E-Traffic Operational Information System Based on Automatic
Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) System as a Tool to Detect Traffic
Violation and to Manage the Traffic Fines in Indonesia
Debby Ratna Daniel
, Ivana Laksmono
, Abetia Fitriani
Faculty of Business and Economy, Accounting Department, Airlangga University, Surabaya
Keywords: E-Traffic, Operational Information System, Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR).
Abstract: The complexity of traffic conditions in Indonesia is caused by several factors. One factor is the increasing
number of vehicles on the roads every year. This also affects the rate of traffic violations, also indicating a
lack of awareness in traffic compliance. This can be a serious problem in major cities such as Surabaya. An
instant common governmental solution focuses on development of infrastructure without considering the
need for operational functions. Current traffic management still uses a manual system that has gaps that can
be exploited by irresponsible parties for crimes such as the corruption of traffic fines. This current research
has used qualitative exploratory methodology to design an operational information system through the
implementation of an Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) system that will integrate all related
data from the Department of Transport, the District Court, the Attorney General’s Office, banks, and the
Ministry of Finance. This system will help to detect traffic violations automatically (E-Traffic) and manage
violation fines.
The complexity of traffic problems in Indonesia is
directly influenced by an increase in the number of
vehicles. Based on the data of Central Bureau
Statistics of Indonesia (2015), the increasing number
of vehicles reached 36,782,325 units from 2009 to
2013. So that, the impact of this increasing has
caused some traffic violations in big cities especially
Surabaya. Moreover, the Internal Data of Traffic
Directorate of East Java Region Police (2015) stated
that the number of traffic violations (Table 1)
increased by 15.03% during the period 2013–2014
(). This data tells us that there were around 125
people committing traffic violations in East Java
every hour of every day in 2014.
Table 1: The Comparison of Traffic Violation Data in East
Java Province during 2013-2014
Amount Trend
2013 2014 Numbe
Tilang 745,958
d by
In Case
Warning 202,445
d by
In Case
Total of
d by
In Case
The manual detection system of traffic violations
forces the traffic police to watch every vehicle
passing on the road closely every day. Based on
current facts, there were a large number of police
investigators who collected illegal traffic fines. In
accordance with Indonesia Law Number 22, 2009
regarding traffic and transportation, police
investigators are now not allowed to collect traffic
fines directly. Moreover, the Attorney’s General
Office has been appointed by the Ministry of
Finance as an institution that manages all traffic
fines and is recorded as non-tax revenue in
accordance with Law Number 20, 1997. Although
Daniel, D., Laksmono, I. and Fitriani, A.
E-Traffic Operational Information System Based on Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) System as a Tool to Detect Traffic Violation and to Manage the Traffic Fines in Indonesia.
In Proceedings of the Journal of Contemporary Accounting and Economics Symposium 2018 on Special Session for Indonesian Study (JCAE 2018) - Contemporary Accounting Studies in
Indonesia, pages 200-206
ISBN: 978-989-758-339-1
Copyright © 2018 by SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
there was a clear law for the receivers of fines, it
was proven that illegal practices were still common.
This problem arose due to the unintegrated system
between the system controllers and supervisors in
the process of receiving and collecting fines. It
created a gap that could be manipulated by
irresponsible parties.
The operational information system is very
suitable to be implemented with considering the
complexity of traffic needs. This system can be used
as an essential tool to detect traffic violations
through a database that will collaborate with an
expert system to link all the processes in the
application and manage traffic fines. This current
research will design an Automatic Number Plate
Recognition (ANPR) system, a popular form of
expert system that has been applied in many
developed countries. It is based on the collection of
vehicle license plate images to identify vehicles and
solve traffic problems. This system is very much
needed for the detection of vehicles and to optimize
all functions, including monitoring, controlling,
problem solving, fine management, and compliance,
improving relationships with all institutions in
Indonesia, i.e. The Department of Transportation,
Regional Police, the District Court, the Attorney
General’s Office, banks, and the Ministry of
Finance. The next research about vehicle tax
payment system can be implemented to develop our
current research in order to help the government in
managing the traffic in Indonesia.
