Study on Energy Efficiency Level and Energy Conservation
Technology of Highway Passengers Stations
Tianjun Yang
Ministry of Transport Scientific Research Institute, Room 813-1, HePingli East Street, Chaoyang District, Beijing, China,
Keywords: Energy consumption of passenger stations; Energy efficiency classification; Energy conservation
technology; Highway passenger station; Climatic division; Index of energy consumption
Abstract: Through research on energy consumption and energy efficiency of highway passenger station, it displays
the consisting of energy consumption and entire level of energy efficiency on passenger station, which can
provide technical support for energy saving reconstruction and ultimately promote the development of green
transportation. Highway passenger station is an important node of the transportation system and an
important public service facility, which is different from the common public buildings, as well as, need
keeping a certain service level and has high energy consumption and great potential for reconstruction, what
is lacking for researching on energy consumption influential factors and energy efficiency level of
passenger station. Referring to the research results of energy efficiency of public buildings, considering the
factors of energy consumption from the site, station construction, layout, equipment and operation aspects,
energy consumption survey plans are designed based on five type of climatic divisions, through
investigating the energy consumption, it can objectively obtain the reality of the highway passenger station
energy consumption. Throughout data screening, it obtain energy consumption data of different building
climate zones and study the characteristics of energy consumption data of different climatic divisions.
Reference to evaluation method of energy efficiency level, indexes of unit energy consumption is putted
forward. The method of energy efficiency gradation is defined, threshold values of energy efficiency level
are confirmed basing on different climatic divisions, energy efficiency level of passenger station is divided
into three-level. According to analyzing the key technologies of energy saving and combining the
characteristics of energy consumption of the station, the intelligent energy-saving technology of passenger
station based on cloud temperature controller is putting forward.
The ‘13th Five-year plan’ is a crucial period for
upgrading and transformation of the transportation
industry in China. This plays the leading role in
advancing the modernization of transportation.
Meanwhile, the traffic industry has also carried out
research in many aspects, such as construction pilot
cities with low-carbon transport system, green traffic
provinces, green port, green highways and
demonstration projects for energy conservation and
emission reduction. The Ministry of Transport has
gradually paid attention to the construction and
green services areas.
As a significant node of the transportation system,
the highway passenger station is another significant
public building facility. It can draw on domestic and
overseas relevant laws and regulations, as well as,
energy efficiency management in the development
of green construction. (
ECCJ.2014,Moretra V D,,
2009, Saidur R., 2009, Asia Business Council, 2014,
Ministry of Economy, 2014, Building Research Institute.
Meanwhile, it also learns from the current
research of green station in domestic and overseas.
The Annual Energy Conservation and Emission
Reduction Capability Project for Transportation
‘Study on Evaluation Index System of Green Low-
carbon Highway Transport Stations’ in 2014. A draft
of the two traffic industry standards for ‘evaluation
Method for saving energy passenger station
construction projects’ and ‘Evaluation Method for
Saving energy of Freight Station (Field)
Construction Projects’ was proposed.
The significant technology of saving energy in
current condition focus on heating, frequency
conversion, climate compensation, adjustment the
balance of hydraulics, waste heat recovery, as well
as, heating system automatic control and heating of
floor radiation. There are plenty of technologies of
air condition area in current period, such as fire pool
cold storage, primary variable frequency and flow,
large temperature differential cooling, cooling tower
provides cold, air conditioning self-control, pump of
ground source heating, radiation ceiling, multi-zone
air conditioning energy-saving and the recycle of
heating in air condition system. Meanwhile,
transportation area pays more attention on the
technology using energy-saving. There is some
technology using public transport region, such as
setting up an energy management system,
regenerative braking energy recovery technology for
locomotives, distributed photovoltaic technology
and reproduction lighting technology.
It can be seen a large number of scholars have
conducted analysis of energy efficiency in buildings
and there are also relevant studies on the energy
efficiency classification of public buildings through
the description of the study. As a large-scale public
building, highway passenger stations require a
certain level and quality of service. The relevant
researches have been carried out in domestic and
overseas in recent years. However, there is a lack of
systematic analysis of the overall energy
consumption and grades of domestic transportation
terminals, the establishment of an energy efficiency
benchmarking system, as well as, the lack of
technical support for the reduction of energy saving
and emission of highway passenger stations. This
study will investigate and analyze the energy
consumption status of highway passenger stations
and establish a corresponding energy efficiency
rating assessment method and research on energy
conservation technology of passenger station.
