Success Factors of Information Sharing in the Field of
New Media Art
Päivi Meros and Rauno Pirinen
Laurea University of Applied Sciences, Vanha Maantie 9, Espoo, Finland
Keywords: New Media Art, Networking, Communication, Collaboration, Creative Design, Information Sharing,
Information Systems.
Abstract: This study attempts to answer the following research question: how can digital information systems be
understood and improved in the field of new media art from the viewpoint collaboration, networking and
impact. This case study describes factors determining the success of information sharing in new media art.
In the context of this study, inventions are not always widely shared, unlike innovations, because new media
art companies are typically small or run by private entrepreneurs. Moreover, communication between these
companies is not effective and business networking is seen as a short-term solution. However, professionals
in the field advocate that it is vital to collect information using an information system as a shared service for
This research asserts that the emergent field of new
media art needs a common international information
system which improves communication, networking,
collaboration and information sharing.
It reveals that proper collaboration is necessary
in new media art companies to help companies in
other industries in their marketing efforts.
The case study draws on various studies and
methodologies in the extant literature and review:
triangulation (Campbell and Fiske, 1959), case
research strategies for information systems
(Benbasat et al., 1987), case study theories
(Eisenhardt, 1989), qualitative data analysis (Miles
and Huberman, 1994), arts of case study research
(Stake, 1995), rigor in positivist case studies (Dubé
and Paré, 2003), case studies and theory
development in the social sciences (George and
Bennett, 2005), real world research (Robson, 2002),
integration of qualitative and quantitative research
(Brannen, 2004), interpretive research (Walsham,
2006), case study principles and practice (Gerring,
2007), qualitative research and analysis (Corbin and
Strauss, 2008), and case study research design and
methods (Yin, 2009).
The research data for this study were collected
from real-world projects in which the authors
participated for a period of 1.5 years.
The data sources include management data (n =
18) (specifications, strategies and legislations), data
from the development stage (n = 23) (data displays;
notes; development proposals; and reports, including
test reports), feedback from interviewees (n = 6) and
a detailed literature review (n = 45).
New media art, which requires versatile
technological skills from its artists, has developed
alongside traditional art forms. However, it differs
from traditional art forms, such as paintings,
graphics, music or sculpturing, in its use of
technology as a tool in work and performances.
New media art is a constantly evolving art form.
Typically, the field seeks innovative ways to use
technology in an effort to express art.
Artworks can comprise videos, sounds, music
and interactive elements. It also includes lighting,
landscapes, virtual reality, interactive performances,
multimedia or a mix of some of these artworks.
Interactive installations, sensor technology, video
art and electronic games are also considered related
to the field of new media art. New media artworks
often need large spaces and therefore, are suitable in
Meros, P. and Pirinen, R..
Success Factors of Information Sharing in the Field of New Media Art.
In Proceedings of the 7th International Joint Conference on Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (IC3K 2015) - Volume 3: KMIS, pages 405-410
ISBN: 978-989-758-158-8
2015 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
urban cities.
The understanding of electronics and video
technology makes it possible to design and create
marketing advertisements for large outdoor screens.
Interactive art forms in which viewers can
participate using their mobile phones are also
increasing in popularity.
New media art is connecting art and technology,
and in the best case scenario, are complementing
each other by marketing each other’s artworks.
2.1 New Media Artists
New media artists dealing with technology and
music theory are often highly educated. They are
also eager to experiment with new techniques. The
artists are familiar with sound, music and lightning
technology. Their art exhibitions include machines
and robots with human-like habits. New media
artists are often quite playful, but at the same time,
their artwork can have deep meaning.
Many new media artists are willing to use their
artwork as an inspiration or opening for public
conversation. Some of the artwork topics are death,
love, mental illness or forgiveness. The artists try to
predict how their artwork could affect viewers’
feelings, thoughts and reactions. They study a
viewer’s superstitions, feelings of loath and
admiration or facial and body expressions in
response to what they see in or feel as a result of the
These artists use both new media techniques and
science in their projects. Their talents include
common art, knowledge of human nature and the
ability to use technology, which can be considered
the interface of art and science.
New media artists generally utilize technology
differently than scientists when creating new
innovations for future use. Scientific innovations can
open up new possibilities for art, and artistic visions
can advance the demands and commercial use of
scientific products.
