The Impact of the Implementation of ERP Satisfaction of End Users
in Major Moroccan Companies
Fatima Jalil
, Abdellah Zaouia
and Rachid El Bouanani
INPT: National Institute for Posts and Telecommunications, Rabat, Morocco
Faculty of Law, Economics and Socials, Mohammedia, Morrocco
Keywords: Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), User Satisfaction, Quality change, Information Technology,
Information Systems.
Abstract: In recent years, the implementation of ERP is as a lever for development and inter-organizational
collaboration. Despite the benefits of ERP, the success of their implementation is not always assured. The
introduction of an ERP in a company requires organizational changes that may provoke resistance to cause
adverse effects on the success of these projects. This article proposes a model and tests to evaluate the
success of a system "Enterprise Resource Planning "(ERP) based on a measure of user satisfaction.
Referring to the model DeLone & McLean and the work of Seddon & Kiew The criteria that can influence
user satisfaction, to ensure the successful implementation of the ERP system are identified. The results of
the exploratory study, carried out on 60 users in 40 Moroccan companies, shows that user satisfaction of
ERP is explained by the quality of the ERP system, perceived usefulness and quality of information
provided by this type of system. The study also found that the quality engineering change is a predictor of
satisfaction measured by user involvement in the implementation of ERP, the quality of communication
within such a project and the quality of training given to users.
The current context of global economic activity is
characterized by a large and permanent competition
as well as a large customer requirement for immediate
and complex solutions. In this context, process control
and continuous improvement become prerequisites
for success. As a result, numerous companies around
the world are trying to take advantage of an overhaul,
using software packages, their information systems,
and hundreds of them have opted for systems
integrated management ERP (Enterprise Resource
Planning) as a basis for the integration of their
industrial management (Marbert, Soni &
Venkataramanan, 2000).
Companies operate in an environment
increasingly complex and changing. They now
confront several problems: saturated markets,
increased competitiveness, customers more
demanding and less loyal, etc. In such an
environment, business competitiveness depends
increasingly on their flexibility and their ability to
innovate, both in their organizational structure, their
production as in their mode of exchange with
customers and suppliers. However, in their search
for competitiveness, the main obstacle faced by
companies is the difficulty of obtaining data and
accurate information and appropriate interfaces
between the various business functions.
This study is interesting on two levels:
- The objective of this article is therefore to
identify the drivers of satisfaction of users of ERP
systems. On a finer way, we try to determine the
satisfaction and enhance the need for good conduct
ERP projects to increase the degree of the
satisfaction. To do this, it was reduced to build a
model for the explanation of this satisfaction.
- In what follows, we will try to review the state
of the art in measurement of user satisfaction of IT
before submitting the research model and the results
of an exploratory study conducted with a sample of
'Moroccan companies.
The evolution of computing, which is progressing
towards greater information sharing and flexibility is
Jalil, F., Zaouia, A. and Bouanani, R.
The Impact of the Implementation of ERP Satisfaction of End Users in Major Moroccan Companies.
In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS 2016) - Volume 1, pages 188-195
ISBN: 978-989-758-187-8
2016 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
a key factor explaining the growing success of ERP
to companies. Despite the unquestionable progress
they make today, ERP do not fully meet
satisfactorily the needs of companies.
2.1 The Emergence of Integrity
Management Software
Historically, functional systems businesses were
developed on different materials following different
methodologies: the achievements are generally
heterogeneous both in terms of data representation at
the level of processing modes. It follows multiple
- Communication problems between areas expected
to share common data;
- Process control challenges due to the multiple
treatments required to obtain synthetic statements;
- Students maintenance costs in the absence of
modularity resulting low scalability;
- Complexity of the training was the use of very
varied software;
- Difficulties for many controllers, in the collection
and re-keying data from different systems and
serving to consolidate budgets, develop reporting
tables, etc.
2.2 What is an ERP?
Acronym of American origin, ERP (Enterprise
Resource Planning) is commonly used to designate
the integrity management software. The term "ERP"
is not totally adequate because it puts only evidence
planning appearance. However the French
translation "ERP" does not include the planning
dimension and its use is problematic.
As defined by Robert Reix (1999), an ERP is a
computer application that incorporated the following
general characteristics:
- An ERP is a software package: according
CXP4, a software package is "a coherent and
independent set is service programs, supports, or
handling of information and documentation,
designed to perform standard IT processes, including
the distribution is of a commercial nature and that a
user can independently use after installation and
limited training.
- An ERP is customizable: standardized product,
the ERP is designed originally to meet the needs of
various businesses. II usually are different versions
by sector (automotive, banking, etc.) and prolonged
use. In addition, the adaptation of the product to the
needs of a particular business is by setting (choice of
management rules, choice of treatment options,
choice of data format, etc.). The setting may be
accompanied by an appeal has additions of specific
programs articulated around standard programs.
- An ERP is modular: it is not a monolithic
structure but a set of programs or separable modules
each corresponding to a management process:
installation and operation can realize autonomously.
The division into modules allows you to dial a
specific solution for assembly and extend the
implementation has different areas of management.
- An ERP is integrated: the various modules are
not designed independently they can exchange
information according to patterns provided. The PGI
guarantees at all times a perfect integrity and data
consistency for all users, allowing DC to end
interfacing problems, synchronization and double
- An ERP is a management application: it
captures the company's transactions (accounting,
stock management, order tracking and production
program ...) and propagates the information
collected to the appropriate levels. However, it
contains no optimization program or automatic
2.3 Why Moroccan Businesses They
Opt for ERP?
The term ERP comes from the name of the method
MRP (Manufacturing Resource Planning), industrial
method used since the 1970s for the needs of
management and planning of industrial production
and computer-aided production management.
As to migration patterns, some companies opt for
highly problematic solution to migrate their IT
systems through process redesign while others opt
for outright deportation of the existing.
Now this type of establishment "Big Bang" is
desirable, particularly in the following cases:
 Existence of bottlenecks and sticking points of
information between services; the implementation of
ERP will provide an opportunity to everyone to
overhaul their procedures.
 Excessive heterogeneity of the applications
used and abundance of interfaces between business
and auxiliary applications with the central
accounting system.
 Great difficulty for employees to adapt to new
applications when they change service within the
In general, it should return to the main benefits
and difficulties of ERP to determine whether the
context of implementation of ERP is favourable or
The Impact of the Implementation of ERP Satisfaction of End Users in Major Moroccan Companies
2.3.1 Organizational Factors
In view of concentration transactions (mergers and
acquisitions) facing most industries and growth
marked at several international groups, many
companies are forced to include in their calendars
projects migration to ERP, and, just as the parent
company or other subsidiaries.
Moreover, partnership agreements and often
require their contractors to implement the same
management systems that their reference customers,
and to ensure the exchange of data, transparency and
reliability of information financial communicated to
the third party.
2.3.2 Technical Factors
The evolution of information systems to more
sharing, more integration and flexibility are key
factors behind the growing success of ERP to
companies. Today, as we will examine later, they do
not yet fully satisfactory answer to the expectations
of the latter.
Nevertheless, they represent the most promising
path towards a more comprehensive computer.
2.3.3 Prudential and Internal Control
Indeed, in accounting and financial reporting and
management, ERP also provides an audit trail and
traceability data, the ability to set up multiple
quantitative and qualitative controls to increase
assurance of the device internal control during the
course of the various transactions through the
"workflows" of validation and execution of manual
data processing, semi-automatic or automatic.
2.4 The Measurement Models of
Successful ERP System
Many models have been developed to evaluate the
systems and the success of technology (Davis,
1989b; DeLone and McLean, 2003 1992 Gable et
all., 2003; Ifinedo and Nahar, 2006; Sedera and
Gable, 2010; Shang Seddon, 2002). These models
have been validated empirically by numerous studies
in the information system. The results show that
many case studies are studied by applying the
DeLone & McLean model success using a modeling
approach structural equation (Dörr et all., 2013).
Figure 1: D&M IS Success Model (Delone&
2.5 Evaluation Approaches
Many researchers have tried to understand the
relationship between IT investments and
performance, focusing on five main approaches for
evaluating IT projects (Bellaaj, 2010). These
approaches are:
- Evaluation Approach economic theory
(Brynjolfsson): the main objective of this approach
is to understand the gap between IT investment and
productivity of the organization according to certain
economic criteria.
- Evaluation Approach Social Psychology
(Davis, 1989a, 1989b; Venkatesh et all., 2003):
beyond the economic approach, it incorporates the
human factor as a key factor in the process of IT
investment and impact assessment.
- Evaluation Approach Based on the analysis of
competition: this approach is developed by (Porter
and Millar, 1985) explains how technology affects
all business. The authors outline the information
technology needs to be understood more than just
computers, it must be broadly conceived to
encompass information that companies create and
use as well as a wide range of technologies more
increasingly convergent and linked this process the
information in their perception of IT they adopt the
concept of the value chain to explain the competitive
advantages of IT investments.
