Does Problem-Based Learning Work on Presentation Skills?

Supri Wahyudi Utomo

1

, Moh. Ubaidilla

2

, Soetarno Joyoatmojo

1

, Sri Yutmini

1

and

Nunuk Suryani

1

1

Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Indonesia

2

Universitas PGRI Madiun, Jl.Setia Budi 85, Madiun, Indonesia

supriu@unipma.ac.id, mohubaidillah@unipma.ac.id, soetarno486311@gmail.com

Keywords: Presentation skills and problem-based learning.

Abstract: Presentation skills are seen as an important ability that must be mastered by university students to prepare

them for the work-place. Another purpose of university education aside from improving knowledge and

achievement is preparing the students for the real competitions and succeed in their career. This research

aimed to empirically prove whether problem-based learning method has its effect on students’ achievement

and presentation skills. This research used descriptive qualitative method while quota sampling technique was

used to select the subject. The data were analyzed by using structural equation modeling (SEM) with partial

least squares (PLS) while the students’ performance was measured descriptively. The result showed that

problem-based learning method gave a significant effect on students’ presentation ability which therefore

improve their achievements. Students developed independent learning habit through their Problem-Based

Learning experience which gave significant impact on the content and mastery of their presentation material

although the discussions session didn’t run well due to the text dependency of the participants.

1 INTRODUCTION

Presentation is a technique commonly used by

students and teachers to practice their knowledge and

teaching skills. Yalcin and Yalcin (2010: 480-486)

state that in the 21st century, the presentation method

had become the important requirement in daily life

related to social and individual needs. Presentation is

often used by teacher to measure the students’

mastery and understanding of the material as well as

to measure their communication skills. This is very

essential especially for those students majoring in

education as they are being prepared to deliver the

knowledge to their future students.

Recent studies have emphasized on the use of

Problem-Based Learning to improve students’

understanding on learning material. Some studies

have also mentioned on the effect of Problem-Based

Learning on students’ independent learning, problem

solving ability and teamwork. However, combining

all the aspect of learning above is another important

thing. All aspect mentioned can be seen clearly

through students’ ability in presentation skills. Harun,

Yusof, Jamaludin and Hassan (2012: 233-242) said

that: In the problem-based learning models, the

students are trained to do independent learning,

become useful in their group to solve the real

problems through context and independent learning.

This is in line with Magsino (2014: 1-5) and Jalani

and Sern (2015: 153-163) who stated that students

who taught with problem-based learning get wider

knowledge and understand the concept deeper than

those who taught with teacher-centered learning

model.

A problem-based learning is used by the teachers

to improve students’ motivation and creativity in the

learning process. Walton and Matthew in Alrahlah

(2016: 155-161) and Phungsuk, Viriyavejakul, and

Ratanolarn (2017: 297-306) also state that problem-

based learning had been introduced and develop as an

important part of learning to improve students’

ability, knowledge, and attitude which is the essential

part of the curriculum and encourage students to

question and examine on the area, object, people,

book, proof, and information. The process of

Problem-Based Learning encourage students to

present their study arrange the materials and present

the result of their study in a form of presentation.

Presentation is a form of evaluation which

become an important part of learning process that

enable teacher to evaluate the students’ knowledge,

and understanding of the materials as well as other

abilities such as communication, teamwork, group

discussion and problem solving. This skill is however

286

Utomo, S., Ubaidilla, M., Joyoatmojo, S., Yutmini, S. and Suryani, N.

Does Problem-Based Learning Work on Presentation Skills?.

In Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities (ANCOSH 2018) - Revitalization of Local Wisdom in Global and Competitive Era, pages 286-289

ISBN: 978-989-758-343-8

Copyright © 2018 by SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved

less observed by researchers. Levasseur, Dean, and

Pfaff in De Grez, Valcke, and Beringgs (2010: 1786-

1789.), stated that oral presentation skill recognized

as a major professional skill, but the learning process

and skill about the presentation is ever researched by

another researcher.

This research is aimed to evaluate the students’

ability in presentation. This is very important to

understand the effect given by Problem-Based

Learning method in students’ understanding and

mastery of the material through presentation. Other

skills promoted by the use of PBL in teaching and

learning such as communication, teamwork and

group discussion can also be analyzed through

presentation easily.

2 METHOD

This research is carried out by descriptive method,

which describes the application of the problem-based

learning to develop students’ achievement and

presentation skill. The subjects of the research are 45

sample students of the Accountant Education Study

program out 0f 96 student who are taken by quota

sampling technique. The overall students initially

have quite low of presentation abilities and most are

using monotonous slides and paper based

presentation. Their ability in mastering the material

was very poor and their presentation was not

interesting and alive.

2.1 Measurement of Variables

The measurement of problem-based learning

collisions is 3 dimensions and 18 indicators are

learning independence with the indicator code

KMB1, KMB2, KMB3, KMB4, KMB5, KMB6 and

KMB7, Learning Motivation with MOB8, MOB9,

MOB10, MOB11, MOB12, MOB13 indicator code,

and teamwork with code indicator KRT14, KRT15,

KRT16, KRT17, KRT18.

The measurement of presentation capacity is 12

indicators with the code KRT15, KRT16, KRT17,

KRT18, PRE19, PRE20, PRE21, PRE22, PRE23,

PRE24, PRE25, PRE26, PRE27, PRE28, PRE29,

PRE30.

2.2 Data Analysis Technique

The technique of analyzing the questionnaire data is

using structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis

with partial least squares (PLS) or smartPLS 2 tools,

to know the effect of problem-based learning model

on presentation ability. The reason for using SEM

analysis is, because of the latent and the first order

and second order constructs.

3 RESULTS

3.1 Evaluation of Measurement Model

(Outer Model)

Outer model is a step to know the validity and

reliability that connects with latent variables. To see

the validity is measured by using outer loading and

AVE. Requirements to meet validity must be above

0.50. Measuring the outer loading if there is one

invalid indicator that is PRE20 on variable Ability

presentation. On the AVE measurement, all contracts

and dimensions meet the criterion of the criterion of

0.5 is declared valid.

Measurement reliability using composite

reliability with criterion 0.7. The result of smartPLS

shows that all the constants and dimensions have met

the requirements, so it is declared reliable all the

constants and dimensions. Here are the AVE tables

and composite reliability.

Table 1: AVE and composite reliability.

AVE

Composite

Reliability

KMB

0,661662

0,931455

KRT

0,699493

0,92076

MOB

0,65102

0,917911

PBL

0,619589

0,966893

PRE

0,56497

0,933663

Source: Results of Data Processing SmartPLS 2 (2018).

3.2 Model Structure (Inner Model)

The structural model is evaluated by using R-square

(R²) for the dependent construct, and the T-test as

well as the significance of the structural path

parameter coefficients. R² can be used to assess the

effect of independent latent variables on latent

dependent variables whether they have substantive

results. In Table R-Square shows that the lowest R-

Square 0.049065 is included in the weak category and

the highest 0.945921 is included in the stable

category.

Does Problem-Based Learning Work on Presentation Skills?

287

Table 2: R-Square.

R Square

KMB

0,945921

KRT

0,913484

MOB

0,928598

PBL

PRE

0,049065

Source: Results of Data Processing SmartPLS 2 (2018).

3.3 Evaluation of the Goodness of Fit

The result of the calculation of goodness of fit values

is 0.67340033 above the 0.50 criteria, so that the

research model is categorized fit. Here is the result of

the goodness of fit calculation with the formula:

3.4 Significance Test

In the Path Coefficient tables can be seen that the

problem-based learning model (PBL) to Presentation

Capability (PRE) with the value of T-statistics

14.855864 above 1.96 or 5% significant, and the

coefficient up to 0.221506 that shows the positive

numbers. It shows that the constraint of problem-

based learning has a positive effect on the

presentation skills.

Table 3: Path coefficients (Mean, STDEV, T-Values).

Original

Sample

(O)

Sample

Mean (M)

Standard

Deviation

(STDEV)

Standard

Error

(STERR)

T Statistics

(|O/STERR|)

PBL -> KMB

0,972585

0,972489

0,001775

0,001775

547,829967

PBL -> KRT

0,955764

0,955544

0,002888

0,002888

330,887144

PBL -> MOB

0,963638

0,963682

0,002072

0,002072

465,040043

PBL -> PRE

0,221506

0,227078

0,01491

0,01491

14,855864

Source: Results of Data Processing SmartPLS 2 (2018).

The result showed that the implementation of

Problem-Based Learning has a good impact on

Students’ presentation skill. Students’ ability in

constructing materials for presentation is quite good,

although improvement is needed. Students’ ability of

presentation is also improved quite significant.

However, there are some aspects that need further

improvement namely mastery of the materials and

readiness in responding the participants’ questions.

4 DISCUSSION

Problem-Based learning develops student’s

independent learning as they are faced to real life

problem to be solved. This is in line with Harun,

Yusof, Jamaludin and Hassan (2012: 233-242) who

stated that in PBL, students are trained to be

independent, effectively function in group work to

solve the real problem, therefore it motivates students

to learn contextually and independently. Supporting

the idea are Jalani and Sern (2015: 153-163) who

stated that students who are taught by using PBL are

able to obtained a wider knowledge and deeper

understanding of the concept compares to those

taught by using Teacher-Centered Learning.

The result also showed that students’ ability in

presentation is also improve significantly especially

in term of preparing the materials. This is essential as

preparing presentation is needed to give precise

information which makes it well accepted by listener.

Simona (2015: 69-74) says that to increase students'

awareness, preparing and providing the good

academic presentation, technique, and business based

on the rule, clear structure, uses language list and

supported by technology which can give success

contribution on their future career is highly essential.

The ability of presentation can be evaluated from

two kind points such as the ability to make the

material presentation (slide form as a document

presentation) and the ability when they do the

presentation. Goto and Kashihara (2016: 1285 –

1293) says that recently was happen increases usage

document presentation that consists of the slide as

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learning content. The result showed that students’

ability in preparing a good and precise material has

improved significantly.

The similar result is found in the students’ ability

to present the material. This is in line with Levasseur,

Dean, and Pfaff in De Grez, Valcke and Berringgs

(2010: 1786-1789) that the ability of oral presentation

is recognized as the main professional skill. The result

shows that students’ ability in oral presentation has

improved compared to their previous result.

However, there are some skills that didn’t show

any improvement namely the material mastery and

ability to give quick response to every question.

Students are mostly still depend on the text in

presenting their material. Although the slide content

is quite effective and represent the materials, most of

them still used the text to refer to the answer given by

participants.

5 CONCLUSIONS

The result of the research shows that problem-based

learning model has significant influence towards the

students’ achievement. It is also able to develop

students’ presentation skill, in terms of the material

development and presentation performance. Students

are able to develop deeper understanding of the

material and present the material fluently. However,

students’ mastery of the material during the

presentation is still hasn’t improved. In addition, the

students are still unable to give quick responses

toward the questions given by participants and have

to refer to their text to find the answer.

REFERENCES

Alrahlah, A., 2016. How effective the Problem-Based

Learning (PBL) in dental education: A critical review.

The Saudi Dental Journal, 28, 155-161.

De Grez, L., Valcke, M., Beringgs. 2010. Student response

system and learning oral presentation skills. Procedia-

Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 1786-1789.

Goto, M., Kashihara, A., 2016. Understanding presentation

document with visualization of connections between

presentation slides. Procedia Computer Science, 96,

1285 – 1293.

Harun, N. F., Yusof, K. M., Jamaludin, M. Z., Hassan, A.

H. S., 2012. Motivation in problem-based learning

implementation. Procedia-Social and Behavioral

Sciences, 56, 233-242.

Jalani, N. H., Sern, L. C., 2015. Efficiency comparisons

between example-problem-based learning and teacher-

centered learning in the teaching of circuit theory.

Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 204, 153-

163.

Magsino, R. M., 2014. Enhancing higher order thinking

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Phungsuk, R., Viriyavejakul, C., Ratanaolarn, T., 2017.

Development of a problem-based learning model via a

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