New media artists want to be known as not only
artists but also innovators of digital technology.
They often plan and build small technology
laboratories, where they are able to create and test
their artworks.
2.2 New Media Art and Creative
Industry Network
In this study, new media art is considered to be a
part of ‘creative industries’. Here, a creative industry
is where creativity and imagination is related to the
creation of products and services. The production
and distribution of creative products and services
can be long and demand skilled workers.
According to the United Nations Conference on
Trade and Development (UNCTAD), creative
industries are globally developing business sectors.
Therefore, many government programs aim at
strengthening creative industry entrepreneurship and
supporting networking among common stakeholders
and with other industries’ entrepreneurs (Ramboll
Management Consulting, 2013, p.16).
The creative economy is supported by many
government programs. For example, Denmark, the
Netherlands, Great Britain, Sweden and Finland
nationally support creative industries. These
countries have founded creative networks whose
purpose is to diversify and vitalize the national
economic structure.
The term ‘creative economy’ is also mentioned
in EU programs and is part of a larger entity. In
context of this study, it is perceived as a network
which includes companies that provide and
distribute content and operators who benefit from
such content generation. In other words, a creative
economy refers to the possibility of various
economic sectors benefiting from creative products
and services.
2.3 Artist Residence
An artist residence is commonly called an atelier or
studio. Such spaces allow possible art professionals,
experts and workgroups from different fields to
work inexpensively for a week or sometimes, even a
year. Often artist residences provide
accommodations, necessary working equipments
and the opportunity to organize exhibitions. The
residence’s purpose is to create new international
relationships and activate the art world in term of
The residents of international centres are
generally selected on the basis of an application, and
sometimes, talented operators are invited, for
example, as researchers at the Art Research or
Development Unit.
Many Finnish media artists, artist workgroups
and media art organizations have collaborated with
international art residence centres.
The Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture
set up a professional agency called the Arts
Promotion Centre Finland (TAIKE) in 2013. Taike
accepts applications for national as well as
international residences. In 2014, Taike residences
were set up in Arenys de Mar (Spain), Berlin
ISE 2015 - Special Session on Information Sharing Environments to Foster Cross-Sectorial and Cross-Border Collaboration between Public
(Germany), Edinburgh (Scotland), Genoa (Italy),
Matera (Italy) and New York (United States of
Since 2015, the Australia Network for Art and
Technology (ANAT) has come to be recognized as
an exemplary contributor by new media artists and
various scientists with long-term common projects.
For research and seminars, artists and scientists can
use the Fab Lab Adelaide workshop, which is
equipped with modern computer-controlled
machines such as printers, laser cutters and milling
machine operators.
In 2014, ANAT organized the Synapse
Art/Science Residency, where common research
based on digital media art, technology, medicine,
psychology and biology were presented. These
research projects are expected to continue producing
various new innovations (ANAT, 2014).
The competition is expected to toughen in the future,
and to succeed, it is essential to have creative ideas
to generate wider networks. Exclusive collaborations
between creative industries will add to commercial
innovation in the fields of arts, society and business.
A network represents a relationship web with
companies, organizations and individuals. The
current global market economy obligates companies
to specialize, and therefore, increasingly focus on
domain-specific know-how.
Small- and medium-sized companies do not
always have the necessary know-how to handle their
marketing and customer relations. Hence, these
companies, sometimes against their own will, are
forced to form common networks aimed at creating
new customer relationships and ways to better
respond to current customer requirements.
Owing to developed technologies and limited
and divided resources, it becomes difficult for new
media artists and organizations to cope with
international competition. Thus, a new approach is
required to commercialize their art products. One
way of achieving higher success in the future is by
raising the value of their creative integrated art.
‘Creative Europe’, a project by the European
Commission, supports creative industries
networking and offers opportunities to learn and
develop a common line of business, in theory as well
as in practice.
In macro-level, this study was related with the
contacts of European Union’s Common Information
Sharing research networking and research agenda
targets related to the public authority in Finland.
Then, the macro-level target of study was
addressed to the information sharing utilisation that
foster cross-sectorial and cross-border collaboration
among vary actors, the dissemination of the related
EU initiative and steps along the EU information
sharing roadmap.
The study reveals that new media art is yet to
receive its full recognition, although it is gradually
gaining popularity.
