Process Oriented Learning and Training
A Model-based Approach in Learn PAd
Robert Woitsch
, Nesat Efendioglu
and Damiano Falcioni
BOC Asset Management, Operngasse 20b, 1040 Vienna, Austria
University of Camerino, Via del Bastione 1, Camerino, Italy
Keywords: Meta Modelling, Modelling Method Development, Process-Oriented Learning.
Abstract: Process Oriented Training and Learning can be applied in two different approaches: (a) processes describing
the methodology of training and learning as well as (b) processes describing the organizational context that
need to be learned. This paper introduces the results of the EU project Learn PAd that developed prototypes
of modelling tools enabling business processes for learning and training. Flexibility of business processes
have been introduced with case management and knowledge artefacts had been integrated to provide a
complete modelling environment. The created meta-model is introduced as well as the mechanisms and the
algorithms implemented. The architecture of the modeling tool is also introduced.
This paper revisits the contents of (Woitsch &
Efendioglu, 2015). This paper elaborates the
modelling language and mechanism & algorithms of
the Learn PAd Modelling Method in detail.
Moreover this paper discusses possible deployment
scenarios about process oriented learning and
technical deployment scenarios regarding to realized
In (Woitsch & Efendioglu, 2015) process
oriented learning is introduced whereas (1) the
business process defines the curriculum, (2) the
knowledge product defines the required knowledge
and (3) the knowledge sources identify the available
knowledge. The end users are using the knowledge
by learning, whereas the responsible decision
makers and experts are managing the knowledge by
appropriate learning goals and dashboards.
These use cases are realized in the EU project
Learn PAd (Learn PAd EU Project, 2015) at two
governmental use cases, first at a University and
second in a municipality.
The technological infrastructure is introduced
and some guidelines for the change towards process-
oriented learning are highlighted.
This paper focus on process oriented learning
and training, by discussing application scenarios,
required modelling method, required tool support for
collaborative learning, knowledge maturity score
cards and possible case based deployment scenarios
as well as technical deployment of realized
prototype. Public results are introduced as form of
proof of concept evaluation from the
community (, 2015).
In section 2 we present the identified scenarios
that the Learn PAd Modelling Method have to
support. In section 3 we introduce the Modelling
Method with its core languages and the mechanisms
(features) defined. In section 4 the deployed
architecture is presented and the results are
described in section 5.
In this section we shortly revisit the five application
scenarios identified (Woitsch, Business Oriented
White Paper in Learn PAd, 2015) and elaborated in
(Woitsch & Efendioglu, 2015).
2.1 Individual Training
Individual training will support novices. The
assessment of trainings enables much better insights
into training demands.
The education of new employees is time
consuming, as new employee typically lacks the
organizational context. Hence, many questions or
Woitsch, R., Efendioglu, N. and Falcioni, D.
Process Oriented Learning and Training - A Model-based Approach in Learn PAd.
DOI: 10.5220/0005838607250733
In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development (MODELSWARD 2016), pages 725-733
ISBN: 978-989-758-168-7
2016 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
knowledge gaps are the result of fundamentally
missing baseline knowledge of the organization.
Individual training is supported by the definition
of different learning goals for different skill profiles,
so that a learner can continuously improve their own
skills through executing the business process.
Learn PAd merges the training and working
environments, so that changes to business processes
affect both the working environment for the daily
tasks and the corresponding training environment.
2.2 Organizational Evolution
This process-oriented approach can also be applied
to the development of the whole workforce within
an organization.
In order to organizationally evolve the business
process, learning goals need to define which part of
the business process is to be changed, and – by
involving skill profiles of team members – analyse
how certain skill profiles are to be educated.
In addition to changes in the sequence of a
particular process, knowledge of existing business
processes can also change. Here the situation is
different to individual training as users are very
familiar with the process and usually claim that they
know exactly what to do. The challenge is therefore
to increase sensibility to minor, but important,
2.3 Business Process Support and
The use of business processes and their explanatory
documents as learning objects forces the public
administration to critically reflect the current way of
working and enables the detection of error prone
Learning goals are defined in order to support the
performance and reflect on the current business
processes, which part needs to be improved.
