software security engineering and its
implementation into two major groups: software acquisition security (which includes
the security specifications in all processes to buy, rent, or interchange software to use
in an enterprise) and systems & software development security (which includes the
security specifications in all processes to develop information systems). His approach
is focused on system security for CSES as shown in Figure 1.
Fig. 1. Systems security taxonomy for CSES [7].
In Figure 1, software acquisition deals with COTs (component off-the-shelves),
packages, and buy-in tools. Information systems development has been divided fur-
ther into two main categories known as static and dynamic systems. Static systems
security includes compilers (involves specification to develop compilers), assemblers,
Programming Languages (PLs), and Operating Systems (OS). Dynamic systems secu-
rity deals with enterprise business management (take control of business process
information), enterprise administration (security specs to develop applications which
objective is to provide control of administrative process information), Manufacturing
systems, database systems, and end user systems which deal with developing applica-
tions for daily activity tools for end users. Design for security calls for specific design
rationale and features supporting security explicitly. We can also distinguish further-
more in defining security design where functional design artefacts are created as usual
with security. McGraw [8] has identified a number of security techniques against
each stage in the software development lifecycle (SDLC). Figure 2 illustrates a set of
those techniques. For example, abuse cases, security inspection and security modeling
should be conducted as part of the Requirement Engineering (RE) process, security
risk analysis should be conducted during design phase, external review and risk based
security test analysis should be done during test planning stage, static analysis for
security at the code level (this may include code inspection or automated code analy-
sis tools equipped with security), and penetration testing & security breaks should be
conducted during operational and field testing.
Fig. 2. Software Security Techniques (Build-In Security) [8].
There are different types of security designed for software as follows. Information
security is the overall security for the whole enterprise and its network environment.
Network security is to make sure the secured transactions and communications take
place. Whereas application security is to make sure software systems as a whole is
secured in its environment. All the software design work in CSES is suitable for in-
formation, network and application security. To demonstrate this concept, Rama-
chandran [9] proposes the Systems Security Engineering Life Cycle for CSES shown
in Figure 3, with the emphasis in having a distinction between classical software
engineering (SE) lifecycle vs. systems security engineering lifecycle (SSE) [10-11].
The SSE extracts and specifies security requirements using specific methods in addi-
tion to the usual functional modelling conducted during requirements engineering
phase of SE lifecycle. This SE lifecycle can be used for CSES as follows. Ramachan-
dran [11] has captured such good practices in the form of software guidelines across
software development, reuse, and component based software engineering (CBSE).
Software as a Service provides new abstraction for developing and delivering busi-
ness application as part of the cloud. Service implementation is based on software
component for implementing their core logics. Ramachandran [12] has produced a
number of service component models for implementing services with build in securi-
Fig. 3. Systems Security Engineering Life Cycle for CSES [9-12].
3 Business Process Modeling Notation: From Design to
This section describes the required steps to move from design to implementation
phase in the development of CSES by the use of Business Process Modeling Notation
(BPMN) in the Cloud.
Fig. 4. Cloud security-based service development and integrating data security process with
built-in security.
As shown in Figure 4, cloud service development are classified into a number of
phases: 1) requirements engineering for cloud services during which time we can
identify security related requirements from various stakeholders; 2) conduct business
process modelling and simulations (BPM) for each cloud services during which time
we can also simulate security aspects and study performance related measures and
also introduce a possible number of intrusion and conduct simulations before actual
service implementation take place; 3) identify Service Level Agreements (SLAs)
identifies a number of service level agreements and regulatory and governance related
compliances during this time we should be able to separate out security related SLAs
and risks; 4) design and develop services during this phase we can actually implement
security related threads that have been carried continuously from all phases, and final-
ly; 5) test and deploy services that are developed with CSES. Additionally, we can:
1. The first step is to apply software security engineering techniques to all identified
cloud services. This includes using security analysis tree and various other tech-
niques specified by Ramachandran [10-11].
2. The second step is on identifying BPM which should include software security
analysis for each business process identified. This will allow us to identify poten-
tial security threats that start with service requirements and business requirements
as the input to conduct service security analysis using techniques such as Systems
Secure Quality Requirements Engineering (SysSQUARE), and Microsoft Secure
Development Lifecycle (SDL). The outcome of this process should yield a set of
cloud services security requirements with clear indication of software security is-
We can use BPM jointly with other framework such as Cloud Computing Adoption
Framework presented in our other workshop paper or be used independently in the
Cloud. Additionally, different states of user’s data must be protected and managed
logically and consistently. In order to use BPM to achieve this, additional work for
BPM is required. This includes the Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN)
models shown in Figure 5. Several BPMNs (version BPMN2 2012) have been creat-
ed for each of those scenarios to run a number of possible simulations with various
business variability using an open source simulation tool, known as Bonita Soft BOS
5.8 [3]. Simulations of BPMN for Cloud Data Security and Application of the
SysSQUARE method can be used to elicit security threats.
Fig. 5. Data Request Business Process Model for Cloud Security.