The Limitation of Research
The limitation of this current research relates to the
lack of feasibility studies regarding traffic in
Indonesia. In addition, the traffic system in
Indonesia only had the ability to record vehicles’
activities without knowing the identity of drivers in
relation to traffic violations.
2.1 Previous Research
This current research is adopted from eight
international journals used as reference materials to
design the new ANPR system for traffic in
Surabaya. First, Lyons (2014) stated that installing
the ANPR system must be supported by elements
such as GPS technology for location accuracy, the
location of the camera, sufficiency of light, camera
stabilization, volume, and behavior, and the
characteristics of road conditions. Second, Chao and
Chen (2014) recommended the application of radio
frequency identification (RFID) as a tool for
controlling traffic flow. Third, Hawi et al. (2015)
stated that smart technology that automatically
controls traffic, has a substantial impact on traffic
violation level. Fourth, Zeng (2015) explained that
using intelligent traffic systems will support the
calculation of traffic flow and average speed of cars
on specific roads, query the travel paths of a vehicle,
and check and control the fake registration plates.
Fifth, Al-Sakran (2015) also agreed that an
intelligent traffic system developed using current
technology, i.e. the Internet, can provide real-time
traffic information collection and monitoring
systems for all vehicles. Sixth, Alam and MK (2015)
suggested that using fuzzy logic within traffic light
systems can minimize traffic congestion in large
urban areas. Seventh, Ghazal et al. (2016) suggested
that the implementation of smart traffic light control
systems can decrease the level of congestion on the
road. Eighth, Yawle et al. (2016) explained that the
design and implementation of smart traffic
techniques can be used for traffic management
through the utilization of GSM and GPS as a main
communication feature.
2.2 Expert System
Kroenke (2010) explained that the process of
designing system must follow the applicable law
about changing the human roles into the system
language in the form of If/Then Rules. Besides that,
the primary component of expert systems consists of
a knowledge base, inference engine, and user
interface (Marakas, 2013).
2.3 Operational Information System
According to Daniel (2007), the components of
operational information systems consist of input (a
transaction processing subsystem, operational
engineering subsystem, and an operational
intelligence subsystem), database (a management
hybrid database with technology from fog
computing), and output (an operational subsystem,
effective and efficient subsystem, inventory
subsystem, quality subsystem, and cost subsystem).
2.4 The ANPR System
The ANPR system is designed with the primary aim
of collecting all data relating to vehicle identity so it
can be used as a tool to enforce traffic laws (Yasin et
E-Traffic Operational Information System Based on Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) System as a Tool to Detect Traffic
Violation and to Manage the Traffic Fines in Indonesia
al., 2009). Yasin et al. (2009) also state that this
system consists of two main components, i.e.
hardware (camera, lens, infra-red illuminator, and
computer) and software (optical character
recognition and algorithms). In addition, the Final
Review of Association of Chief Police Officers in
England and Northern Ireland (2013) stated that
there are three benefits of using this system as
follows: 1) to identify vehicles used by criminals
and disrupt their activities; 2) to gather intelligence;
and 3) to investigate crimes.
This current research adopted the methodology
taken from Yin’s theory (2012) that can be
explained as follows:
1. Research methodology
This research used the qualitative method with
an exploratory approach. The qualitative method
is used to understand current issues relating to
traffic as a tool to evaluate, discover, and
investigate the current system that will be
transformed by using an ANPR system.