An honest reflection on business process
performance is usually very difficult as employees
ideally need to critically reflect on their daily
business within a so-called “failure-culture” in the
organization – a culture that appreciates the
identification of failures instead of pseudo-blaming
some responsible actors.
Performance analysis needs a guiding structure.
Business processes are an ideal candidate for such a
structure as they enable a step-by-step analysis of
daily operations that must result in an efficient
sequence of activities that achieve organizational
2.4 Process Optimization and
Process optimization and improvements are closely
linked to performance support and reflection, which
rely on the existing competencies of team members.
In order to support continuous improvement and
optimization of a business process, learning goals
can be used to identify the organizational learning
objectives and identify the corresponding measures.
In this scenario, the team members use the
learning platform as a communication and
collaboration portal. The intention is to use business
process based collaborative learning not only for the
initial identification of improvements, but also to use
those improved processes when performing the
aforementioned organizational learning scenario.
2.5 Citizens Transparency
This use case is not a traditional training scenario
but is an add-on use case with the aim of addressing
the citizen that interacts with the Public
Learning goals are defined in order to increase
transparency for citizens, addressing the
misunderstandings reduction, incorrect submitted
documents or increase appreciation.
Under such special conditions, the collaborative
process-oriented training platform can be provided
to citizens who interact with the administration.
Of course, the process will not be represented in
detail, but on a higher abstraction to only point out
the relevant decisions for the citizens, as well as
only including high-level information.
The Generic Modelling Method Specification
Framework (GMMSF) introduced by Karagiannis
Figure 1: Generic Modelling Method Specification
LMCO 2016 - Special Session on Learning Modeling in Complex Organizations
and Kühn in (Karagiannis & Kühn, Metamodelling
Platforms, 2002), (Kühn, 2004) has been used to
develop the Learn PAd meta-modelling method.
As depicted in Figure 1 the building blocks of a
modelling method include: (1) the modelling
language introducing modelling concepts pre-
defined according their semantic, their syntax and
their graphical notation, (2) the modelling procedure
which defines the stepwise usage of the modelling
language and may not be always available and (3)
generic and domain specific mechanisms and
algorithms enabling the computer-based processing
of models.
3.1 Modelling Language
The modelling language has been developed
following the meta model based approach and is
described in detail in D3.2 (Learn PAd D3.2, 2015).
The core domain is the business process model
(using BPMN (OMG, OMG BPMN, 2015)) and the
flexible case management (using CMMN (OMG,
OMG CMMN, 2015)), which is linked to the
business processes. Both are performed by workers,
who are described in the organizational (structure)
model. In order to perform skill-management, there
is also a competence models, which details the
traditional work place description of the
organizational model.
Document and knowledge models provide the
organizational knowledge in order to perform and
execute the business processes and the cases.
In order to enable continues improvement, the
business motivation model describes goals,
intensions and rules, whereas the KPI (Key
Performance Indicator) model, collects and
aggregates measures and construct measurable
indicators to assess the evolution of the learning
Some other model types like the process map or
the knowledge system model are introduced. Those
model types do not carry own domain information
but mainly act as a navigation support to navigate
between the different aforementioned models.
BPMN 2.0 has been realized in Learn PAd
focusing on those aspects which are relevant for
human – learning – interaction, and leave out –
technical – aspects, which are not relevant.
Although all concepts are specified in the BPMN
2.0 standard, its realization including abstract classes
as well as references to other model types (– so
called model type weaving.
More information on the BPMN realization is
provide on the Learn PAd development space at ( DS, 2015), as well as in
D3.2 (Learn PAd D3.2, 2015).
The use of flexible case management, hence the
description and collection of different cases
introduces not only a flexibility into the business
processes but also enables collaboration in form of
discussions, recommendations and lessons learned in
exceptional cases.