The Client of Cloud Computing contains a computer software or/and a computer
hardware which dependents on cloud computing architecture to support the applica-
tion deliveries, or which designed specifically for cloud service deliveries. A Client
of Cloud Computing Architecture is an interface of common cloud user through the
web browsers or thin terminals. Cloud provider is the one who offers the Cloud Ser-
vice Delivery Models to Client through the internet. According to our proposed sys-
tem the client just sends a request to the cloud then the remaining process is being
taken care of cloud service provider who consists of Cloud Management Teams, Data
Centres/Security pools and the Intrusion Detection Mechanisms. The hardware infra-
strcuture is based on Southampton private cloud platform described in [5]. Figure 5
represents the BPMN process of Data Request flow from Client to Cloud. Our pro-
posed solution can opt to use a framework for classifying cloud securities and poli-
cies. Cloud security is the key to business sustainability and hence we need to struc-
ture security related aspects into a simple framework that helps us to evolve and im-
prove over a time period.
4 Business Process Modeling Notation: Implementation and
This section describes how to use BPMN for implementations and the results of simu-
lations in the private cloud environment. Simulating a process allows us to study its
behavior for their external events/triggers. Process simulation has been successful in
several applications from low-end to high-end systems. Hence, simulating a BPMN
model will help us to study business behaviors/performance for various expected and
unexpected scenarios. The BPMN simulation process consists of a number of cyclic
phases as shown in Figure 6. BPMN starts with an actor called Client with a small
circle notation which sends a message to a process (Data Request with rounded
square) which task has been devoted to take action based the request and therefore
send a message to the cloud (finishing circle). The second phase is to annotate each
element in the process and thirdly to create tasks, assign simulation variables (differ-
ent types of requests both valid and invalid) to process and tasks in that process. Fi-
nally, create messages between elements in the process and run a number of simula-
Fig. 6. BPMN Simulation Process for CSES.
The data centers are the essential asset of Cloud Computing corporations, these all
connect to all applications, storage services and servers. The business relies on the
cloud data centers supports the business values and operations and drive maximum
efficiencies. The data centers play key roles that need to be managed and planned
carefully to meet growing performance requirements/demands from users and appli-
cations. The use of BPMN can simulate the daily operations in the data centers, which
contain up to 2 petabytes (PB) of data. Figure 7 shows the BPMN model for different
states of models for data security. The data center can use this model to study the
performances of selected cloud data architecture. This process starts with a data status
decision (diamond symbol) passes that data based on that decision to any one of the
paths of the cloud storage processes (data at rest, data in use, and data in
change/transition). This in turn passed on to a data security pool which is a separate
lane with dedicated security processes (such as data security area and data center
update) to study security controls in place before it ends.
Fig. 7. BPMN model for three types of cloud data security.
Cloud security is the key to business sustainability and hence we need to structure
security related aspects into a simple framework that helps us to evolve and improve
over a time period. In the implementation to result phase, we use BPMN for raising
alarm in data security while all 2 PB of data in the Cloud has been intensively in used.
Fig. 8. Data Security Area Peak Access- High execution time when data in use.
Figure 8 shows a graph with peak execution time for entering the data security ar-
ea of the business process. Results show that increased steadily from 0 to 60 hours
between July 22 and the middle of July 24, 2013. The execution time stayed stable at
60 hours between the middle of July 24 and beginning of July 27. Some execution
time increased due to the increasing demand sin security. The implications of this
result show that data security instances execution time can be high when data was
constantly in use. On the other hand, the execution time was less than 2 hours if data
was not in use.
Fig. 9. Raising Alarm by BPMN for 2 PB data.
Figure 9 shows a graph with execution time when the BPMN process raised a se-
curity alarm. The execution time rose from 0 to three peaks (51, 36 and 30
hours)between July 27 and right before July 30, before falling to 10 hours of execu-
tion time right after July 30, 2013. The increment in execution time was necessary
since BPMN alarm checked every single file and instance in 2 PB of data in the
Cloud. This explained why such a long execution time was required. We plan to de-
velop algorithms or methods that can optimize the security performance. The execu-
tion time to run each BPMN process only takes 2 seconds all the times, which has a
very low execution time. This ensures that fast and efficient BPMB process can meet
the requirement of business agility.
5 Conclusion
We present our Cloud software engineering in security (CSES) proposal from its
system design to implementation phase. We review a few selected literatures and
assert that none of them has the solution from design to implementation of Cloud
security as yet. We then propose a unique approach to combine the recommended
software engineering process with an emphasis on security. We use Business Process
Modeling Notation (BPMN) to illustrate design to implementation of a good Cloud
service. We use BPMN to demonstrate implementation for CSES with its supporting
results. BPMN can be used to simulate the case of raising alarm for protecting Cloud
security in real-time. BPMN simulation results demonstrate long execution time of 60
hours of protecting Cloud security of 2 PB. When data is not in use, BPMN can take
less than 2 hours of their execution time. We are in the process of developing meth-
ods or algorithms to optimize the performance and hope to disseminate our research
outcome in the next twelve months.
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