Towards an Opportunistic, Socially-driven, Self-organizing, Cloud
Networking Architecture with NovaGenesis
Antonio M. Alberti
, Waldir Moreira
, Rodrigo da Rosa Righi
, Francisco J. Pereira Neto
Ciprian Dobre
and Dhananjay Singh
ICT Laboratory, Instituto Nacional de Telecomunicac¸
oes - INATEL, Santa Rita do Sapuca
ı, Minas Gerais, Brazil
ofona, Lisbon, Portugal
PIPCA, Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, S
ao Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Computer Science Dpt., Univ. Politechnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
Electronics Eng. Dpt., Hankuk Univ. of Foreign Studies,Yongin, South Korea
Future Internet, Opportunistic, Cloud Networking, Socially-driven, Self-organizing, Software-as-a-Service.
The exponential growth on the number of mobile devices and their capabilities are leveraging new possibilities
of networking architectures for processing, storing, and exchanging of information. At a glance, existing archi-
tectures take advantage of these devices, the social behavior of their users, and/or the dynamicity on resource
usage. Despite of the potential of existing initiatives, they do not interoperate which reduce their applications
and deployment. As we walk towards a very dynamic world (regarding the user needs and characteristics, the
information traversing the network, and the networking capability to adaptation at both users features and con-
tent of the demands levels), these architectures should merge into a solution that fits any type of scenario. In
this paper, we specify an opportunistic, socially-driven, self-organizing, cloud networking architecture using a
future Internet proposal named NovaGenesis. We highlight the requirements and solutions that NovaGenesis
brings to accommodate the inherent challenges of today’s dynamic networking scenario. Thus, we describe
a convergent architecture, which integrates the new requirements with the already implemented NovaGenesis
The way that users communicate nowadays is very
different from a few years ago. The classic host-based
paradigm, in which users would request specific con-
tent stored in specific locations, is giving room to new
forms for users to exchange data. This is a prod-
uct of not only devices becoming very portable, but
also gathering the latest advancements in terms of
processing, storage, and wireless technologies. Thus,
users are able to produce and consume content any-
where and anytime, and such data exchange may take
place through spontaneously formed networks. Fur-
thermore, this content can be stored locally and/or on
the users’ personal clouds, as well as on public clouds.
Different networking approaches have emerged.
Delay/disruption-tolerant networking (DTN) (Caini
et al., 2008) deals with scenarios where intermit-
tent connectivity is rather common among network
nodes. Opportunistic Networking (ON) (Moreira
et al., 2012) exploits different contact opportunities
among users to exchange data. Cognitive Radio Net-
work (CRN) (Ahmed et al., 2010), aims at explor-
ing radio frequency spectrum holes to accommodate
communication links. Information-Centric network-
ing (ICN) (Xylomenos et al., 2014) emerged from the
idea that people care for content itself no matter where
it is, decoupling content identification (“what”) from
its location. User-centric networking (UCN) (Sofia
and Mendes, 2008) includes user-provided devices
and systems to build social-driven networks. These
approaches are being used to address different chal-
lenges (e.g., intermittent connectivity, high mobility,
longer delays, expensive infrastructure and/or con-
nectivity) of emerging access networks. Also, cloud
and big data systems have been integrated to these
networking approaches as they can further increase
the capabilities of the user devices and handle the vast
amount of data that users produce.
One can observe that these networking approaches
comprise a wide variety of data exchange and pro-
cessing approaches that, despite of the already known
Alberti A., Moreira W., da Rosa Righi R., J. Pereira Neto F., Dobre C. and Singh D..
Towards an Opportunistic, Socially-driven, Self-organizing, Cloud Networking Architecture with NovaGenesis.
DOI: 10.5220/0005526300270036
In Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Emerging Software as a Service and Analytics (ESaaSA-2015), pages 27-36
ISBN: 978-989-758-110-6
2015 SCITEPRESS (Science and Technology Publications, Lda.)
potential, still operate for specific purposes and do not
interoperate as required. Users are not so interested in
the technicalities and employed approaches that allow
them to exchange information. Instead, users expect
an integrated cloud/networking infrastructure that al-
lows them to share information directly with other
peers, without relying on infrastructure and/or expen-
sive connectivity services.
