Consumer Attitudes towards Mobiles Advertising in Malaysia: A
Case Study at University Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Kelantan,
Nordelina Zulkarnain
, Nur Shaliza Sapiai
, Siti Aswani Mohd Ghazali
, Fadhilah Mohd Ishak
Khadijah Abdul Rahman
and Jannatul Iza Ahmad Kamal
UiTM, Kelantan, Malaysia
UniversitiTeknologi MARA Puncak Perdana, Malaysia
Keywords: Mobile Advertising, Consumer ‘attitudes.
Abstract: This study is aimed to conceptualized the validity of Ducoffe model and Brackett and Carr model to identify
the relationship between factors Irritation (IR), Entertainment, (EN), Informativeness (INFO), Credibility
(CR) and Personalization (PE) with Consumers Attitudes (AT) among students from Faculty of Business
Management in Mara University of Technology, Kelantan. A survey has been conducted among 150
students from a total population of 2101 students in Faculty of Business Management, Mara University of
Technology, Kelantan. The data analysis process was done using Partial Least Square Path Modelling (PLS-
SEM). The results of the study revealed INFO, EN and PE were found positive and statistically significant
towards Consumers Attitudes (AT). PE was found to be the most significant factor among the four factors.
According to The International Telecommunication
Union there are almost 43.93 million Malaysia
mobile phone subscribers in 2014. This fact was not
surprising as because nowadays mobile phone has
been considered as a vital communication tool and
essential component in Malaysian society.
According to Sheeren and Rozumah (2009),
Malaysian people are increasingly using more
mobile phone rather than fixed line in order to keep
in touch with their family, friends, colleagues and
business associates. This statement was supported
with the facts from Malaysian Communications and
Multimedia Commission (2013) that 86.3 percent of
Malaysian citizens are mobile phone users.
According to Zenith Optimedia mobile advertising is
growing nine times faster than desktop internet
advertising. Zenith also claims that mobile internet
will increase by 39. 8 percent per a year estimation
range in 20142017.Based on BuzzCity, a global
mobile advertising company, in the second quarter
in the year 2015, Malaysia's mobile advertising
industry reported a positive growth of 21percent
compared with 17percent in the first quarter (Q1) of
this year. Malaysia also has shown positive mobile
penetration because according to World Bank, the
numbers of mobile penetration around 140 percent
and this country has leading Indonesia, Thailand and
United States. If we go through ‘On Device
research’, it was stated that Malaysia’s mobile
landscape is performing better than most Southeast
Asian countries, and even the United States. In
Malaysia, high mobile phone penetration has
allowed a new type of advertising to target a higher
volume of potential prospect known as mobile
advertising (madvertising). One of the most popular
media of madvertising is Short Messaging Services
(SMS) which is foundation of madvertising (Waldt,
Rebello, and Brown, 2009). This statement is
supported by the Universal McCann Malaysia
(Rozana, 2009) which claimed that, Malaysia ranked
fifth out of twenty one concerning Malaysian
consumers’ receptivity in the mobile advertising
emerging market.
Studies of consumer attitudes toward mobile
advertising were conducted in many countries, but
there has been no similar research in public
universities in East Coast Malaysia. Besides,
Abdullah et al., (2013) stated that madvertising for
the goods and services in Malaysia is still remain
unclear, so it is needed to gain a well understanding
about the underlying factors such as customers
Zulkarnain, N., Sapiai, N., Ghazali, S., Ishak, F., Rahman, K. and Kamal, J.
Consumer Attitudes towards Mobiles Advertising in Malaysia: A Case Study at University Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Kelantan, Malaysia.
In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Economic Education and Entrepreneurship (ICEEE 2017), pages 267-273
ISBN: 978-989-758-308-7
Copyright © 2017 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reser ved
attitudes. So, this study carried in order to determine
and investigate the most possible factors that
influencing consumer’s attitudes towards mobiles
advertising by adopting Bracket and Carr model
Nowadays, is a must or needs to have mobile
phones. This small gadget has considered a basic ne-
cessity of people’s lives. Mobiles or cell phones
have really changed the way of communication.