Due to the absence of appropriate standards that
describe the organizational structure, Learn PAd
used the meta model from the first and most
successful community business process management
Community Edition.
Organizational units describe the different
departments, sections or the enterprises, hence
define organizational boundaries. The roles describe
the ideal representation of competences, whereas the
performer describes the current workplace holder
and hence describes the actual competences.
The Document and Knowledge Model type
specification, that is interesting for learning and / or
knowledge management models, traditionally, is a
document pool, that lists all documents that are
needed – either as input, as a resulting output, as a
guidance or as a support document – when executing
a business process. This traditional view is highly
important in quality management scenarios or in
keeping the business process documentation clear
and simple.
In the context of learning, we enriched this
model type with elements from the PROMOTE
modelling language (Robert, Process-Oriented
Knowledge Management: A Service-Based
Approach, 2004). A language that was first
implemented in 2000 in a research project (Rainer,
Dimitris, & RobertWoitsch, 2001) and now founds
its way into teaching and industrial projects.
Knowledge resources are described in three
forms: (a) the document as an atomic knowledge
carrier with a unique identifier, (b) the knowledge
source that is – often a very large – container of
documents, which collects, manages and
encapsulates the big amount of documents like
databases, document management systems or file
directories, as well as (c) the knowledge resource,
which represents not only complicated but also
complex knowledge carries such as humans, or
The difference between knowledge source and
knowledge resource is that a knowledge source
provided predictable results, hence a formal correct
query into a database or file repository, will result in
Process Oriented Learning and Training - A Model-based Approach in Learn PAd
a predicable list of documents. Knowledge resource
in contract, represent the complex knowledge
resources and hence do not provide predictable
results. The assessment of the opinion of an “expert
community”, the forming of a “committee” or the
“impressions of an exhibition” may be valuable
knowledge resources but in contract to a document
by far not predictable. Hence those artefacts can be
described in the knowledge resource.
When realizing a knowledge management or
learning environment, the pure knowledge carrier
like documents, sources or resources are often not
relevant, but the so-called knowledge products. The
knowledge product is a successful artefact that
enables the consumption of knowledge in the similar
way, like the consumption of any other non-physical
good (Klaus & Robert, 2005), (Woitsch & Hrgovcic,
Knowledge Product Modelling for Industry: The
PROMOTE Approach, 2012).
It is based on implicit and explicit knowledge,
hence can be distinguished in (a) information
products that realize the internalization, (b) the
service, that realizes the socialization and finally (c)
the application that realizes the combination of
external knowledge. For completeness reasons it is
stated that (d) the externalization is not considered
as it is a knowledge production and not a knowledge
Hence, typically a business process consumes
knowledge products that are prepared for the use.
Information products are mainly provided as
documents, services as “responsible” colleagues and
applications as “IT-resources” to be used.
As we consider the knowledge product as the
essential carrier of knowledge and hence the
essential artefact for learning, which is important to
be observed, supported and measured, the
consortium decided to include the knowledge
product into the document and knowledge model
type although this seems not obvious from a
business process management point of view.
In that form, knowledge products can be
integrated into the business processes and into cases,
their responsibilities can be defined in the
organizational structure and their quality and
evolution can be measured with key performance
The full specification of the modelling can be
downloaded in form of D3.2 form the Learn PAd
webpage. Additional material and specification on
aforementioned modelling language implementation
can be downloaded from the Learn PAd
development space of the community.
3.2 Mechanisms and Algorithms
Mechanisms and algorithms implement the model
value by processing the models and by introducing
features for modelling. Here, some relevant features
are introduced.
3.2.1 People Oriented View
Business process models belong to the family of
concept models, hence they consist of a graphical
representation of concepts, which are often
unintuitive to agents from public administration or to
citizens. In order to ease the interpretation of
business processes, so-called people oriented view
has been introduced that enables the switch form a
business process in the traditional graphical notation
to a new graphical notation, where icons graphically
describe the nature of the activity. Hence, instead of
“blue boxes”, an iconic representation of the action
is provided, as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2: Standard and People-like View of a business
This is achieved, by a so-called semantic lifting
of each concept, hence the relation of a model object
with an ontological description. A list of explanatory
graphical icons is also annotated to the same
ontological description. Hence, when switching into
the people-like view, the images that are annotated
with the model object are included in the new
graphical description.