Despite the fact that existing networking and in-
formation access approaches share few concepts and
concerns, they fail to cohesively integrate the afore-
mentioned technologies (Alberti, 2012). We believe
that such approaches can neatly come together as to
form a converged architecture. Our starting point is
NovaGenesis ( initiative,
which is a clean slate convergent information archi-
tecture (CIA) being developed by our team. By CIA,
we mean an architecture that integrates information
exchanging with processing and storage. It can be
seen as a generic architecture, where Internet is con-
verged to cloud computing and big data. NovaGene-
sis already integrates ICN, CRN, service-oriented ar-
chitecture (SOA) (Papazoglou et al., 2007), software-
defined networking (SDN) (McKeown et al., 2008),
and Internet of things (IoT) (Conti, 2006). NovaGen-
esis paves the way to a CIA that advances integration
efforts to include ON, ICN, UCN, and cloud.
In this context, the main aim of this work is to ful-
fil the need for a solution of converged architectures
that allows for the application of different networking
paradigms in a neat way. Each of these key ingre-
dients strongly contributes to advance a specific de-
signing dimension. When two or more of these ingre-
dients are synergistically integrated, there is a “cross
fertilization”, a catalyzing effect, which favor global
architectural advances instead of local ones. NovaGe-
nesis is explored as the foundation for this architec-
ture. New services are proposed to be integrated to
NovaGenesis proposal. We contribute with a novel
approach towards user-centric architectures.
This paper is structured as follows: we start
by briefly overviewing the relevant networking
paradigms to be considered by our convergent archi-
tecture in Section 2. In Section 3, we showcase No-
vaGenesis software-based CIA, the architecture we
chose as the foundation of our social-driven initia-
tive. Section 4 presents our contribution, showing a
qualitative analysis regarding how NovaGenesis ad-
dresses the challenges behind the proposed archi-
tecture, pointing perspectives, pre-requirements, and
open issues. Finally, Section 5 concludes the paper,
also highlighting some future work.
This section presents the different paradigms that
shall be comprised by our convergent architecture.
Opportunistic Networking (ON) exploits the
contact opportunities taking place among users’ de-
vices to allow data exchange. Opportunistic forward-
ing can be seen from two perspectives regarding user
social behavior, namely social-oblivious and social-
aware approaches. From these approaches, the lat-
ter has gained much attention of the research com-
munity given the fact that social information is less
volatile (i.e., changes less, favoring data exchange)
than mobility (Moreira and Mendes, 2013). Our con-
vergent architecture shall take into consideration the
dynamism of user social behavior found in their daily
routine in order to properly infer the different levels
of social interactions among users and the interests
of these users (Moreira et al., 2012) (Ciobanu et al.,
2013) (Ciobanu et al., 2014b) (Moreira et al., 2014)
since the dynamics of user social behavior does have
an impact on the performance of opportunistic for-
warding (Moreira and Mendes, 2015a) (Moreira and
Mendes, 2015b). With that, our architecture is ex-
pected to provide the users with data exchange op-
portunities over only socially relevant links, thus with
improved delivery probability while reducing associ-
ated cost and experienced latency.
With Content-Centric Networking (CCN), data
traverses the network according to the match between
its name and the interests that users may have in such
contents, independently of its location, resulting in an
efficient, scalable, and robust content delivery. There
are different efforts for defining a CCN architecture
(DONA, NDN, NetInf), each with its own particu-
larities (e.g., employ their own naming scheme) and
looking into different CCN aspects (e.g., naming, se-
curity, routing, caching, transport) according to the
application to which they have been devised (Xy-
lomenos et al., 2014). With the advances in tech-
nology, devices have become more portable and with
increased capabilities (e.g., processing, storage). In
such dynamic networking scenarios, users are pro-
sumers (i.e., producers and consumers) of informa-
tion with a high demand to share/retrieve content
anytime and anywhere, independently of the inter-
mittency level of wireless connectivity, dynamic be-
havior of users, physical obstacles, lack of cooper-
ation, closed (i.e, secured) networks, among others.
Given its potential, the convergent architecture shall
incorporate CCN features (end-to-end path abstrac-
tion, interest-based content-driven dissemination) as
to cope with the dynamicity of today’s networking
scenario. Thus, our architecture shall provide the con-
tent that users demand based on their interests which
they propagate while carrying on their daily routines.
User-Centric Networking (UCN) focuses on the
user who is the main pillar for routing, security, and
among other networking aspects (Sofia et al., 2014).
This networking paradigm empowers the user that can
easily provide services (e.g., connectivity, printing)
to others. Within this context, the user besides pro-
ducing and consuming content as mentioned before,
now becomes a micro-provider (Sofia and Mendes,
2008) changing currently known Internet communi-
cation models (end-users comprise a user-provided
network extending services, where user willingness in
sharing resources/services allows scalable services).
There are different approaches that relate
to user-provided networking spanning a vast
range of applications: making use of proprietary
equipment to share connectivity (SparkNet at
htpp://; simply turning the end-user
device into a sharing point (Whisher/WiFi.Com at; creating a network for
sharing resources (Wray Village’ wireless broadband
at However, it
is important to note that these approaches aim solely
at sharing connectivity. This is indeed a type of
resource that users are very much interested, but there
is more to it. The ULOOP (˜uloop/)
project clearly highlights this: ULOOP users are
provided with th means to exchange resources as they
wish based on the trust levels between these users
and/or based on the exchange of virtual currency.
The project considers they dynamic behavior of
users to allow the exchange of different types of
resource beyond connectivity. With this in mind, our
convergent architecture aims at providing users with
the means of sharing the resources they have the most
and make use of resources they require at a given
moment. By combining opportunism with content
centricity, the convergent architecture is expected to
further empower the users allowing them to naturally
engage in the system y providing and consuming
resources according to their current demands.
Cloud Computing Elasticity exploits the fact
that resource allocation is a procedure that can be per-
formed dynamically according to the demand for ei-
ther the service or the user (Jamshidi et al., 2014).
Our convergent architecture is expected to increase
the number of network resources (e.g., routing ele-
ments, pre-processor nodes and gateways) in order to
provide and keep a service level agreement (SLA) be-
tween the user and the Internet architecture assembled
above the cloud. Virtual machine migration, addition
and resizing are techniques that could be combined to
offer an elasticity semantic for this novel Internet ar-
chitecture. Additionally, we envision the reduction of
subnet resources when the network demand is mod-
erated, so contributing to implement green comput-
ing with energy saving (i.e., consolidation technique,
shutting down VMs and the host node)
3 NovaGenesis (NG)
NovaGenesis (Alberti et al., 2014) project started in
2008 to address this question: imagine there is no
Internet architecture right now, how could we de-
sign it using the best contemporary technologies? We
selected several technologies to best implement No-
vaGenesis design principles, looking for deep syner-
gies among them. NovaGenesis can be defined as a
convergent information architecture (CIA). By CIA
we mean an architecture that synergistically integrates
information processing and storage (as contended by
cloud computing), as well as information exchanging
(like the current Internet architecture or other emerg-
ing networks, e.g., software defined networks or mo-
bile terminal networks). All the concepts presented in
this section are summarized in Figure 1.
3.1 Names, Identifiers, and Locators
The NG cornerstone is naming. A name is a set of
symbols that denote something, some existence. It
is deeply rooted in language. For example, one can
use the name “Paris” to denote a city in Europe. The
same name can be used to denote many different exis-
tences, e.g. “Paris” is also the name of a famous north
American socialite. In this context, an important de-
cision choice we did was: what existences need to be
named on a CIA? By existence we mean everything
that simply is. People love to name everything - from
cars to airplanes, applications to computers, photos to
movies, etc. Additionally, an important requirement
for future architectures is that they should be able to
better “understand” the meaning of the language used
by people - which is called semantic technology.
Many notable companies are investing on seman-
tic computing. Examples are IBM’s Watson and
Google’s Brain. With the advent of the Internet of
things (IoT) - where virtually anything can belong
to the Internet - we assumed that all possible enti-
ties could be named, bringing machines closer to peo-
ple natural language. Naming should be very flexible
and broad. However, not all natural language names
(NLNs) are adequate for efficient and safe naming.
Therefore, we adopted a second kind of naming in
Figure 1: NovaGenesis concepts for convergent information architecture.
NG architecture. The so called self-certifying names
(SCNs). A SCN is typically obtained by passing a in-
put binary pattern by a hash function. The pattern can
be the entity itself, e.g., a chunk of data of a photo,
or a digital representation of some physical world at-
tributed, e.g., the digitalized patterns of a fingerprint.
What is the use that NovaGenesis does for all
these names? We asked these question many times
while designing NG. The answer is: every informa-
tion processing, storage, or exchanging depends on
names and their relationships. The target of a com-
munication is an unique name in a certain scope.
The location of certain destination is also a name
that provides the relative distance among possible tar-
gets. Ownership, equivalence, “is contained”, and
many other semantic operators can be represented by
a name binding (NB). A NB can map several names
to many other names/objects. Additionally, one can
expect that people (and even machines in future) will
denote other existences by names. Therefore, name
bindings can represent the relationships (semantic op-
erators) among named-existences. In this sense, a
NB is itself another existence, a virtual/abstract one,
which can be stored as a virtual object.
NovaGenesis is generic enough to enable the cre-
ation of any naming structure. A naming structure
is an scheme to denote existences following some
planned strategy. For example, in the current Inter-
net hosts are denoted by an hierarchical name struc-
ture, where names have two portions: host and do-
main names, e.g., Using name
bindings the CIA architects can design any naming
convention. NG employs names to identify and lo-
cate communicating targets. All name bindings are
stored in a distributed software forming a giant name
bindings graph (NBG). Identification and location is
a matter of scanning this graph to determine entities
that belong to some scope or that inhabit some space.
A communication target could be a content, a com-
puter program, a computer, or any other existence.
3.2 Substrate Resources, Services,
Contracts, Protocols, and Layers
Every software-based CIA (SB-CIA) is supported
by physical world existences called substrate re-
sources. Examples are antennas, fiber optics, mi-
croprocessors, memories, hard disks, etc. The ex-
ponential growth in computers capabilities is creat-
ing a phenomenon called virtualization. Maybe the
most prominent example is the so called cloud com-
puting where virtual machines (VMs) work like phys-
ical ones. More recently, virtualization on networking
technologies is being addressed under the banner of
network function virtualization (NFV) (Salsano et al.,
2014). The idea is to replace customized hardware
- many times deployed at difficult access sites - by
software-implemented functionalities inhabiting VMs
in the cloud. NG assumes that computing hardware
is evolving so fast that software-based implementa-
tion of networking protocols is already possible for
the majority of the network stack.
The increasing role of software in ICT architec-
tures demand for excellence in software engineering.
A technology for this purpose is to design software-
as-a-service (SaaS). SaaS is often related to a service-
oriented architecture (SOA). We define a service as an
existence aimed at processing, exchanging, or storing
information. According to this definition, a computer
program (or a process) is a service. Any substrate
resource can be represented by named services, e.g.,
infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS). Even protocol im-
plementations provide services.
In this paper, no distinction is done between ”pro-
tocol implementation” and a service. According to
our service definition, a protocol is implemented as
a service that processes, stores, and exchanges in-
formation in order to build networks. Thus, ser-
vices use other services indefinitely, starting from the
ones required to implement a network. This paper
proposes the concept of protocol-implemented-as-a-
services (PIaaS). Observe that an interface to expose
any service to other services is required. NG enables
SCNs to be used for this purpose.
NovaGenesis envisions a service life-cycle that in-
cludes features exposition, peer discovery, negotia-
tion, contracting, monitoring, evaluation, and releas-
ing. All these steps take advantage of the NBG.
Service descriptors and contracts are named using
SCNs. A contract is defined as a piece of informa-
tion that sets the limits, responsibilities, clauses to be
respected, as well as the criteria for completion and
punishment of services that were poorly executed.
The concept of a layer still prevails in NG. A def-
inition that combines the concepts of (Tanenbaum,
2003), OSI model (Standardization, 1996), (Day,
2008), and (Chaitin, 2010) is: a layer is an abstraction
for a cluster of services that is offered in a distributed
way to other services, isolating rules implementation,
following a shared language - a common syntax and
semantics - its interface. In this paper we replace the
terms: “protocol implementations that are offered in
a distributed way to other layers” by “services offered
in a distributed way to other services”. Thus, a NG
layer is composed by several services that are exposed
to other services via a predefined language.