Meanwhile, the exploratory approach is aimed to
collect all information that will be used to
analyze traffic violations and traffic fine
2. Research design
The design of current research is supported by
five specific, essential components:
a. The main research question is developed
from the initial issue or problem. In this case,
this is how an e-traffic operational
information system can help to detect traffic
violations and manage traffic fines using an
ANPR system.
b. The concept proposed in this current research
is related to the design of the e-traffic
operational information system and the
ANPR system to enforce the law efficiently
and transparently.
c. The unit of analysis is the current operational
system, which considers current traffic laws
in Surabaya.
d. The logic used to associate data with previous
propositions: 1) all data and general
information related with East Java traffic
violations are formulated as a current traffic
situation; 2) manual fines received illustrate a
non-transparent policy in police institutions;
3) the implementation of an ANPR system in
other developed countries generate an
effective operational standard and is
considered suitable for application in
Surabaya; 4) the management of vehicle plate
images are adjusted with vehicle databases as
a foundation for the development of an
operational information system; 5) specific
traffic violations can be detected by the
ANPR system using the vehicle database, and
traffic fines will be based on Indonesia Law
Number 22, 2009 regarding traffic and
transportation; and 6) information about a
traffic violation’s time and location will be
recorded in a database to be processed as an
output for related parties.
e. The criteria of findings used the knowledge
and references relating to the ANPR system
and Operational Information System (OIS).
3. Research scope
The scope of current research is limited to just
four types of research objectives: 1) setting the
location center for research in Surabaya; 2) using
Indonesia Law Number 22, 2009 and Indonesia
Government Regulation Number 80, 2012 as
legal references; 3) choosing legal and
authorized traffic violators as the research
subjects; and 4) the types of traffic violation that
can be detected must be caught by the camera.
4. Data type and sources
Two types of data were used: primary data (from
Ditlantas Polda Jatim, police investigators,
traffic violators, the District Court, the Attorney
General’s Office, and BRI Bank) and secondary
data (theories, general description of related
institutions, procedures of handling traffic
violators, the trial process of traffic violators at
the District Court and Attorney General’s Office,
the payment process of fine tickets through the
BRI bank, and actual implementation of the
ANPR system in other developed countries).
5. Data collection procedures
The data collection in this current research
covers the initial survey of police institutions and
the field using three methods: observation (road
users, traffic police officers on duty, the traffic
handling system, the trial process of tilang, and
the payment of traffic fines), interview (the
subjects are East Java Revenue Service
(Dispenda) staff, Head of East Java Police
Traffic Directorate (Ditlantas Polda Jatim),
police staff, traffic police, road users, and traffic
violators from Surabaya) and documentation
(interview results, videos, and photographs).
6. Analysis technique
JCAE Symposium 2018 – Journal of Contemporary Accounting and Economics Symposium 2018 on Special Session for Indonesian Study
There are two strategies used to analyze this
research: 1) a descriptive approach to identify
mutual relationships; and 2) development of the
unique description.
7. Research time and location
This research took place during the period
September to December 2015 at institutions such
as the Revenue Service of East Java (Dispenda),
the East Java Police Force (Polda Jatim), the
Surabaya District Court, and road traffic in
4.1 The Manual Traffic System in
4.1.1 The System of Handling Traffic
The initial procedure of handling traffic violations
by the police can be categorized as a quick
investigation. Indonesia Law Number 22, 2009
stated that every traffic and transport violation
based on quick investigation reports may be subject
to criminal penalties in the form of fines decided by
the district court. The standard operational procedure
of East Java Police number Lantas-002/IV/2012,
explained that there are seven steps of handling
traffic violations by police as follows: 1) preparation
of a traffic ticket; 2) completion of the traffic ticket;
3) the traffic ticket is signed by the violator; 4) the
traffic ticket is given to the violator; 5) confiscated
goods or deposits are taken from the violator; and 6)
the rest of the tickets and confiscated goods or
deposits are returned to the unit of investigation.
There are also two different procedures for giving
tickets based on the internal procedure data from the
East Java Police Traffic Directorate as detailed:
1. The procedure of handling traffic violations
using the blue form
This procedure is applied for violators who
cannot attend the trial process (figure 1).
Figure 1: The Mechanism of Handling Traffic Violations
using the Blue Form (2015)
2. The procedure of handling traffic violations
using the red form
This procedure is applied for violators who can
attend the trial process (figure 2).
