The Importance of Hybrid Teaching and Learning Model to Improve
Activities and Achievements
Hestiningtyas Yuli Pratiwi
, Sujito Sujito
, Hena Dian Ayu
and Akhmad Jufriadi
Program Studi Pendidikan Fisika, Universitas Kanjuruhan Malang, Jalan S. Supriadi No. 48 Kota Malang, Indonesia
Jurusan Fisika, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jalan Semarang No 5 Kota Malang, Indonesia,,,
Keywords: Hybrid online, activity, achievement.
Abstract: The aim to this study is to develop, describe and to know the effectiveness of prototype an online basis
learning. The developing method which was conducted referred to what have been conducted by
Thiagarajan about developing learning design of Define, Design, Develop, and Disseminate Four-D. The
developed product was validated by the specialists of developing learning media. Developed prototype in
this study also receives advices and suggestions from the users of the product (the students). The sample
consisted of 30 undergraduate students 4 semester of the academic year of 2014. The result of this study
shows that online basis learning prototype is really needed by students to improve their mastering lecture
material. Students think it is time to develop a lecture prototype with the assistance of technology
development along with the advance of knowledge and technology. Besides, lecturers also need lecture
prototype to manage a better lecture. It shows that the developed learning prototype is appropriate and can
be made to the online basis learning prototype. Limited trials of prototypes have shown that students are
more enthusiastic and improved learning achievement significantly. This learning experience is very
important considering they will later become a teacher of physics. .
Hybrid online learning is one of blended learning
implementation. In this prototype, lectures still give
the usual interface lectures and add an activity using
internet assistance to complete the interface lectures.
In hybrid online learning it develops a site to
manage the learning activity as in E-Learning (Huda
et al., 2018). However, hybrid online learning only
uses e-learning to support interface activity.
Assessment, outside lecture interaction, and sharing
lecture materials are some examples of hybrid online
Students involved in study show the advantages
of implementing hybrid online compared to the
interface lecture, although they have not experienced
in this lecture prototype before (O’Byrne and
Pytash, 2015). Nevertheless another study conducted
by Senn (2008) found that the implementation of
hybrid online is not suggested to subjects which are
full of hand on activities. Curriculum Study of
Physics Education is not the subject full of hand on
activities so it fits to hybrid online learning.
The problems which frequently occur in teaching
and learning 1) lectures have many students, that
they have limited time to give tests, to immediately
check, to analyze the results, to give feedbacks, and
to conduct remedial tests as soon as possible; 2)
lectures also find difficulties in managing large
amount of data assessment and they need long time
to record and analyze; 3) this situation causes
unorganized record of written data assessment about
formative assessment activity; 4) there is limited
time to interact between lectures and students;
5)there is unavailable computer to share the source
of learning to improve the students’ knowledge.
These problems cause difficulties for students to
understand the lecture (Chen and Chiou, 2012).
Along with the advance of knowledge and
technology, to minimize the impact of the problems
that lectures find, thus the researchers developed a
learning innovation using a product of the advance
of knowledge and technology; it is the developed
online basis learning prototype. Online basis
learning prototype which is usually known as Hybrid
Online is a term for lecture prototype which
integrates interface learning with advantages in E-
Learning which uses the internet as the media (Allen
et al., 2011). In Hybrid Online Learning it uses the
advantages in E-Learning to cover the weaknesses
Pratiwi, H., Sujito, S., Ayu, H. and Jufriadi, A.
The Importance of Hybrid Teaching and Learning Model to Improve Activities and Achievements.
In Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities (ANCOSH 2018) - Revitalization of Local Wisdom in Global and Competitive Era, pages 326-330
ISBN: 978-989-758-343-8
Copyright © 2018 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
which occur in traditional interface learning. Hybrid
online Learning can be used to give assignments, to
conduct tests, to make informal assessment, to
manage lecture journal, and to add media to support
The implementation of Online basis learning
gives many advantages either to lectures or to
students. Hybrid Online learning also is potential to
support Curriculum Study of Physics Education
lecture. The implementation of this prototype can be
used to get an effective and innovative lecture for
students. Meanwhile, active interaction among
students is believed by many educational circles to
be one of decisive factor towards students’ learning
success (Jonassen, 1999). The interaction which is
the reciprocal interaction either among students or
between students and lectures can be one of
indicators towards students’ learning success
Considering Physics Education Major of
Universitas Kanjuruhan does not use Online basis
learning prototype in its lecture, thus the researchers
were encouraged to conduct a developing study with
a title “Developing Online Basis Learning to
Support the Lecture of Curriculum Study of Physics
The study was conducted by involving lecturers of
Curriculum Study of Physics Education, lecturers of
Learning Media, and some students of Physics
Education. The implementation of this developed
hybrid online lecture prototype is the research and
development which refer to Thiagarajan’s Four-D
lecture design prototype (Thiagarajan, 1974). The
scope of activity and product of each development
phase in Four-D approach is described as follow.