3.3 Current Proof-of-Concept
A first implementation of the NBG and PIaaS con-
cepts, covering intra node and inter node service com-
munication was coded in 2012. We adopted a pub/sub
model, where NBs and contents are published and
subscribed by services. The NBG is implemented us-
ing distributed hash tables (DHT). NBs are published
by services and stored on DHT. Service life cycling is
build over this distributed pub/sub service. We imple-
mented some protocols for service exposition, discov-
ery, contracting, and named-content forwarding and
routing. The following services have been designed
for current version:
Hash Table Service (HTS) - It provides a domain
level hash table that is used to store published NBs.
Name bindings are categorized to improve scalability.
Generic Indirection Resolution Service (GIRS)
- It forwards name bindings (together with content)
for one or more HTS instances.
Publish/Subscribe Service (PSS) - It is the nar-
row waist for NG services. Any service will use the
publish/subscribe directives provided by the PSS hi-
erarchical service. Services can publish NBs and as-
sociated content to other services and subscribe other
name bindings of their interest.
Proxy/Gateway Service (PGS) - To facilitate mi-
gration and enable transport over other technologies,
we envisioned the PGS. The current PGS provides
software-based messages encapsulation, forwarding,
and routing. Additionally, the PGS is also a proxy for
core NG services inside an operating system (OS). It
represents these core services during bootstrapping,
forwarding public NBs to other friend PGSs, expos-
ing them to enable name-based self-organization. The
PGS can maintain inter node IPC without TCP/IP
only using Ethernet/Wi-Fi.
Application (App) - The current implementa-
tion has a generic application capable to explore the
pub/sub service (PSS) offered by the core.
4 ADAPTING NovaGenesis:
4.1 Rethinking Naming
The proposed architecture shall rely on a strong nam-
ing approach to capture relationships among entities.
Not only SCNs should be enabled for all existences,
but also natural language names (NLNs) to enable
in-architecture ontologies accommodation. NovaGe-
nesis already supports natural language and/or self-
certified name bindings to converge human and ma-
chine languages. This improves services expressive-
ness, like in current SOA, e.g., web services. People’s
names can be related to their equipment, services, and
content as illustrated on Figure 1. Distributed name
resolution enables services to explore other services,
users, and content context and scope. NovaGenesis
already implements this on PSS/GIRS/HTS services.
NG generic naming structure can support UCN, CCN,
ON, cloud requirements for naming.
4.2 Addressing Heterogeneity
A PGS can be implemented to offer gateway func-
tionality to each technology deployed at the UCN,
ON, CCN, etc. For example, if ZigBee technology
is employed, a PGS can be implemented at the Zig-
Bee gateway to bridge frames from/to NovaGenesis.
The same can be done for every technology in the net-
work. We are expanding PGS to include software-
defined control functionalities. This new service will
include proxy/gateway/controller (PGC) functionali-
ties. It can expose non NovaGenesis devices fea-
tures (and available configurations) to other NG ser-
vices. Hence, after contract establishment, other ser-
vices can publish configuration change requests that
are translated to other technology devices, like Zig-
Bee, Bluetooth, etc. This allows NG services to con-
figure the network directly, creating what we are call-
ing service-defined architecture (SDA).
4.3 Encouraging Collaboration
UCN provides the means for cloud and big data sys-
tems to be accessible to users, increasing their pro-
cessing and storing capabilities. Users’ devices can
be enhanced by being given the chance of exploiting
other users’ devices in the vicinity, and being able to
access the content that is made pervasively available
at the user’s current location. NovaGenesis SOA fa-
vors paid collaboration via dynamic SLA negotiation
and establishment. Free models of collaboration are
also possible. NG approach should be merged with
our previous work towards a convergent approach.
Previous work like SENSE (Ciobanu et al., 2014a)
can help clarify which are the requirements for en-
hancing collaboration. SENSE is a collaborative self-
ish node detection and incentive mechanism for mo-
bile networks where collaboration among users is a
must. Since information collected locally by each
node may not be sufficient to reach an informed deci-
sion, nodes running SENSE collaborate through gos-
siping. After informing each other of their obser-
vations, nodes reach decisions individually based on
their local and received information. New NG ser-
vices will implement a range of collaboration models,
i.e. selfish, paid, and free. Spontaneity cluster forma-
tion based on user labeling can also be implemented.
Services to determine node popularity are welcome.
4.4 Supporting Broad Opportunism
Our convergent architecture will require contex-
tualized opportunities detection, which can be
implemented as NG opportunity detection services
(ODSs). These services can be fully integrated
with NG PGCs to enable self-orchestration of
exposed substrate resources. The PGC services
expose physical resources (hardware) for software
orchestration. Opportunities can include proximity,
battery, offloading, spectrum, etc. All the required
information to expose and explore opportunities is
available for authorized services via PSS/GIRS/HTS.
The architecture needs novel solutions for data
aggregation. Since nodes running PGC services are
generally small hand held devices such as smart-
phones, their memory is limited. Moreover, the
access speed is also very important when there is
a contact between nodes, since the duration of an
encounter between two nodes (i.e. the time window
when they can exchange data) is relatively short, due
to the high degree of node mobility. Opportunities
can be detected and shared using ODS. NG approach
should be merged with previous work. Examples are
ULOOP (˜uloop/), UCR
projects/past-projects/151-ucr). In other words,
a convergent name-based opportunistic rout-
ing/forwarding approach will be required. Regarding
proximity, not only physical world contacts can be
explored, but also service contracts. Opportunity
notification can be done via PSS.
4.5 Seeing Everything-as-a-Service
NovaGenesis PGC services expose hardware re-
sources to software allowing all physical resources
to be seen as a service. Controllers, proxies, and
gateways can be exposed as a services. All the re-
quired orchestration for our convergent architecture
will be service-based. Service life-cycling is intrin-
sic, covering all aspects from exposition, discovery,
negotiation, contracting, content exchanging, quality
monitoring, and releasing. The goal is to accommo-
date protocol implementation as services, enabling
them to dynamic establish SLAs, giving rise to net-
working self-organization based on detected opportu-
nities. Flexible smart network services can discover
each other, prepare SLAs proposals, negotiate with
possible peers, establish SLAs, work together to ex-
plore social- and context-aware opportunities, evalu-
ate partners, and finish SLAs.
4.6 Security, Privacy and Trust
The distributed scenario behind the proposed archi-
tecture poses several challenges regarding security,
privacy, and trust. Networking cache, traffic offload-
ing, opportunistic collaborations, and cloud offload-
ing are examples of user-centric approaches that will
require new security models. NG employs a pub/sub
communication model that favors the rendezvous
among authenticated and authorized services. Con-
tent exchanging only happens after SLA establish-
ment. Hence, it is secured by asymmetric cryptog-
raphy. Publishers maintain a secure association with
the PSS, which stores SCNs of authorized subscrib-
ing entities. Subscribers also have a secure associ-
ation with PSS. The PSS only delivers the content
after proper authentication and authorization. Addi-
tionally, the PSS provides revoking of published bind-
ings, data, permissions, etc. The SLA-based self-
organization enables the establishment of a trust net-
work among peer services - which is ideal for UCN,
ON, CCN, and clouds. All messages are confiden-
tial and have SCN-based integrity. We envision that
NG will need new services for trust network forma-
tion, assertion, and management, as well as services
for unbiased contract, reputation, and trust evaluation.
NG name- and contract-based ”social security” goes
beyond traditional mechanisms.
4.7 User-Centric Life-Cycling
User-awareness and social-behavior awareness need
to be estimated properly to drive NG ecosystem. The
aim is to adapt protocol implementations according
to user/social data. Hence, new services to estimate
social trends and achieve context-awareness will be
necessary. NG enables users to define high level poli-
cies that can be published to other services by a pol-
icy definition service (PDS). Published policies can
be subscribed by peer services and used in their de-
cision cycles. Big data and cloud information can be
shared together with policies to make all the environ-
ment user-aware/socially-aware. For example, imag-
ine a user agrees on selling part of this bandwidth to
other users’ radios when its device battery is charged
more than 50%. This policy can feed network level
protocols, in order to establish opportunistic routing
among users devices. Use cases and proper policies
should be designed and new NG services created to
implement UCN and content life-cycling. Social en-
gagement can be derived from available public in-
formation and explored by these emerging services.
Interest-driven is favored published ontologies, help-
ing on establishing successful partnerships.
4.8 Tolerating Delays and Disruption
Long delays and disruptive communication represent
a challenge for current Internet stack. TCP does not
fit well on long delays scenarios and UDP requires
excessive application level programming. The asyn-
chronous communication model provided by the PSS
together with the HTS networking cache enable NG
services to change information in different time mo-
ments. Connectivity disruption does not impact on
sockets since a new naming structure is provided,
turning names perennial, independent of connectivity.
Protocols implemented as a service (PIaaS) offer the
required flexibility to deal with intermittent connec-
tivity and long delays. These PIaaSs need to be de-
signed and implemented using NG software. A hard-
ware implementation is also possible, but will require
complete new designs using FPGA.
4.9 Supporting Mobility of Everything
What are the entities one expect to move in future
user-centric architectures? The answer we propose is
everything, from terminals, people, services, up to en-
tire opportunistic networks. NG naming structure en-
ables any name that satisfies some requirements to be-
come an identifier or a locator. This decouples ”what
do you want” from ”where it is”. Mobility of every-
thing is supported by rebinding names during move-
ment. The identifier of what is moving remains the
same - the only thing that changes are the locators.
This solution relays on NG distributed NBs pub/sub
and storage. UCN, CCN, NFV, and ON need mobil-
ity of everything support. NG can address this.
4.10 Integrating Cloud and Networking
Another important requirement is to alternate the use
of computing and communication resources inter-
changeably. In other words, the lack of computing
resources due to energy shortage or high load can
be compensated by communication resources, which
help on migrating the tasks to other machines. In con-
trary, when energy is limited (like in mobile devices),
functions can be virtualized in the cloud (providing
cloud offloading). Cloud networking is naturally sup-
ported. NG design should be merged with our previ-
ous work in cloud. Two approaches to be considered
are: context-aware cloud computing infrastructure for
taking good budgets. It is a SaaS that streamlines the
interaction between for customers and sellers (sales-
man); and resource provisioning on cloud computing
environments, which is an IaaS approach aimed to of-
fer load balancing for a service that runs parallel ap-
plications. It consists in task migration considering
the current pool of allocated processors. After that, if
the SLA is not satisfied, our second approach will be
to allocate new resources in order to run the applica-
tion with the previous established requirements. Also,
it comprises the deallocation of resources if they are
super estimated for running the application. Finally,
the resources used by services can vary along their
lifetime in accordance with the application behavior.
4.11 Providing Self-Organization
The scenario we are imagining requires new ap-
proaches for management and control. One can not
expect people will manage or control dozens of de-
vices connected to others, manually. The current
management model depends on frequent human in-
terference, having poor scalability when considering
the swarms of devices we expect on next years. Em-
bedded control functions (usually, at equipment con-
trol plane) create a complex distributed states solu-
tion, which challenges operators to keep a coherent
and efficient network configuration. Future architec-
tures need to self-organize according to user needs
and detected opportunities. We envision a hierarchy
of control loops that follow user-awareness and so-
cial behavior awareness to autonomically configure
and manage ICT architectures. NG enables services
to self-organize using NBs and content pub/sub. Self-
management is fundamental in the proposed architec-
ture, since no one will be responsible alone to manage
a socially driven, possibly infrastructure-less architec-
ture. Or previous work on UCN, ON, and CCN can
help on designing these hierarchical control loops.
4.12 Control and Management
To address the requirements of effective utilization
and optimization of heterogeneous resources (stor-
age, processing, and networking), the architecture
requires an innovative software-defined everything
(SDE) paradigm. NG addresses this challenge by
means of PGCs. A PGC represents some hard-
ware resource in the software layer and can estab-
lish dynamic contracts in the name of them. It also
controls the hardware devices, e.g., software-defined
systems and/or radio, to perform the changes re-
quired. It can even expose hardware status to other
NG services, enabling them to proactively prepare
cloud/network solutions in advance to user require-
ments. It is a paradigm shift towards service-based
network control and management. NovaGenesis’s
PGC services will represent all physical world re-
sources used. Controllers- and managers-as-a-service
will establish contracts with PGCs to create a new
control/management model. Decision loops can be
formed by establishing chains of control/management
services linked via NG service contracts.