Figure 2: The Mechanism of Handling Traffic Violation
using the Red Form (2015)
4.1.2 The Trial System of Traffic Violations
The District Court is an institution that has
responsibility to follow up the process of acting
regarding traffic violations. In Surabaya, traffic
violation trials are held every Monday and Friday.
Based on the observation process from East Java
District Court, trial procedures of traffic violations
depend on the ticket form chosen beforehand:
1. The trial procedure of traffic violations using the
blue form
This procedure is intended for violators who
cannot attend the trial event (figure 3).
Figure 3: The Mechanism of the Traffic Violation Trial
using the Blue Ticket Form (2015)
2. The trial procedure of traffic violations using the
red form
This procedure is intended for violators who can
attend the trial event (figure 4)
Figure 4: The Mechanism of Traffic Violation Trial using
the Red Ticket Form (2015)
4.1.3 The Traffic Fines Payment System
The management of receiving traffic fine payments,
accepted directly after a trial or judge’s verdict, has
been the responsibility of the Attorneys General’s
Office. Based on the agreement numbers B-
319/E/VII/1993, Kep/09/VII/1993, and B.366-
DIR/DJS/1993 of the three parties, i.e. the Attorney
General’s Office, the Indonesia Police, and the BRI
Bank. It is stated that the use of the checking
account at the BRI Bank aims to accommodate the
deposits of traffic violators. The procedures of fine
payments based on internal data proceedings from
the East Java District Court are dependent on the
procedure used before as follows:
E-Traffic Operational Information System Based on Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) System as a Tool to Detect Traffic
Violation and to Manage the Traffic Fines in Indonesia
1. The payment procedure of traffic violations
using the blue form
The payment procedure is dependent on the
result of the evidence from the judge’s verdict
(figure 5).
Figure 5: The Mechanism of Fine Payments using the
Blue Ticket Form (2015)
2. The payment procedure of traffic violations
using the red form
This payment process is directly carried out in
the District Court (figure 6)
Figure 6: The Mechanism of Fine Payment Using Red
Ticket Form
4.2 The Current Development of
Traffic Systems in Surabaya
Indonesia Traffic Police Coordinator Korlantas
Polri has been implementing the new innovated
traffic fines system since December 14
(Motomaxone, 2017). This system is well-known as
E-Tilang and has been applied in Jakarta. The
system is very simple with only entering the
violation data through the application to inform the
fine payment information to the violators. Then, the
violators pay the fine amount through the bank to get
the legal document as a requirement to take the
confiscate documents. As additional information, the
violators must pay the maximum fine before the
judge drops the final decision. If the judge decision
is lower than the original fine, the excessive fund
will be returned to the violator through the bank.
The successful of E-Tilang system in Jakarta is
being used to design a pilot project for a traffic
system in Surabaya. Based on the Focus Group
discussion held by the forum of the Surabaya
Government, it was agreed to use CCTV as a
medium for controlling and monitoring each traffic
violation throughout the day. This innovative system
has been applied since September 1
(Liputan6, 2017). This system records all traffic
events each day and is viewed via a giant screen in
the control room at the Headquarters of the
Transportation Agency. However, this system only
identifies types of traffic violation through an alarm
system and the violator’s identity is identified using
a manual system (recording the number plate of a
vehicle). Therefore, it was demonstrated that this
system is not sufficient to collect integrated data as
evidence for traffic fines.
5.1 Conclusion
Based on the results of analysis in this current
research, we can conclude that the current
implemented traffic system in Surabaya still has a
number of weaknesses:
1. The manual system in the handling of traffic
violations is less than appropriate for several
a. The manual stoppage of vehicles that violate
traffic signs may not be effective when the
number of police on duty is not in balance
with the number of violators.
b. The frequency of false accusations of traffic
violations due to deliberate or accidental
elements of policing.
c. Manual ticket form filling and payment of
fines can be misused by irresponsible parties.
d. Police can withdraw illegal charges of traffic
violations without the strict control from the
Government as a tool for their individual
needs (corruption).