Current set of graphical description is based on
the artefact types in the BPMN 2.0 specification. As
the approach is open, other graphics can be included.
A detailed instruction of this feature is described
in the Learn PAd development space in
3.2.2 Semantic Lifting of Business Processes
Semantic lifting is a form of a loose coupled model
weaving, where concepts of a business process – e.g.
LMCO 2016 - Special Session on Learning Modeling in Complex Organizations
tasks – are semantically lifted. This semantic lift is
implemented by annotating the BPMN objects with
an ontological concept (Hrgovcic, Karagiannis, &
Woitsch, 2013).
There are different forms of semantic lifting,
hence three cases that explain the different nature of
semantic lifting are explained.
First, the direct lifting within the model is a
simple copy / paste of the ontology URI into a
generic or specially adapted attribute of the business
process object. In this form, no changes in the
modelling languages are necessary, but the usability
is low and error prone is high.
The import ontological concept into the
modelling tool and the selection of the semantic
concepts within one modelling tool – e.g. via the
former introduced pointer concept the so-called
INTERREF – has the benefit that all concepts are
safely managed in one repository and in one tool. As
concept modelling and semantic have differences in
the tool handling, it is likely that the ontology is
maintained in the separate tool, which raises
redundancies, requires replications and raises
challenges in maintaining objects in the concept
model repository. Therefore, this approach is not
applicable if the ontology changes, but is required to
stay stable.
The third approach is the invocation of an
ontology management system out of the modelling
environment. Hence, each model object of a
business process, can access an interface of an
ontology management system and can select one of
the concepts, which are then stored in form of the
URI in a special annotation attribute.
Finally, it has to be mentioned that there are
many combinations of the introduced approaches,
where the second and third approaches are combined
to realize also complex scenarios and use the second
approach as a pre-selection of stable part and the
third approach for the identification of the concrete
A discussion on the different implementations in
more detail as well as the necessary development
tools can be downloaded from the Learn PAd
development space form
3.2.3 Business Processes in Collaboration
The graphical representations of business processes
is used to simplify the introduction of the business
process tasks and link the corresponding description
and attached document to the graphical
representation. Although this form of process
documentation is widely known and applied, the use
within collaboration portals raises new challenges.
The simple export of graphical representations
and model information is typically performed via
Web-enabled APIs. In the ADOxx case in form of
Web-Services that deliver the (a) table of content,
(b) model image, (c) model information and (d)
model image map to enable click-able interaction in
the Browser.
While user interface technology improves – e.g.
Ext JS – the interaction possibilities improve.
Former file based interaction, or static Web-API
approaches are now exchanged by the attempt to
continuously interact with a WIKI portal or realize
Widgets that run within different Web-user
Traditional Web-Service interaction and creation
of WIKI pages can be downloaded from the Learn
Pad development space from the
community. The mentioned Widget interaction is
currently under development.
3.2.4 Business Process Verification
Business process design is an error prone process.
The domain expert acting as modeler of the BP can
easily introduce logical errors especially on complex
and high collaborative business processes, which can
results in failures at the execution time.
Verifying some quality properties over a
Business Process in a formal and rigorous way is the
safer way to avoid such kind of situations (Falcioni,
Polini, Polzonetti, & Re, 2012) (Corradini, Polini,
Polzonetti, & Re, 2010).
The Learn PAd platform integrate a Formal
Verification component in order to provide such
kind of functionality. This component interact with
the Learn PAd Modeling environment prototype
through the Learn PAd platform in order to verify
some properties like soundness or critical path
existence, and visualize the results on the model.
Figure 3: Deadlock Trace Highlight on Business Process.