Apart from only communication purposes, mobiles
phones have a great tool of promoting products and
services through potential clients. It is true that more
consumers are relying on mobile devices not only
for communication purposes, but also to engage in
commerce. Consequently, industry experts foresee
greater use of mobile messages sent to consumers
for advertising and promotional purposes (Nasco&
Bruner, 2008).
Tsang et al., (2004) have conducted a study
about investigating consumer attitudes and usage
behavior in respect to mobile advertising. This study
investigated regarding consumer attitudes and usage
behaviour to SMS advertisement through mobile de-
vices. The findings of this study indicate that con-
sumers generally have negative attitudes toward mo-
bile advertising unless they have specifically
consented to it, and there is a direct relationship be-
tween consumer attitudes and consumer behavior. It
can conclude that it is not a good idea to send SMS
advertisements to potential customers without prior
permission. From the research done by Tsang et al.,
(2004), they found that entertainment, credibility, ir-
ritation and informativeness are the significant fac-
tors affecting respondent’s attitudes towards mobile
advertising. They use attitude as dependent variables
and consider the antecedents of advertising value as
factors of attitude.
In the other hand, Xu (2006) has also conducted
the factors that will affect consumers’ attitudes to-
wards mobile advertising in China with particular
emphasizes on personalization. The results of the
study indicated that personalization is the most im-
portant factors that affecting consumer’ attitudes to-
wards mobile advertising, especially for female
users and there is a direct relationship between
consumer attitudes and consumer behavior.
Koo, W. (2010) has extended his research on
mo-bile advertising by investigating Generation Y
con-sumers` different value perceptions toward
apparel mobile advertising according to cultures
(i.e., The United States vs. South Korea) and
modalities (short message service vs. multimedia
messaging service). The researcher has examining
the determinants of at-titudes toward mobile
advertising in an apparel con-text and subsequent
impact on behavior intention and to investigate the
effects of modality and culture on attitudes toward
apparel mobile advertising.
2.1 Related Previous Studies
The first theoretical framework reviews for this
study is Brackett and Carr (2001) research entitled
cyberspace advertising vs. other media: Consumer
vs. mature student attitudes. This BC model further
extended from Ducoffe (1996) model to incorporate
two more elements which are credibility and con-
sumer demographic by Brackett and Carr (2001).
The researchers found that both credibility and con-
sumer demographic are linked to consumer attitude
on advertising. However, relevant demographic is
not used as one of the independent variable in this
study because the demographic profile of the target-
ed respondents are varied compared to the targeted
respondents in Brackett and Carr (2001) research.
Figure 2.1 Theoretical Framework by Brackett & Carr
The second theoretical framework reviews for
this study is from a study entitle Consumer attitudes
toward mobile advertising: an empirical study by
Melody M. Tsang, ShuChun Ho, and TingPeng
Liang which was published in Electronic Journal of
Electronic Commerce in 2004.
Based on the existing literature about attitudes
toward advertising and consumer behaviour models,
a research framework is constructed to illustrate the
factors affecting consumer attitudes toward
SMSbased advertisements and the relationships
among attitudes, intention to view mobile ads, and
users’ actual behaviour. Attitude, intention, and
behaviour are three major constructs in the theory of
reasoned action (TRA) proposed by Fishbein and
ICEEE 2017 - 2nd International Conference on Economic Education and Entrepreneurship
Ajzen in the early 1970s (later extended to become
the technology acceptance model in management
information systems research). The model links
individual beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and behavior
to describe the psychological process that mediates
the observed relations between attitudes and
The result of findings show, the respondents held
negative attitudes about receiving mobile ads. This
may have been because they found mobile adds
irritating, given the personal, intimate nature of
mobile phones. Their attitudes were favorable if
advertisements were sent with permission. This
implies that permission based advertising may
become a major mechanism in the mobile
environment in the future. Entertainment was the
most significant of the factors affecting respondents’
attitudes, followed by credibility and irritation.
Attitude is positively related to the intention to
receive mobile ads.
Intention is affected by the incentive associated
with the ad. The respondents were more willing to
accept incentive based mobile advertising. Finally,
intention significantly affected how and when the
respondents read the message. This is consistent
with the TRA model and the literature on the
The third theoretical framework reviews for this
study is from a study entitled “The influence of
personalization in affecting consumer attitudes
toward mobile advertising in China by David
JingjunXu in 2006. A total of 235 questionnaires
have been distributed and 143 of them were returned
among people in Guangdong Province, China. The
results of the study indicated that personalization is
the most important factors that affecting consumer’
attitudes towards mobile advertising, especially for
female users and there is a direct relationship
between consumer attitudes and consumer behavior.
The fourth theoretical framework reviews for this
study is from a study entitled “Attitudes towards
mobile advertising A research to determine the
differences between the attitudes of youth and adults
by Unal, S., Ercis, A., and Keser, E. (2011). The
study was carried in a way to investigate the
attitudes of youth and adults towards mobile
advertising and whether there was a difference
between their acceptance rejection behaviours
regarding mobile advertising. A total of 400
questionnaires were admin interred to the youth and
adults living in Erzurum/Turkey.
According to the results, consumers have
positive attitude to the advertisements that being
entertaining, informative, reliable and more
personalized, and the advertisements should being
sent with permission to them by advertisers. The
advertisements considered as irritating affect
attitudes negatively. Similarly, advertisements
The fifth theoretical framework reviews for this
study is from a study entitled “Attitudes towards
mobile advertising: a study of mobile display and
APP display advertising by Tri Dinh Le and
BaoTran Ho Nguyen .This study was conducted by
the researchers to provide deep understanding of
mobile advertising in Vietnam country. For
researchers, the increasing use of mobile devices to
deliver advertisements for products and services
especially using smart phones devices have create a
need among researchers to have full understanding
regarding factors that affecting consumers attitudes
towards mobile advertising. The findings from this
study can help the researchers to develop a
successful mobile advertising for mobile advertisers.
A survey of 206 participants was conducted in this
study using the convenience sampling method. The
findings of this study show that although many users
do not have positive feelings toward advertising,
they cannot ignore the importance of mobile
advertising. If mobile advertisers can present
credibility and entertainment in their advertisements,
consumers are willing to view the ads and be
influenced to buy products and services.
There are six total variables that make up this
framework. It consists of five independent variables,
and one dependent variable consists of one
dimensions. These variables were identified and
taken from previous study and theoretical reviews
that have been done. In this section, all the variables
in the framework will be defined in depth. The
relationship between independent variables and
dependent variable also will be examined.
Figure 3.1: Theoretical Framework
Consumer Attitudes towards Mobiles Advertising in Malaysia: A Case Study at University Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Kelantan, Malaysia
4.1 Data Collection and Sampling
The target population for this study is among the
postgraduate and undergraduate students from the
Faculty of Business Management, Mara University
of Technology, Kelantan campus, Malaysia. The
total number of population in this setting will be
1650 students from postgraduate and undergraduate
level. The unit of analysis for this study will be
individual as the researcher collects data from each
and every one student that involved in this study. In
other words, each student will be considered as one
data resource. The selected population will be
among postgraduate and undergraduate students at
the Faculty of Business Management from various
As stated in previous discussion earlier, the
sampling frame of this study is among 1650 students
from postgraduate and undergraduate from Faculty
of Business Management, University Technology
MARA. Clearly, the size of the population number
is huge, the researcher may face difficulties and
limitation to distribute questionnaire as a data
collection instrument to all students within the
population. Therefore, the researcher will collect
data from specific target population (sample
population) only that will be enough for representing
the whole population.
A total of 150 out of 180 students participated in
the study, resulting in an 83.33% response rate and
start with the text after a return.
The result of the Harman Single Factor showed the
common method variance for this study which is
35.957%. It can be seen in the first row at the Total
Variance Explained table. Thus, the result is less
than 50% of acceptance; the result proposed that
there was no Common Method Bias that can be
found in the data set. (Refer to Table 1).
Table 5.1: Common Method Variance
Initial Eigenvalues
Extraction Sums of
Squared Loading
% of
ive %
% of
It was found out that the majority of the
respondents were female with (70.7%) compare to
the male respondents (29.3%). In term of the
respondents’ age, most of them were between 2426
years old (79.7%) followed by the aged between
1719 years old (36.0) and aged between 2024 years
old, between 2529 years old ( 4.0%) , between 334
years old (0.7%) and lastly the respondent aged
above 35 years old were the minority (1.3%) of the
survey. From the semester of study of the
respondents aspect, it was found out that most of the
respondents that involved in this survey were from
diploma level with 79 students (52.7%), followed by
respondents from bachelor degree with 49 students
(43.3%), and lastly the 7 of respondents from
prediploma with (4.0%). In terms of spending
money for prepaid or postpaid purposes, most of
respondents spent RM 50 and bellows consists of 81
students (54%), followed by RM 50 RM 100 with 52
students (34.7%) , RM 100RM 150 with 10 students
(6.7%) and only 6 students from total out 150
students could spent RM 150 and above which
carries (4.0%). From the survey, it was showed that
145 students (96.7%) having a mobiles phones while
only 5 (3.3%) respondents stated they don’t have
own a mobiles phones.
For the purpose of this study, a Confirmatory
Factor Analysis (CFA) is applied to determine the
measurement model of the study. The Confirmatory
Factor Analysis (CFA) for this study was defined by
using the SmartPLS software. Confirmatory factor
analysis (CFA) is a statistical technique used to
verify the factor structure of a set of observed
variables. CFA allows the researcher to test the
hypothesis that a relationship between observed
variables and their underlying latent constructs
exists. The researcher uses knowledge of the theory,
empirical research, or both, postulates the
relationship pattern a priori and then tests the
hypothesis statistically. In this study, CFA will be
performed by using SmartPLS software. Individual
items will be tested to examine whether their factor
loadings is above 0.5 As according to Hair et al.,
(2011), any item with factor loading value of less
than 0.5 should be dropped from the measurement
model. As shown in figure 4.1 and the summary in
the table 4.3, most of the factors loading of the items
was defined as more than 0.5values that can be
considered as an excellent result.
ICEEE 2017 - 2nd International Conference on Economic Education and Entrepreneurship
Figure 5.1: Analysis (CFA) using the PLs Model
For the purpose of this study, in order to
determine the convergent validity, each of the
construct from the Average Variance Extracted
(AVE), composite reliability (CR) and the reliability
need to be defined (Fornell and Larcker, 1981).
Convergent validity is described as the level to
which many items measuring the same concept are
in agreement (Ramayah, Wai, and Boey, 2011). Hair
et al, (2010) recommend that to assess convergence
validity, the researcher can employ factor loadings,
composite reliability and average variance extracted
According to Fornell & Larcker (1981), that the
value of each of the average variance extracted
needs to exceed 50% of them item or more than 0.50
in order to make it is a relevant convergent validity.
For this research, the convergent validity for each of
the items was found out to be relevant as all of them
exceeding the 0.5 level. The highest AVE result was
from the Entertainment items with 0.843 meanwhile
the lowest AVE result was from the Personalization
item with 0.607 AVE.
In Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Hair et
al., (2010) stated that a factor loading value is
acceptable to be a good result if it is more than 0.5
for the Average Variance Extracted (AVE) and the
Composite Reliability (CR) is 0.7 and above. For
this study, it was found out that all the composite
reliability values ranged from 0.856 to 0.955 , as
shown in Table 2 , which depicts the degree to
which construct indicators indicate the latent, and
construct ranged which exceeded the recommended
value of 0.7 ( Hair et al., 2010).
In this study, the AVE’s ranged from 0.604 to
0.843, which were all within the suggested range.
All the cronbach’s alpha (CA) and composite
realibility (CR) , of it also exceeded the
recommended value of 0.80, indicating that the
measurement scaler in this study had high internal
consistency (Henseleret al. 2009, Sekaran and
Bougie, 2010).
Table 5.2: The Summary of the AVE, CR and
Cronbach’Alpha for this Study
Alpha (a)
Discriminant validity is the extent to which a
construct is different from others. According to Hair
et al., (2011), the discrimant validity stipulates that
each latent constructs AVE should be higher than
the constructs’ highest squared correlation with
other latent construct (Fornell Lackers 1981)
creation and the indicator’s loadings should be
greater than all its cross loadings. This study has
assesses the validity of the measure through Fornell
and Lacker’s creation.
In this study, five exogenous variables (IV) were
identified to be influenced the consumer’s attitudes
towards mobiles advertising. These five exogenous
(irritation, credibility, entertainment,
informativeness and personalization were
hypnotized to influence the relationship with
consumers attitudes. To determine these
relationships, PLS algorithm and book strapping
algorithm were conducted. Table 4 shows the results
of hypotheses testing between variables that have
direct impact on the conceptual model.
Table 5.3: Results (Summary) of Path Analysis Based on PLS Model
Original Sample
Sample Mean
Standard Deviation
T Statistics
Path Significance
Entertainment > Attitude
H1: Supported
Informativeness > Attitude
H2: Supported
Credibility > Attitudes
H3: Not Supported
Irritation > Attitudes
H4: Not Supported
Personalization > Attitudes
H5: Supported
Note: T>1.64, p-value=0.10, T>1.96,p-value=0.05,T>2.58,p-value=0.01
Consumer Attitudes towards Mobiles Advertising in Malaysia: A Case Study at University Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Kelantan, Malaysia
It was found out that Personalization (PE) was
identified as the most major factor in influencing
consumer’s attitudes towards mobile advertising
among students from Faculty of Business
Management in Mara University of Technology,
Kelantan. This finding is significant with the
findings and statements from other previous studies,
stated that personalization is one of the major factors
that may influence consumer’s attitudes towards
mobile advertising (Xu, 2007). Xu (2007) further
clarified that personalization plays a very important
roles in affecting people’s perceptions towards
mobiles advertising. It not only enhances people’s
favorable attitudes towards mobiles advertising, but
also improves people’s attitudes when they are
originally less favorable. The statement aligned with
the results showed by the survey, which indicate
PE3 items scores the highest mean (M=3.007
SD=1.105.) compared with PE1, PE2 and PE3. The
results showed that students have positive feelings
and agree that mobiles advertising displays
personalized message to them.
The second most contributing factors are
Entertainment. The findings were in accordance with
Le, T. D., & Nguyen, B. T. H (2014) which found
that Credibility and Entertainment emerged as the
significant predictors of attitudes toward mobile
advertising. In that study, the result showed that
even though most the respondents, mobile users hold
moderate attitudes. Although users do not usually
have positive emotions when seeing advertisements,
most of them agreed that mobile advertising has
helped them to collect information about products. It
was true, because based on the verbally conversation
with the majority of respondents, they have stated
that they do not likes receiving advertising through
their mobiles phones but they are agreed that some
of the advertisement makes them informed or update
their knowledge regarding new services, products
offered by the company.
It was found that that the factor that has the least
impact among all the factors is the Credibility (CE).
The results showed that Credibility scores the lowest
scores compared with the other factors
(personalization, irritation, entertainment and
informativeness) among students in Mara University
of Technology, Kelantan campus regarding the
consumer’s attitudes towards mobiles advertising. It
can simply state that, for the credibility variables,
the score of three items above were below than 3.0
for Mean and Standard Deviation is lower than 1.06.
The highest score was CR4 I use personalized
mobile advertising as a reference for purchasing
(M= 2.773 SD=1.059).In the other hands, the lowest
score was CR2mobile advertising is believable (M=
2.52 SD=0.83). The results shows that respondents
were disagreed that madvertisement are believable
and less trustworthy. The results have contradicted
with findings study by Chowdhury et al, (2010)
regarding the factors affecting consumer attitudes
toward SMSbased advertisements in Bangladesh. In
this study, credibility has found to be the most
significant of the factors affecting respondent’s
attitude toward mobile advertising.
Another finding that can discuss in this section
is the descriptive analysis of the study that includes
respondent’s age, gender, monthly spending and
ownership. Based on the results, it can show that,
most of respondents that answering the distributed
questionnaires are 70.7% are female while the rest is
male students. The result was being expected
because most of public universities including UiTM
are dominated by female rather than male students.
Majority of the phone or mobiles users in Mara
University of Technology, Kelantan branch are from
range 17 years old to 35 years old. As for the
information, Mara University of Technology,
Kelantan branch only offers pre diploma (MDAB),
diploma and also bachelor degree. There are around
10 respondents with the ages above than 25 years
old because most of students are considered Matured
Student. Matured Student usually is students from
peoples who are already working but further their
studies for career improvement or some of the
students extend their studies because of various
For this study, all the respondents have been
chosen from Faculty of Business Management with
the total numbers of students are 2101 from pre
diploma until bachelor degree. From the education
level aspect, a good number of diploma students
(52.7%) participated in the survey conducted. Most
of the students were comes from Diploma of
Banking and Diploma of Business study which
contributed 66.86% of total population numbers of
students for this faculty. For the degree students, it
was contributed around 43.3 % while pre diploma
only consists 6%.
In terms of spending money for top up phones
(prepaid) or paying bill (postpaid), majority of
students around (91.07%) prefer to spent or pay
billing RM 100 and below. That was because most
of them come from middle and low income family
and depending on the PTPTN loan to support their
studies. From the survey, it was noted from 150
ICEEE 2017 - 2nd International Conference on Economic Education and Entrepreneurship
questionnaires answered, 100%respondents admit
they are having a phones. This is due and relate with
the survey by Malaysian Communication and
Multimedia Communication that conducted a survey
in 2014 hand phone user surveys. From the survey,
in terms of hand phone ownership in 2014, 66.8% of
users carry only one hand phone. 28.9%of users
carry two, 3.4% users use three hand phones while
0.8% require four or more. This survey only
considers hand phones that were actively in usage at
the time of the survey were counted.
Apart from that, the validity of Ducoffe model
and Brackett and Carr model are proven to in this
study as the previous studies are conducted in the
past. This study will provide a valuable contribution
to both models and a better understanding on the
factors affecting consumer attitude towards
madvertising in Malaysia.
Besides, this research further extended both
models by adding one more variable which is
personalization in determining consumer attitude
towards Madvertising. This study proved that
personalization via madvertising are another factor
to affect consumer attitude. This study provides a
foundation for future researcher in creating a new
model in the field of marketing and advertising area.
In the final conclusion, it can be concluded that
the aim of this study was achieved, the research
objectives, research questions were answered
alongside with the tested research hypotheses. The
data analyses also were calculated in detail,
alongside with related literature reviews. Hopefully,
the outcome of the research provides a new
knowledge both in the targeted population and the
nation. Hopefully, this study will be the direction
and guideline for future studies to develop more
information and knowledge regarding the
consumer’s attitudes among mobiles advertising
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Consumer Attitudes towards Mobiles Advertising in Malaysia: A Case Study at University Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Kelantan, Malaysia