Define phase. The researchers began by
identifying today’s and following conditions. The
analysis was implemented to curriculum of lectures
and users’ analysis. The researchers gained
specifications of aims, identifications of needs,
indicators of success, expected resulted products,
and strategies in product testing in this phase.
Design Phase. In this phase, the researchers
developed the interactive multimedia design. One of
the results in this phase is designing lecture site by
using related moodle and content. Develop Phase.
The design which was developed by the researchers
became product which received advice from media
specialist and learning specialists.
Disseminate Phase. The next phase is to
implement interactive multimedia which was
developed to students of Curriculum Study of
Physics Education. Desired condition in the future.
Analysis the researchers do on curriculum lectures
and user analysis. In this phase, the destination
specification is obtained the identification of needs,
indicators of success, the final product is desired,
testing strategies and products.
This is the first phase of the study. In this phase the
researchers conducted the first study which covered
the study towards Curriculum Study of Physics
Education and the data collecting during lectures.
The study towards Curriculum Study of Physics
Education shows that this subject is compulsory for
students of Physics Education Major of Universitas
The subject intends to develop the students’
knowledge and skills as the future physics teachers
to design, to implement, and to develop the
curriculum of intermediate Physics Education. The
investigations towards learning systems in Physics
Education Major of Universitas Kanjuruhan include
various problems faced by lectures and students in
learning process. Data collecting was conducted
using questionnaire. Main data source was students
who took Curriculum Study of Physics Education.
Based on this method, the researchers found the
learning condition and the possibility to implement
hybrid online prototype. The results of the
questionnaire were as follow:
For the questions related to the necessity for
lecturers to show learning sources on the internet. As
much as 65,2% of respondents stated agree (S) with
lecturers showing learning sources on the internet
related to lecture material, as much as 28,98% stated
very agree (SS), and the rest 5,8% stated disagree
(TS). The detail can be seen in Figure 1 below.
The Importance of Hybrid Teaching and Learning Model to Improve Activities and Achievements
Figure 1: Description of students’ responds towards the
result of the questionnaire.
Based on the description in the diagram on
Figure 1 above, respondents have various reasons.
The reasons of the respondents who agree (Agree
S and Very Agree SS) towards the necessity to
show the learning source on the internet are 1)
students feel helped by receiving additional material
from the internet when they study at home; 2) easily
accessing the internet accelerates and facilitates
students to get the newest learning material which is
appropriate to the advance of knowledge and
technology; 3) it gives indirect training to students to
find lecture information; 4) it helps students to find
the newest lecture references; 5) it creates students
to be active, creative, innovative, and positive in
thinking; 6) it increases the students’ concepts by
having many lecture references; 7)students have
valid literatures or lecture references which focus on
the theme of the material; 8) students have various
literatures which will increase their concepts and
knowledge; 9) students feel confidence in finding
information about lecture material; and 10) students
will get more qualified, more interesting, and more
pleasant lecture. Meanwhile, respondents who
disagree (Disagree TS and Very Disagree STS)
also have some reasons; they are 1) students feel
difficult to access the internet; 2) students think the
facility provided by the university is not enough to
access the internet.
Receiving feedbacks from lecturers. Students
have various opinions towards the necessity of
feedbacks when lectures give worksheets,
assignments, and tests. As much as 56% students
who became the respondents stated Agree (S) to
receive feedbacks from lecturers and the rest 44%
stated Very Agree (SS). The detail is presented in
Figure 1 above.
The reasons of respondents who agree (Agree
S and Very Agree SS) towards receiving
feedbacks from lecturers are 1) students use
feedbacks as evaluation to find out their weaknesses
and their qualities; 2) students use them to correct
the next worksheets or assignments; 3) students will
find out the results of their learning; 4) students use
them as motivation to learn so there will be no
misconception; and 5) students use them to measure
their ability in following the lecture.
Some other findings show that students need
longer time to interact with lecturers outside the
lecture. As much as 94,8% respondents agree
towards the implementation of online basis learning
prototype in lectures. As much as 5,2% respondents
disagree. The detail can be seen in Figure 1.
In this phase the researchers also conducted a
study towards online basis learning prototype which
had been conducted by some previous researchers.
The study on the first phase shows that 1) the
developed prototype had not conducted the
assessment towards the learning; 2) most developed
prototypes used references on the internet to
motivate students to prepare themselves; 3) lecturers
gave first question related to the material which
would be discussed; 4) internet assisted lecture
material was intended to enrich the lecture material;
and 5) quizzes were very rarely used in online
lecture prototype.
The findings gained in define phase were used by
the researchers to develop multimedia design of
online interactive basis learning. Based on those
various findings, the researchers determined the
design of online basis lecture prototype which is
able to assist students to learn and to enrich the
lecture material. The result of this phase among
them is to design learning site using related moodle
and content (Costa, Alvelos, and Teixeira, 2012).