Process Oriented Learning and Training - A Model-based Approach in Learn PAd
The Figure 3 is an example of the resulting of
such interaction. In this case, deadlock presence is
checked on a Business Process model and the found
trace that lead to deadlock is shown on the model.
Deadlock verification is only one of the supported
properties that can be verified. For a complete list,
please refer to the Deliverable 4.1 of the Learn PAd
The full support of this interaction scenario is
under development. More details are available on
the Learn Pad development space from the community.
Process oriented Training and Learning has in
principle two main categories with different
technical realization:
Process Oriented Training and Learning, where
the process describes the training and learning
Process Oriented Training and Learning, where
the process describes the organizational content.
The technical realization in the first case can be
realized by a process oriented training and learning
methodology like ECAAD, (Evidence Evidence
Centred Design Methodology) (Consortium, 2015),
(Misley, Steinberg, & Almond, 2015) whereas the
training and learning environment are Learn
Management Systems like Moodle or Blackboard
(Blackboard, 2015).
The technical realization of the second case can
be realized by using business process modelling
method like the extended BPMN 2.0 as developed in
Learn PAd but then faces the challenge to be
integrated into an existing legacy application.
Learn PAd dealt with the latter case and hence
had to challenge the installation of this
organizational learning-add on into existing legacy
4.1 High Level Reference Architecture
Learn PAd indicated functional capabilities for
process oriented training and learning in
organization, based on the knowledge management
high level reference architecture.
Figure 4 indicates the major building blocks
from the reference architecture: 1) Knowledge,
Learning and Business Process Context that
considers the complex and heterogeneous operative
legacy systems of the end users organization, (2)
Collaborative Business Process and Knowledge
Based Learning that enables a process-oriented
learning from knowledge workers, (3) Business
Process and Knowledge Based Learning Modelling
enables the definition of learning processes that are
then realized in the aforementioned execution
environment, and finally (4) Business Process
Learning and Knowledge Assessment introduces
monitoring and dashboard functionality to identify
improvements opportunities.
Figure 4: Tools and Applications for Process-Oriented
In the following the four building blocks are
Knowledge, Learning and Business Process
Context: is a collection of relevant legacy
applications that are necessary to execute the
business process. In order to enable the seamless
implementation of process oriented learning within
an organization, the available IT infrastructure has to
be considered as it is, and the process oriented
learning framework has three choices to interact
with the existing applications.
First integration is a loose link from the learning
system to the legacy applications. This is most likely
the first choice, ideally if the legacy application is a
Web-application. Hence, this will be a Hyperlink to
the Web-interface of the legacy application
Second integration is via an implemented API.
This will be used if valuable learning or feedback
information is required from the concrete legacy
application. In the case where a social enterprise
tool, enterprise wikis or similar are already in place,
it may be worth implementing an interface. (e.g KPI
Third integration are learning system
components that are added to the IT infrastructure,
hence the integration is given by the use of the
learning system.
Pragmatically, a Wiki environment that
describes how to access the legacy systems and
LMCO 2016 - Special Session on Learning Modeling in Complex Organizations
providing the necessary links is the most appropriate
way to start with a process oriented learning system.
Collaborative Business Process and
Knowledge based Learning: is a collaborative
platform that is specially configured to support
business processes. Traditional business process
descriptions that are exported in collaborative Web-
platforms are enriched with learning functionalities,
such as stepping through a process, starting
simulations, commenting on documents and
knowledge as well as assessing learning progress.
Business processes can be trained by the user
either in a manual or automatic way. The manual
way is performed by stepping through a business
process, reading the documents and discussing with
colleagues whether the decision that would have
been taken is the correct one. Automatic training of
a business process is understood as simulation,
whereby the process is triggered and the trainees
have to commit their decisions into the system.