2. The current process of trials regarding traffic
violations still attract frequent complaints from
the community, for example:
a. The trial schedule was far from the violation
time. It was valued as less efficient because
the mobility of violators is very restricted
without sufficient documents when driving.
b. The regulation of trial locations that must be
in accordance with the area of violation was
judged as inefficient because it was very
troublesome for violators who lived a long
distance from that area.
c. There were many panders (calo) that were
ready to represent the violators. It caused
gaps for the benefit of criminals, which could
subsequently harm the country.
JCAE Symposium 2018 – Journal of Contemporary Accounting and Economics Symposium 2018 on Special Session for Indonesian Study
5.2 Recommendation
In evaluating the weaknesses of the current traffic
system in Surabaya, we can provide some
1. Using an ANPR system as a tool to automatically
record traffic violations through a number plate
image and an expert system. This system aims to
collect all ticket forms from the responsible
parties and create an efficient information system
for violators as part of an operational information
system. There were three process techniques
used when designing this system:
a. Algorithm Techniques
The first stage of an ANPR system used an
algorithm technique, in which the image was
captured by a camera, then translated in three
(i) Image capturing used to detect the
number plate of a vehicle
(ii) Pre-processing used to define an initial
image that generates a binary image
(iii) Segmentation is used to discard the parts
that are not plate characters
b. Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
The OCR technology can be found in the
ANPR software. This function of the
technology transforms the initial image into a
digital image with the required plate number
listed in the user interface. There is a three-
phase sequence for achieving that output:
(i) Normalization
This will adjust the image resolution that
will be read by the OCR system.
(ii) Recognition
The plate number will be read by the
OCR system and transmitted into a
visual format within the ANPR software.
(iii) Post-processing
The display of a number plate image via
this process can be used by related
c. Enforcement detection techniques
This third technique is used to detect traffic
violations using expert system technology.
The working process of this technique will
utilize the knowledge base to record every
traffic violation. The regulation data will then
be entered using if/then logics with details as
(i) If Vehicle_Lights_Off, Then Sensor
(ii) If Vehicle_Passes_Traffic light, Then
Sensor Detect_2872_Violation_Number
2. Designing the thinking flow and information
The design of the new development system for
detecting traffic violations is supported by these
a. Thinking flow
This part is formed from seven outputs:
(i) The violator – the vehicle owner who
carried out the violation, based on the
vehicle plate number.
(ii) The Ministry of Finance – responsible
for the receiving of a ticket fine.
(iii) The automatic ticket detection system – a
tool to detect all vehicle plate numbers.
(iv) Input image – describes the vehicle plate
number to be used as information for the
Police, Court, and the Attorney General’s
Office, providing information regarding
the type of traffic violation and the cost
of the fine.
(v) Notifications – used as a tool to give
messages relating to the trial schedule,
the cost of the fine, the total points, and
the type of traffic violation.
(vi) Payments – explanation of the ticket fine
payment process based on the various
fine types such as fine notification,
maximum fine, or court verdict fine.
(vii) The non-tax national revenue – all ticket
fines are recognized as a source of
national revenue and synchronized with
all related parties to generate a report for
the Ministry of Finance.
b. Information flow
(i) The ANPR detection process that will
manage the input data, i.e. plate number
images to obtain the identity of the
vehicle owner.
(ii) The traffic violation determining process
that will integrate the identity of the
vehicle owner with the detected violation
through the expert system.
(iii) The management of the violators’ data
status that will collect all information
relating to a trial process, notification
process, and a fine payment process.
(iv) The traffic fine transaction process that
will generate the cost of the fine payable
by the violator and recorded as the
collectable receivable amount in the
Attorney General’s Office.
E-Traffic Operational Information System Based on Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) System as a Tool to Detect Traffic
Violation and to Manage the Traffic Fines in Indonesia
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the total amount of debt repayment to
create a national receiving report for the
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JCAE Symposium 2018 – Journal of Contemporary Accounting and Economics Symposium 2018 on Special Session for Indonesian Study