- Evaluation Method based on strategic
alignment: This approach is developed by
(Henderson and Venkatraman, 1993), it is widely
used by researchers in the information to understand
two key concepts system; the first is the adequacy of
the information technology goals and strategic
objectives of the organization; the second is the
functional integration (integration between business
and functional areas). This approach suggests that
the IT strategy must be consistent with the business
strategy to improve organizational performance.
- Evaluation Process Approach: a new
conception of assessment is success was brought by
this approach based on the theory developed by
ICEIS 2016 - 18th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
emerging process (Markus and Tanis, 2000). This
approach highlights the failure of the economic
model to assess the success, and proposes a new
vision of evaluation not only on the input evaluation
on the base, but also based on the use and impacts of
IT, by virtue of a valuable creative process.
In this section, we present two examples of
evaluation approaches that synthesize the different
perspectives of assessment mentioned above. First,
we will propose an AHP approach to assessing
performance measures ERP (Tsai et all., 2006).
Second, we will introduce the Balanced Scorecard
approach widely adopted by many researchers to
assess the benefits of the ERP system (Chand et all.,
2.6 The Theoretical Foundations
First, we present our conceptual model which is
based on both theoretical and empirical background.
This framework will be considered a success
evaluation model of ERP system that combine
causal processes and considerations for evaluating
the success of the ERP project in three performance
levels: The individual performance, the performance
of the task force and performance Organizational
(Ifinedo Nahar et al, 2011).
2.6.1 Mathematical Theory of Communication
The mathematical theory of communication (Mason,
1978; Weaver and Shannon, 1949) explains the
interaction of three factors: the information system,
information such as a product and the impact of
information on individual performance and
organizationall. This approach is used by (DeLone
and McLean, 1992) in their model of success for
developing sexual constructions considered the main
variable to evaluate the success of the information
2.6.2 Innovation Diffusion Theory
Based on the theory of diffusion of innovation,
mainly paradigm variables determining the adoption
of innovation (Rogers, 1983), three main factors
emerged: Innovation /Technological factors,
environmental factors and factors Organization. In
this taxonomy, each of these factors can be
explained in the context of the ERP system. These
factors are extremely important in the adoption of
ERP phase and they must be integrated in the
process of successful ERP system (no success
without adopting one hand technologies).
2.6.3 Structuring Theory (AST Approach)
Structuration theory associated with institutional
theory Giddens social assessment has been widely
applied to understand and explain organizational
technology adoption (DeSanctis and Poole, 1994).
We focus solely on the AST proposed by DeSanctis
and Poole, 1994 to explain how technology brings
productivity, efficiency and satisfaction to both
individuals and organizations. This approach is
based on the school of technology was applied and
explained by DeSanctis and Poole, 1994 in their
approach to the theory Adaptive Structuring. The
ASP is considered a framework to study the
variation in the change of the organization and
illustrating the impact of advanced technology on
organizations. It has been tested on a GDSS (Group
Support System to the decision) to answer questions
about how technology affects people and
organizations that use it, and how it improves the
performance of the working group.
Therefore, if a company wants to incorporate an
ERP system, even though its operations are not
integrated, it should not, alone, buy a software
package and associated computer equipment but it is
called, also, to acquire know-how and establish a
suitable organization of work.
Therefore, methods of effective use of ERP
systems require something other than a good
computer. Moreover, several companies say they
face serious difficulties in the implementation of an
ERP system without the technical aspects are
actually involved: this is due, in fact, to disregard
and neglect human and organizational factors.
Thus, and in support of some researchers the
factors considered can be classified keys to the
success of an engineering change under the under
the following dimensions: the involvement of
management Generally, user involvement,
communication management, training and the
implementation strategy that includes both
reengineering business processes (BPR) that the
same approach of implementation of these systems.
At the basis of this reasoning, it is assumed that
an ERP system is effective at the individual level
where its users are satisfied. This level of
satisfaction is determined by the quality system
implemented in the company, a good quality of the
information it provides, high value perceived by
The Impact of the Implementation of ERP Satisfaction of End Users in Major Moroccan Companies
users and good engineering changes necessary for its
Thus, the various built the model proposed for
measuring user satisfaction of an ERP system,
detailed below, may be diagrammed as in Figure 2.
Figure 2: The conceptual model of measuring user
satisfaction of an ERP system.
This dimension has been used extensively in the
literature as the dependent variable success SI.
DeLone & McLean (1992) fall within a number of
33 empirical studies published between 1981 and
1987 who enjoy success in terms of user satisfaction
(Bailey and Pearson, 1983).
In general, this satisfaction was defined by the
attitudes and perceptions. In specifically, this
satisfaction was defined as the result of the
evaluation that individuals are on continuum
"content - dissatisfied"; or the sum of feelings and
attitudes towards each of a variety of factors
affecting the situation.
4.1 Quality System ERP
This dimension is widely used in the literature (Doll
& Torkzadeh, 1988; Davis, 1989; DeLone &
McLean, 1992; McGill et all., 1999; etc.). It is a
powerful determinant of the effectiveness of IT as
well as user satisfaction. The quality of the system
relates to the quality of application itself (the
different system functionality, ease of use and
learning). In addition, it summarizes some issues
such as the lack of "bugs" in the system, the user-
friendly interface, etc.
Therefore, the hypothesis H1 states: "The better
the quality of the system (ERP) is good, more
satisfaction is high."
4.2 Quality of Information Provided by
the System ERP
The concept of quality of information has been widely
used as a key success factor in research in SI. In fact,
this construct has been measured primarily by Bailey
& Pearson (1983) and Doll & Torkzadeh (1988) as a
measure among other satisfaction. This dimension
usually includes attributes related to the quality of the
information provided by the ERP system, such as the
format of the information, clarity of information,
accuracy of information, availability of necessary
information in real time, the information content, etc.
Therefore, the second hypothesis H2 states: "The
better the quality of information provided by the
system (ERP) is good, more user satisfaction is high."
4.3 Perceived Utility
This construct is defined by Davis (1989) as the
degree to which a person believes that the use of a
particular system would increase the work
performance. This dimension has been considered as
a factor affecting the satisfaction of users that it
comprises, on the one hand, items related to the
perceived ease of use and, on the other hand, those
related to the perceived usefulness. Moreover, Davis
(1989) shows that the acceptance of a technology
depends on perceptions of users of this technology.
Indeed, the Technology Acceptance Model (MAT)
assumes two types of beliefs, perceived ease of use
and perceived usefulness, determine the intent of the
individual who influences the use of technology.
This allows, therefore, bringing forward the third
hypothesis H3 namely: "The greater the perceived
usefulness by users, the greater their satisfaction is high."
4.4 Quality Engineering Change
As shown above, this new dimension can be
ICEIS 2016 - 18th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
understood by the five under following detailed
4.4.1 Involvement
To drive change caused by the implementation of an
ERP system, it is essential that this project will
become the project of the entire company: from top
management to operational:
The Involvement of Senior Management
Indeed, the leaders are not called, only to finance the
project but also to take an active role in managing
change. This role is mainly to guide the overall
operation, encourage local initiative, indicate very
clearly the kind of organization that wishes to establish,
define the corresponding steps of achievements, etc.
The Involvement of Users
Added to the commitment of senior management
and middle management, the implementation of an
ERP system can be conducted only by the
involvement of the community of operational users
and a user project manager full time representing the
whole of this community.
However, it is important to note that the
involvement of users could not be, in itself, a
prerequisite for the proper conduct of change. The
latter requires, in addition, good communication
4.4.2 Communication
Certainly, the quality of communication within work
groups plays an important role in employee attitudes
towards change. Where communication and
atmosphere were good, new technologies were
generally welcomed with enthusiasm, while in
groups where members felt compelled to comply
with the new rules, reactions were much less
favourable. In fact, communication is essential not
only to create an understanding and approval of the
establishment, but also to win the agreement of
users. This communication should begin early, be
consistent and continuous.
In addition to good communication during an
implementation project of an ERP system, it is
inevitable to provide training to users.
4.4.3 Training
Training is seen as an important factor to facilitate
change in the organization and introduction of new
technologies .This training aims mainly to prepare
staff and help them adapt to their new tasks in order
to be successful organizational change. It is not
intended; only use new systems but also the
understanding of new processes and their integration
into the system. Hence, training is an ongoing
process and updating a challenge.
4.4.4 The Implementation Strategy of an
ERP System
The implementation of an ERP system means a
continuous learning cycle in which the organizational
process supported by ERP systems is aligned
gradually with the company's goals. Lequeux (1999)
says: "Far from leading a purely IT project, the
adoption of ERP should be an opportunity to
reconsider the mechanisms and improve the flow
participating in the operation of the business, even to
consider a business process reengineering".
The Business Process Reengineering
Moreover, the re-engineering of business processes
and implementation of ERP systems are inseparable.
They should be carried out simultaneously in order to
obtain the best fit between the technologies and
processes. This adjustment requires considering the
role of ERP systems such as infrastructure, which
now support the process and no longer functions and,
therefore, improve their organizational effectiveness.