Collaborative Business Process and Knowledge
Based Learning workspace provides all functional
capabilities for a user-friendly entry point into the
process documentation, the manual stepper and the
automatic simulation. Business processes are
presented graphically, the corresponding documents,
the required skill level and the capability to provide
feedback and comments in form of an intuitive Wiki
are provided in the form of a collaborative
Process Simulation for Learning is used by the
knowledge worker in order to learn how the process
has to be executed. Depending on different skill
levels the process is simulated in a form that the
knowledge worker performs each step with the
correlated content. Hence the process is not executed
directly but simulated with the aim to derive
findings from recorded clicks and links. Focus is the
end users interaction with the platform and with the
process so that the user learns to perform the process
in practice.
Business Process and Knowledge based
Learning Modelling: is used by trainers to design
business process models for public administration.
Typical conceptual and semantic modelling will be
applied to define relevant conceptual artefacts that
are processed for management and improvement.
Modelling covers typical capabilities like (1)
graphical visualization of models, (2) query and
analysis features of models, (3) simulations of
graphs as well as (4) transformation into different
input and output formats. Depending on the platform
and usage scenario the aforementioned generic
modelling feature are differently grouped or
Figure 5: Learn PAd Prototype: Modelling Tool.
Collaboration and Feedback transforms the
previously made “Wiki-like” collaboration
functionality into the modelling tool. Hence track
changes, ratings or comments may be considered in
this group.
Business Process Learning & Knowledge
Assessment: is used by experts and trainers to
analyses the use of the business processes and assess
which part of the process is well supported and
trained and which needs adjustments. A dashboard
displays key performance indicators that enable the
assessment of the maturity, skills and training levels
of the process and its end users. It is seen as a
cockpit for the trainer that represents KPIs for
learning and knowledge maturity in a Scorecard like
The aforementioned grouping of high-level
functional building blocks describes the major
components, which can be added into an existing
working infrastructure and the organization’s site.
4.2 Modelling Tool Deployment
This section introduces the business process and
knowledge based learning modelling tool, which can
be downloaded in form of the first prototypes at the
development space of, or can be tested
in the online version at
There are two prototypes: (a) the standalone rich
client installation, which can be downloaded from
the development space at, as well as (b)
the Web-based training and learning modeler on
advisor provide modelling features, shown in Figure
The deployment of the full fletched rich client is
in form of a local installation of the prototype.
Export can be performed using the transformation
features in order to generate special formats for
learning simulation engines or collaborative portals.
Process Oriented Learning and Training - A Model-based Approach in Learn PAd
A server side installation may be required, in case
the collaboration portal interacts with the modelling
tool not via file exchange using the transformation
features, but via the Web API. For such more
complicated scenarios, additional effort is required
to evolve the current prototype to an operational
execution environment.
The deployment of the Web-based training and
learning prototype in Learn PAd is a hosted
deployment in form of a Web-application to flexibly
instantiate modelling tools for different
organizations. Cloud technology is available, in case
such a service should be offered as SaaS.
In general, both modelling tools provide the
basic concept modelling features, which can be
extended on both prototypes.
Modelling features are distinguished in: (a)
model repository and access management, (b)
Visualization, model management and graphical
design, (c) Query, analysis and semantic inference of
models as well as (d) Transformation from the
model repository in requested output formats for
documentation, execution or interchange.
Beside those generic functional capabilities, the
feature details described in section 3 are
implemented in the standalone modelling prototype.
Process Oriented Training and Learning supports
two approaches, one where process models are used
to describe the teaching and one, where process
model are used to describe the organizational
context and content.
In Learn PAd the latter approach is applied for
civil servants in five application scenarios: (a)
individual training, (b) organizational evolution, (c)
support and reflection, (d) process optimization and
improvements as well as (e) citizens transparency.
The Modelling Method with its core languages
has been introduced and some special features has
been proposed, like the people oriented view, the
semantic lifting and the business process
verification. In the end the deployed architecture has
been presented focusing on the high level
We thank the Learn PAd consortium for the fruitful
research cooperation within the project. Especially
we thank Prof. Dr. Knut Hinkelmann and his team
from Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz, which
cooperated in the specification and development of
this prototype also outside the research project in a
separate cooperation on
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