until the end and the total race times improved for all
subjects compared to their own paced rides.
To answer the third question the subjects per-
formed ride IV. The feedback in ride IV implied a
power output constantly above the power output of
ride II. Since ride II was until exhaustion, it should
have not been possible to maintain the proposed
power output until the end of the ride.
Three out of six subjects conﬁrmed this assump-
tion. They were not able to follow the feedback given
in ride IV in the last part of the race. Nevertheless the
other three subjects were able to maintain the strategy
until the end. This indicates that the feedback itself
motivated them to access more energy resources than
in their self paced ride.
Therefore question three cannot be answered
clearly. Feedback alone enabled most subjects to im-
prove their race times, even if they were not able to
follow it until the end. But the three subjects that
could not follow the feedback in ride IV until the end
clearly showed that there is a deﬁnite advantage using
the optimal strategy.
In order to answer the third question satisfacto-
rily and distinguish between improvements due to the
strategy and improvements due to the pace maker, a
larger set of participants would be needed to be able
to apply statistical methods and provide an adequate
quantitative justiﬁcation.
5 CONCLUSIONS
Our experiment showed that the calculated optimal
strategy is feasible in a way that all athletes were able
to follow it until the end. Furthermore, it provides an
advantage over the strategy the athletes chose on their
own.
Even though external feedback itself already en-
abled most subjects to improve their performance, a
well chosen strategy like the calculated optimal strat-
egy is required to ensure that the athlete can ﬁnish the
race properly and enhance the total race time.
The next step to get closer to real racing conditions
is to perform a similar experiment in the ﬁeld. There-
fore a feedback device has to be developed, which
incorporates a pace maker based on GPS measure-
ments.
Another major challenge arising with ﬁeld tests is
to consider wind conditions along the track and to
provide a corresponding real-time adaptation of the
optimal strategy.
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