The ERP System Implementation
Akkermans and Helden (2001) have focused on ERP
systems implementation approach while trying to
show that the incremental approach, scalable, based
on continuous improvement is a key success factor in
the implementation of a project ERP. They add that
users of an ERP system are less satisfied if there was
a radical approach (Revolutionary) that this approach
results in a rigid management style based on a high
degree of control and command, Intensive use of
external experts, even non staff involvement and
therefore a loss of skills and know-how internally.
Thus, and from the previous development on
engineering changes, it was agreed to present the
hypothesis H4 on this new dimension, "the higher
the quality of engineering change is good, more user
satisfaction is better ".
This hypothesis derived secondary hypotheses
for sub dimensions of engineering change. They are
formulated as follows:
The Impact of the Implementation of ERP Satisfaction of End Users in Major Moroccan Companies
- H4a "More DG is involved in the project
implementation of an ERP system, more user
satisfaction has increased."
- H4b: "More user involvement, the greater their
satisfaction is high."
- H4c: "More communication is good, most users are
well satisfied."
- H4d: "More training is good; more user satisfaction
is very high."
- H4e "The incremental implementation approach
can increase user satisfaction more than the radical
Once part of the research is defined and the variables
of the research are identified, it is important to
conduct data collection. For this, a questionnaire,
multi-scale, was built and tested with users
belonging to both different hierarchical levels as
various services, and finally administered face to
face in Moroccan companies.
Given that companies have adopted ERP
systems are not numerous, it was not possible to
focus on a specific industry. The selection of the
study population was guided by a single criterion,
namely: the existence of an ERP system that is
already operating at all levels (all modules are
already functional) or at least a good part of the
system east.
Data collection has collected a sample of 40
companies surveyed; representing an effective
response rate (60.45%). However, it should be noted
that the unit of this study is defined as the user of an
ERP system. Therefore, the respondent is either the
project leader or the leader or one of the senior or
middle managers, or one of the last entry clerks.
What mattered was the use of the ERP system.
It is important to note that the measurement scales
were either adopted from previous work or created
for the need of this research.
6.1 Descriptive Analyzes of Research
Variables: Evaluation of Measures
After proposing measures to the various concepts
identified in the model and collected the data from
the selected population, it is appropriate now to
ensure the quality of these measures before making
adequate statistical treatment. To do this, we made
two types of tests for evaluating the measures
namely: tests
The dimensionality and reliability test (Cronbach's
alpha) (Evrard, Pras & Roux, 1997). Through these
purification tests, which are based on principal
component analysis ACP was determined for each
building its KMO MSA and each of its items.
So we tried to conclude whether built or not is
one dimensional and to specify the contribution of
each item to the formation of the factor. Finally, we
calculated, for each cleared factor, Cronbach's alpha.
6.2 Explanatory Analyzes of Research
Once the measures have been evaluated and the new
structures are identified, we proceeded to test
hypotheses. This part, devoted to the
operationalization of the model and test hypotheses,
has identified the following results.
Results thus obtained confirmed the work of
DeLone & McLean and those Seddon & Kiew.
These results have shown that this satisfaction is
- Primarily by the quality of the system, the
quality of information provided by this system and
the utility perceived by the users;
- Partially by the quality of engineering changes
needed to implement the ERP system. It is true that
the data analysis performed could provide only
partial verification of this dimension engineering
change because, firstly, user involvement,
communication and training partially affect that
satisfaction on the other hand, the other two sub-
dimensions i.e., the involvement of the DG and the
implementation strategy does not seem to affect the
Notwithstanding, the results presented are
limited to the sample of enterprises and should be
interpreted with caution given the nature and sample
structure, but also methods of data collection used.
So it will be wise to take this model while
increasing the sample size to allow better analysis to
improve results. This should be possible since the
number of Tunisian companies that are in the
process of implementing ERP systems is increasing.
In conclusion, it should be noted that in our time, the
information system has become the cornerstone of
ICEIS 2016 - 18th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
consolidating the company's strategy .Thus, the IS
manager is asked to provide future solutions
enabling the company to be more competitive. It is
no longer to increase productivity but to provide the
general direction the technological know-how
through which the company will be able to adapt its
service to the needs of its customers while
controlling costs.
Through this article, it is important to note the
prominence that ERP systems are currently in
Moroccan companies. In fact, these integrated
management systems, which are increasingly
"backbone" of the SI of the company, need special
attention, including in their implementation and
Closer to the work of the "Management
Information Systems" relating to the determinants of
success of IF including the determinants of user
satisfaction, the results of this research show that the
dimensions outlined in previous studies (Quality
System, quality of information and usefulness)
remain well determinants of user satisfaction of an
ERP system.
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The Impact of the Implementation of ERP Satisfaction of End Users in Major Moroccan Companies