In addition, there is a growing demand for new
media artists to train art reviewers so that they can
write stories that are backed by deeper knowledge.
Art operators often find it difficult to keep
abreast with the ever-changing technologies and
In fact, it is difficult to sell produced artworks of
experimental media art, especially new media art. In
comparison to paintings and sculptures, new media
artworks need specific devices and showrooms.
Although new media artists are often equipped
with sufficient knowledge to market their products,
they lack the time to do so, and sometimes, even the
confidence. They admit that they need marketing
The artists need sales-mental international
organization gathered network, which could release
their time for art producing, for the work that artists
consider most important.
Currently, the new media art industry’s business
network is loose and short termed, which increases
data disjointedness.
4.1 Information Systems Design
In all fields, including new media art, technology
can help build wider networks of people and data.
However, at the same time, problem solving has
become more complex because of distances and the
lack of time. Therefore, new media art, as well as the
entire creative industry needs a logical and
computer-based technical solution to fulfil
challenging entities. A carefully designed
information system can be used to widen the reach
of new media art and thereby, contribute towards
increasing participation in interdisciplinary
technology projects.
Following designs based on technology and
human interactions, the utility of and user
Success Factors of Information Sharing in the Field of New Media Art
satisfaction from information systems can affect
system benefits.
According this study’s data, each investor
assumes that a new information system will increase
productivity, efficiency and performance.
Unfortunately, an incomplete information system
can be subject to numerous limitations. Therefore, it
is essential that everyone involved in new system
planning familiarizes themselves with factors
affecting the success of a digital system and
understand requirements specific to procurement
The ability to anticipate potential problems
allows us to better focus on essential subjects. This
preoperational evaluation will help decrease the risk
of failure.
The literature includes several research models to
measure the success of information systems. The
abovementioned measures are required to facilitate
the successful collaboration of businesses and
information systems.
The success of information systems depends on
various other factors as well. For example, the
increase of cloud services and continuous
development of mobile devices can help distribute
information to a wider user community. However, in
this case, finding an appropriate model can become
Rapidly evolving technologies have also
contributed to the situation; however, there are not
sufficiently comprehensive and comparable between
models used to measure factors determining the
success of information systems.
4.2 Towards New Media Art
This study draws on a previous master study by the
first author, “Information systems success factors for
the creative new media art network” and revises the
described factors in information systems relative to
new media art.
The purpose of this study is to increase the extent
to which new media art is recognized and the ability
to participate in interdisciplinary technology
Operators in the new media art field are mainly
private entrepreneurs or members of small networks.
However, even though they fundamentally differ in
social background or thinking, art helps bring them
together. Investigating previous conditions can help
expose earlier practices of new media art operators
as well as their needs, innovations and surrounding
social system standards.
Therefore, to examine the factors determining
the success of an information system specific to new
media art, the test model has to test environmental
impacts and analyse unfamiliar users and their
experiences, feelings, hopes and expectations.
In addition, an important criterion is that the
model should not only highlight the economic
benefits but also social influences.It was found in art
thinking anthropocentrism, social influences are
given higher emphasizes than economic benefits.
Intangible values were emphasized in the test
model suitable to measure the factors influencing the
success of art information systems. Hence, the test
model should account for not only the technological
and scientific perspective but also art-oriented
thinking and viewpoints. This will help build a more
comprehensive and relevant digital information
system that can serve artists, producers, financiers,
consumers and other stakeholders.
4.3 Benefits for New Media Art
The research reveals that the most important
intangible benefit is to improve art-related
information availability.
The interviewed persons hoped that they could
have easy access to information about international
events, exhibition venues and artistic residences.
More detailed information was also required for
event equipments, facilities, organizers, assisting
personnel, transport, accommodations and possible
An information system must contain current
information and exchange international companies
and research institutes’ experiences with innovation
activities, new research ideas and product
development. In addition, an information system
must contain forward-looking information changes
in the field and the types of revised products and
technologies new to the market.
Specifically, an information system must
comprise compartmentalized information about
innovations financiers, networks, collaboration
partners, cultural differences, rental housing,
trainings and taxation structure for different
An information system should also present new
grant possibilities and way to improve competitive
methods for art sales and marketing in new media
Governments funding targets significantly vary
by industry, with the arts and cultural fields being
most affected. For instance, often, the loan amounts
were too large for small-scale art and cultural
ISE 2015 - Special Session on Information Sharing Environments to Foster Cross-Sectorial and Cross-Border Collaboration between Public
Figure 1: Success factors of an information system in new media arts.
In addition, grant applications and related
administrative task demands far exceed resources of
small companies.
Even small companies agree that global
businesses require combining effort, which is an
essential part of a successful operation.
Collaboration offers more opportunities, faith and
prospects for a better future.
Importantly, the achieved benefit is mutual.
Companies can use collaborative services for the
ever-changing and complex management of
Currently, the network for new media art
operators is limited. An information system is
expected to help companies create new network
relationships and support creative industries’ growth
and internationalize.
It is expected to help networking between
unknown art organizations and donors. Through
networking, scientists and technology-oriented
artists have the unique opportunity to produce
commercial innovations.
On the other hand, there have been speculations
that a computer information system will not be able
to maintain long-term networks without an active
administrator. Technical solutions to maintain
network relationships can be challenging and
investing bare money into technology may not be
enough. Moreover, network relationships are not
simple or trouble-free.
New media art operators recognize problems in
network relations and know-how. Hence, today, they
are now more inclined towards networking.
A demand for well-working network relationship
is interactivity including trust and staff’s team spirit.
The starting point of a successful network is good
personal relations. A network does not work if the
people are unable to work together, hindering any
benefits from collaboration.
4.4 Success Factors
The study demonstrates the most critical issues
concerning the realization of a digital information
system in the field of new media art.
According this study, three main factors affect
Success Factors of Information Sharing in the Field of New Media Art
the implementation: 1) quality of activities, 2)
quality of knowledge, and 3) impact of the system
on networking.
Figure 1, in the end of paper, comprises and
describes the factors affecting the success of
information systems in new media art.
4.5 Future Reasearch
An important topic for further research is the need
for an international information system applicable to
the entire creative sector. The study should explore
digital information technologies and systems
development as well as targets to produce a model
and prototype for testing and development which
could perhaps even apply for the European Union’s
Creative Europe program funding.
This study comprised a highlighting that the new
media art field needs computer-based technical
solutions for challenges in implementing entities: A
properly planned and executed digital information
system could bring about remarkable benefits for
both art and business.
The observations were mostly made in the last
couple of years in the Finnish capital region and
abroad at public events, exhibitions, interviews and
media art festivals. The research data are described
in the Appendix.
The authors thank the members of Finnish Media
Art Network and new media artists and media art
experts for helpful inputs and openly sharing their
ideas and knowledge.
ANAT, 2014. Synapse.
Benbasat, I., Goldstein, D. K., Mead, M., 1987. The case
research strategy in studies of information systems.
MIS Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 3.
Brannen, J., 2004. Working qualitatively and
quantitatively. In C. Seale, G. Gobo, J. F. Gubrium, &
D. Silverman (Eds.), Qualitative research practice.
London: Sage Publications.
Campbell, D. T., & Fiske, D. W., 1959. Convergent and
discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod
matrix. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 56.
Corbin, J., & Strauss, A., 2008. Basics of qualitative
research: Techniques and procedures for developing
grounded theory Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 3
Dubé, L., & Paré, G., 2003. Rigor in information systems
positivist case research: Current practices, trends,
and recommendations. MIS Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 4.
Eisenhardt, K. M., 1989. Building theories from case study
research. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 14,
No. 1.
George, A. L., & Bennett, A., 2005. Case studies and
theory development in the social sciences.
Massachusetts: MIT Press.
Gerring, J., 2007. Case study research principles and
practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Meros, 2015. Information systems success factors for the
creative new media art network [Thesis], Laurea
University of Applied Sciences.
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M., 1994. Qualitative data
analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Thousand Oaks:
Sage Publications.
Ramboll Management Consulting, 2013. Public funding in
creative industry companies, Ministry of Employment
and the Economy.
Robson, C., 2002. Real world research. Oxford: Blackwell
Publishing, 2
Stake, R., 1995. The art of case study research. Thousand
Oaks: Sage Publications.
Walsham, G., 2006. Doing interpretive research.
European Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 15.
Yin, R. K., 2009. Case study research design and
methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. 4
ISE 2015 - Special Session on Information Sharing Environments to Foster Cross-Sectorial and Cross-Border Collaboration between Public