4.13 Supporting Context-awareness
User-, regulation-, situation-awareness, and many
other context-awareness features are required to make
sound decisions - decisions that consider the relevant
contexts to every situation. NG enables services to
securely and privately subscribe the relevant contexts
following their trust network. In other words, the PSS
provides a distributed networking cache from where
services can subscribe the relevant contexts for deci-
sion making. For example, a radio resource manager
could subscribe spectrum usage data from a spectrum
analyzer service. The manager can form a logically
centralized view of radio frequency spectrum usage
at some location, the so called situation-awareness.
Another example is related to social-awareness.The
dynamism of social behavior can be derived from big
data services implemented at NG or at any other soft-
ware. In the latter case, a NG service will be required
to bridge legacy software to NG cloud. Well estab-
lished social trends can be published by a big data
service (BDS) in order to feed other services.
4.14 Implementing Decision Cycles
The architecture shall adapt its behavior (cloud and
networking aspects) according to users needs and de-
tected opportunities, changing protocol implemen-
tations, data paths, parameters, etc. The architec-
ture should explore dynamically the available con-
nectivity, frequencies, bandwidths, technologies, and
nearby friends capabilities. It must configure itself to
take advantage of perceived opportunities in a reason-
able time. In long term, autonomic and cognitive de-
cision cycling will be required for self-management,
auto-piloting, and opportunistic networking. Special-
ized services could implement required decision cy-
cles. The cycle starts with user generated objectives,
policies, rules, and regulations. An existing plan is se-
lected. The plan is executed. The obtained results are
collected and analyzed to measure the degree of suc-
cess. If success was achieved, the objective is consid-
ered as met. Else, decision making can select chang-
ing the plan (or adapting it). This is an aim for future.
4.15 Addressing Society Challenges
Digital inclusion is one of the main aims of user-
centric, opportunistic, infrastructure-less (or public
infrastructures) architectures. It could be an impor-
tant driver for developing countries like Brazil and In-
dia. Also, social-driven proposal have the potential to
change our society towards ”smart solutions”, where
every resource is better used, optimized for inclusion,
and green technologies requirements. We believe ar-
chitectures like the one we are proposing on this paper
have the important role of helping us to solve impor-
tant social, economical, and environmental problems.
This paper proposed a convergent architecture that
integrates emerging socially-driven, opportunistic,
user-centric networking with NovaGenesis name-
based, software-defined, information-centric, service-
centric, self-organizing cloud networking proposal.
Pre-requirements and open challenges regarding sev-
eral topics have been discussed. NovaGenesis prin-
ciples and current implementation provide a satisfac-
tory substrate to implement the proposed architecture.
NG joint orchestration of named-services and con-
tents provides an appropriated environment to imple-
ment socially-driven/opportunistic/cloud/networking
approaches as services. Even protocols are imple-
mented as services, enabling the resultant architecture
to react according to user-defined policies, rules, reg-
ulations, environment situations. Context-awareness
can be included on decision making, changing proto-
col implementations according to social trends. The
paper is a first step of an ongoing work that con-
tributes to the community by discussing how to inte-
grate so many relevant issues in only one architecture.
We envision that the proposed architecture can be
implemented by: (i) specifying new NG services that
meet the raised pre-requirements; (ii) adapting previ-
ous work techniques as new NG services; (iii) modi-
fying NG core services accordingly; or (iv) integrat-
ing already existing software (without any modifica-
tion) with NG via proxy/gateway/controller. This ef-
fort is expected to result into a convergent solution
comprising the best of the considered architectures
(ICN, DTN, UCN) and that allows users to seamlessly
access content, and share resources anytime and any-
where in today’s dynamic scenario over their power-
ful personal devices. Future work include NG perfor-
mance, portability, and embedding on mobile devices.
This work was partially supported by Finep/Funttel
Grant No. 01.14.0231.00, under the Radiocommu-
nication Reference Center (Centro de Refer
encia em
oes- CRR) project of the National In-
stitute of Telecommunications (Instituto Nacional de
oes - Inatel), Brazil.
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