The result of questionnaire shows that students
want media or form of video learning because it is
the most attractive supporting material. Besides the
video learning, various literatures are also developed
to be used by students to enrich their knowledge
about lecture material. These supporting materials
can be obtained and accessed from the internet and
some can be downloaded by students.
The materials include video learning, lecture
PowerPoint slides, readings, and other materials.
Lecture slides which are downloaded by students are
expected to assist them if they want to relearn the
lecturer’s explanation. Written materials are to
enrich students’ readings towards the material being
discussed. Other material such as video is easily
found on the internet, it is lecture material but it
comes in different form.
The following development is discussion Forum
on learning page. Forum is tool in moodle which can
be used to discuss between students and lecturers, or
among students. In this developed learning
ANCOSH 2018 - Annual Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities
prototype, the lecturers begin the forum in moodle
by asking any problems related to the lecture. Next,
students can conduct a discussion and give their
ideas which can be responded by others. Lecturers
will comment in the discussion conducted by
The assignment module is also given space in
learning page. It is because this form is one of
modus in moodle which is used by lecturers to give
either individual or group assignment. Lecturers can
give the due date to submit the assignments using
assignment module. Students can also know the
lecturer’s assignments which are given by the
lecturers. If students do not pay attention to their
assignments, so automatically they cannot send their
assignments. The form of quiz will also be given in
lecture developing to find out students’
understanding the lecture material.
Develop phase is the phase of developing online
basis learning prototype. In this phase, the
development was conducted based on advices
gained from various sides of students, lectures, or
academics. This phase began by developing site
which is accessible by students. Lecturers registered
as the admin in the site manager.
Students are given definition form about using
the online basis learning. To start the lecture, the site
is divided into weekly unit. Every week lecturers
give lecture material using learning video,
PowerPoint slides, readings; and students can access
the material by choosing the provided ones. Next,
lecturers expect the materials can increase the
students’ concepts about lecture material.
Students just enter the lecture they take to start
the lecture; it is Curriculum Study of Physics
Education. When students access the lecture.
Students have to be registered to become users by
admin so they can join the lecture. Online basis
learning prototype which has been developed then
presented to several media specialists who consist of
lecturers of supporting subjects in Physics Education
Major. They consist of three people. To conduct the
study, the assessment is given in score range. If the
response is good, it will get score of 4 and if the
response is not good, it will get score of 1. The
assessment gained from the specialists team is
average to all aspects; it is 3,57. From this average it
can be concluded that the developed online basis
learning prototype is appropriate to implement.
The developed online basis learning prototype
was also tested to students who were taking
Curriculum Study of Physics Education. From the
questionnaire spread, it gets average score to all
aspects; it is 3,22. It can be concluded that the
developed online basis learning prototype is
appropriate to implement. Students also think that
online basis learning prototype gives significant
advantages for lecturers and students in
implementing Curriculum Study of Physics
Education. The advantages gained in implementing
online basis learning are 1) lecturers manage the
lectures easier so the lectures become practical and
organized; 2) it increases the students’ knowledge
and concepts which are various on the internet; 3)
students can discuss with lecturers or with other
students outside the lectures; 4) quizzes can be
managed by site so lecturers can save time and use it
to check the results and give feedbacks to students.
Despite of its advantages, online basis learning
prototype also has weaknesses as follow. 1) The site
still joins and registers to website. It causes difficulty
for students to register, to enter, and to access the
learning. Besides, lecturers also find difficulty in
accessing the site to manage the display 2) There are
many advertisements enter the learning page. 3)
Lecturers need to make time to develop the lecture
material which is placed onto online basis learning.
4) Lecturers need to see the forum development and
participate in the students’ discussion. It also takes
quite some time. 5) Lecturers need to quickly check
the assignments and quickly upload the feedbacks.
After the prototype is declared worthy of the next
prototype, applied to students. Obtained results there
was an improve in the activities and achievements of
the students. This is evidenced by the average value
of a student learning using a hybrid learning higher
than students studying without using a hybrid
The developed online basis learning prototype has
significant advantages to implement in Curriculum
Study of Physics Education. The developed
prototype is also stated to be appropriate to use in
lectures. The main advantage of the product is the
lecture of Curriculum Study of Physics Education
can run and carried out more effectively, more
efficiently, and more innovatively. Nevertheless, the
implementation of online basis learning still has
some weaknesses which need to be improved.
Therefore, lecturers expected for any advices and
suggestions to create the perfect learning. The
advices are 1) considering the effectiveness of online
basis learning prototype, Physics Education Major is
expected to be able to disseminate and to implement
it in other subjects; 2) Physics Education Major,
The Importance of Hybrid Teaching and Learning Model to Improve Activities and Achievements
develops the site independently to facilitate the
management of online basis learning prototype; 3)
students need to be given training related to Moodle
using to accelerate the online basis learning
This research activity is supported by DIPA LPPM
Universitas Kanjuruhan Malang through activity
development of the Hybrid Teaching and Learning
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ANCOSH 2018 - Annual Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities