Video Watermarking Algorithm based on Combined Transformation

and Digital Holography

De Li

1

, XueZhe Jin

1

and Jongweon Kim

2

1

Department of Computer Science, Yanbian University, 133002, Yanji, China

2

Department of Contents and Copyright, Sangmyung University, 03016, Seoul, Korea

Keywords: Digital Hologram, 2D DWT, 3D DCT, DFRNT.

Abstract: Recent researches of robust digital watermarking are focused on the processing method in frequency field.

Most of those algorithms are limited on one transform domain or combine different kinds of transform field

together. In this paper, a new video watermarking algorithm is proposed, which is applied in 2D DWT and

3D DCT combined with Discrete Fraction Random Transform (DFRNT) encryption and digital holography

respectively. The embedded information is applied in 2D bar-code which obtained from holograph.

Extraction of the watermark uses the tech of holographic reconstruct. The results of experiment show that

the proposed watermarking algorithm has a good performance of robustness and security.

1 INTRODUCTION

With the rapid development of Internet, more and

more people share information and it is easier to

store, copy and transmit the multi-media data than

before. The evolution of network brings the great

advancement of the information society but it also

causes some challenges such as copyright protection.

More and more researchers pay high attention to

solve the digital copyright issues and it is not

acceptable to distort, transmit and invade

copyrighted material. The anti-attack watermarking

algorithm for video is proposed in this paper. It

shows good performance of concealing，anti-attack

and security.

Newly developed digital watermarking

algorithms are, wavelet transform with Singular

Value Decomposition (SVD) (Bao, 2005), spread

spectrum based on HVS (Zolghadrashli, 2007),

Pseudo-3-D DCT and Quantization (Huang, 2010),

1D Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and Radon

Transform (Liu, 2010), compression domain method

(Ling, 2010. Gujjunoori, 2013)

and adaptive method

like Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) (Margarita,

2009. Wang, 2010). Most recent watermarking

algorithms applying binary or gray image for

watermarking have limitation in the quantity of

embedded information. Besides, various attacking

methods have been developed constantly. Based on

these researches, it was proposed that combine the

optical technology such as visual optic with digital

holography into the watermarking algorithm and got

some positive achievement (Liang, 2006). But it was

still not a perfect method which can resist all kinds

of attack with strong performance of security. So, a

video watermarking algorithm with robustness and

security is hot issue. This paper proposes an

algorithm that combine the tech of combined

frequency domain processing, random exchange of

discrete fraction and digital holography together.

2 CORRELATION THEORIES

2.1 Digital Holography

Digital holography is a tech that applying CCD to

exchange board to record holography image and

emulating diffraction to reconstruct the image. The

whole reconstructing process contains record, store,

process and reproduce. Recent researches focus on

optical technology combining with information

security. Especially, the field of digital

watermarking has great potential. In 2002, Takai and

his team (Takai, 2002) proposed an algorithm of

digital holography getting the watermarking image,

which is measured by holography tech and embed

the watermark immediately in space domain and

Li, D., Jin, X. and Kim, J.

Video Watermarking Algorithm based on Combined Transformation and Digital Holography.

DOI: 10.5220/0005749803790383

In Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications (VISIGRAPP 2016) - Volume 3: VISAPP, pages 381-385

ISBN: 978-989-758-175-5

Copyright

c

2016 by SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved

381

recover the original watermarking image. But the

robustness of their algorithm will deteriorate if the

image is under a low-pass filtering attack. Except

low-pass filtering attack, the digital holography has

good characteristics of encryption, irrevocability and

cropping.

Figure 1 is the process of computer-generated

hologram.

Figure 1: Process of computer-generated hologram.

Figure 2 shows generation and reconstruction of

the hologram.

(a) Original image (b) Holographic image

(c) Holographic representation (d) Cutting holographic image

(e) Reproduced image (f) Extracted image

Figure 2: Generation and reconstruction of the hologram.

2.2 Random Exchange of Discrete

Fraction

The method of Random Exchange of Discrete

Fraction Transform(REDFT) is based on DFT and it

has better mathematical performance than DFT. It

can be satisfied in linearity, unitarity, additivity,

cyclicity and self-randomicity (Zhang, 2012).

The 1D and 2D signal of REDFT can be

expressed as below.

(1)

(2)

is the kernel matrix of REDFT.

V

(3)

α

is factorial of discrete fraction,

T

is the cycle

time of

α

,

is a diagonal matrix which represent

a group of eigenvalues exp

πnα

:n

0,1,2,…,N 1.

can be expressed as formula(4).

1,exp

,…,exp

(4)

The matrix

V

is formed from the eigenvector

,

,…,

and the eigenvector can be get from

Schmidt standard normalization.

Matrix

V

can be expressed as equation (5).

V

,

,…,

(5)

is eigenvector of diagonal random matrix Q

and Matrix Q can be get from NN random matrix

P.

QP

/2

(6)

Matrix V satisfied below relation.

V

(7)

The result of the transform will differentiate by

the matrix P and the eigenvector is random vector.

The random matrix contains N(N+1)/2 isolated

elements and the security can be expressed as

2N(N+1)/2. It means the method itself is an

encryption procedure and the key is very difficult to

decipher. Even though the adversary knows the

transform procedure, there is little possibility of

obtaining the embedded information.

3 WATERMARKING

ALGORITHM AND RESULTS

ANALYSIS

3.1 Watermarking Algorithm

If the watermark is embedded in high frequency

field less sensitive for visual, it will be damaged

during the attack of transmission. On the contrary it

is embedded in low frequency field, the quality of

the image will deteriorate. The proposed algorithm

will choose an intermediate field to embed the

watermark information. The algorithm uses 2D

wavelet transform and 3D DCT first and performs

DFRNT scramble to get the watermark information.

The robustness and security of the algorithm has

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improved by the technology of off-axis holography.

The process of the algorithm is shown in figure

3.

Figure 3: Process of the algorithm.

3.2 Experimental Results and Analysis

The original video for this experiment is 100 frames

which are uncompressed and the image size for

watermarking is 21×21 2D barcode

image. Bit

Error Rate (BER) performance evaluations are

measured applying various attacks.

(1) Gaussian noise attacks

Table 1: Experimental results of Gaussian noise attacks.

Variance Result Extraction BER

0.001

0.00

0.005

0.01

0.01

0.05

Table 1 shows that the video frame is not enough

clear after Gaussian noise attack but we can extract

the watermarking. It means that the algorithm can

resist the Gaussian noise attack.

(2) Salt & pepper noise attacks

Table 2: Experimental results of salt & pepper noise

attacks.

Density Result Extraction BER

0.005

0.00

0.01

0.02

0.05

0.06

Table 2 shows that the extraction of

watermarking still works enough after the salt &

pepper attack. It means the algorithm has a good

performance to resist salt & pepper attack.

(3) Low-pass filtering attack

Low-pass filtering attack impairs the edge of the

video frame so that the image is blurred.

Table 3: Experimental results of low-pass filtering attacks.

Frequency Result Extraction BER

55

0.04

75

0.02

95

0.00

Video Watermarking Algorithm based on Combined Transformation and Digital Holography

383

Table 3 shows that the filtering attack has little

effect on the quality of the video frame.

(4) Rotation attack

During the transmission, the video file can be

attacked by rotation. In this paper, the angle of

rotation attack is from 1 to 90 degrees.

Table 4: Experimental results of rotation attacks.

Rotation

angle

Result Extraction BER

10°

0.05

45°

0.13

60°

0.10

Table 4 shows that the extraction of the

watermark can be performed successfully in three

cases of rotation angle: 10, 45 or 60 degrees.

(5) Frame attack

Frame attack is exchange the order of frame, add or

delete frame so that the user can not be able to get

the correct video file. Test results of robustness to

frame attack is shown in table 5.

Table 5: Experimental results of frame attacks.

Frame exchange Extraction BER

1

st

↔ 9

th

0.00

5

th

↔ 21

st

0.01

29

th

↔ 53

rd

0.02

Table 5: Experimental results of frame attacks (cont.).

Lost frames Extraction BER

3

0.00

5

0.01

15

0.02

(6) Compression attack

Most video files on Internet are compressed by

MPEG. The compressed video file in MPEG has a

good performance but the loss of information cannot

be avoid 100%. MPEG-4 compressed video files are

tested and the performance is evaluated. Table 6

shows the result of compression attack by different

bit rate. Even if the bit rate goes up to 500Kbps, the

extraction still can be clear to clarify.

Table 6: Experimental results of compression attacks.

Standard MPEG-4

Bit rate 256Kbps 512Kbps

Extraction

BER 0.19 0.07

The experimental results show that the algorithm

combining DFRNT with digital holography has a

good performance to endure all kinds of attack and

the encryption feature of DFRNT provide a good

security than other algorithm.

4 CONCLUSIONS

The proposed algorithm shows good performance of

robustness and security. The algorithm combines 2D

wavelet transform and 3D DCT and then apply

DFRNT for scramble. During the construction of

watermarking the 2D bar-code information will be

added to the video file as the mode of holography

image. The extraction of watermarking takes

holograph-reproduce which can improve security of

the algorithm. The result of experiment shows good

performance to various attacks and reasonable

improvement of robustness and security.

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384

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This research is supported by Ministry of Culture,

Sports and Tourism(MCST) and Korea Creative

Content Agency(KOCCA) in the Culture

Technology(CT) Research & Development Program

2015.

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