The ‘Code of Design of Thermal Engineering for
Civil Buildings’(GB50176-93) sets the national
building thermal design into five points from the
perspective of design. It divides the country into five
districts, Freezing, Cold, Hot-Summer and Cold-
Winter, Hot-Summer and Warm-Winter and
Temperate Regions. Because different climates put
forward different requirements for the standards of
design building, as well as, the main facilities,
equipment and energy consumption characteristics
of the passenger station in a different region of
China depend on different climatic conditions.
Therefore, in the actual investigation, according to
different construction climate zones, it is necessary
to count the energy consumption of passenger
The project team conducts on-the-spot
investigations of the highway passenger station
through interviews with technical personnel of the
station, expert consultation, and field trips. The
research plan mainly focuses on the following eight
aspects: (1)The basic conditions of the station (site
station level, daily delivery volume, traffic
convenience, room for development, etc.); (2) Site
layout processes conditions (general layout, process
flow, streamline design, etc.); (3) Production and
living facilities of the station (total area, area of
building facilities, area of station facilities, area of
office facilities, area of facilities, area of living
service facilities, etc.); (4) Station building
conditions (body shape coefficient, thermal
performance of fence structure, ratio of window to
wall, external shading, openable area of external
window, etc.); (5) Station equipment configuration:
ticket sales, station security inspection machines,
metering equipment, etc.; (6) Energy consumption
types and consumption (coal, oil, electricity, heat,
gas, etc.); (7) Station energy-saving management
(setting of energy-saving organization, system
construction, implementation of energy
conservation); (8) Other aspects (resource recycling,
new energy use, etc.)
4.1 Treatment of Energy Consumption
Data Converted to Standard Coal
In order to facilitate the calculation, comparison and
analysis of various energy sources, they must be
uniformly converted into standard fuel refer to the
calorific value of different energy sources. It is
customary to use internationally standard fuel:
standard coal (coal equivalent) and standard oil (oil
equivalent). China uses coal as energy equivalent.
Comprehensive energy consumption is the sum of
all kinds of energy actually consumed in the
statistical reporting period of the energy-using unit
and the total sum calculated by the specified
calculation method and unit (
G.C. Dai., 2011, L.C. Li.,
. According to the ‘General Principle for
Comprehensive Energy Consumption Calculation’
(GB2589-2008), when calculating the
comprehensive energy consumption of passenger
station, various energy sources and energy
consuming workers are respectively converted into
the same unit of standard coal (tons) specified for
primary energy. Table 1 reveals the commonly used
energy index coefficients.
Table1. List of commonly used energy sources and
standard of coal coefficient medium consumption.
In enterprises view, integrated energy
consumption refers to the total energy consumption
of the major production systems, auxiliary
production systems and subsidiary production
systems during the statistical reporting period.
Therefore, the calculation of comprehensive energy
consumption by passenger station draws on the
method of ‘Comprehensive Energy Consumption
Calculation Principles’. The comprehensive energy
consumption calculation formula for a one-year
passenger station is:
In the formula:
passenger station energy consumption in one-year
passenger (kgce)
——Several varieties of energy consumption
——The ‘i’ energy amount consumed in
production and service activities
——Conversion factor of the ‘i’ energy source
4.2 Processing Methods in Survey Data
There are two common ways to justify the acute
value. One is Physical Discrimination, timely
detection and correction of errors caused by changes
in instrument, personnel and test conditions during
the observation process. The other one is
Mathematical Statistics. This method makes the
range of mistakes
and the corresponding
confidence probability
,σ is dangerous rate.
Any measurement that exceeds this error range is a
low-probability event and is considered as a bad
Rely on the calculating, to solve the bad value
for the research data in each of five different climate
region, the energy consumption of passenger station
in each station adopt 3σ method to calculate
deviation, if the measure value
(1 )≤≤
, it should modify the survey
data of the passenger station and continue to solve
the remain energy consumption data for other
passenger station.
Table 2. The number of sample before and after filtering.
Partition name
before filtering
Freezing area 63 54
Cold area 30 25
and cold-winter
123 104
and warm-winter
96 82
114 95
4.3Unit Energy Consumption Index
Standard for Passenger Station
This research uses the main building energy
consumption as the research project, as well as,
considering the energy consumed by the special
service equipment, public welfare properties of
highway passenger station. It can use the energy
consumption of sending passengers to analysis the
energy efficiency level of the passenger station
through the statistics organization due to the
passenger station s in the same area have similar
architectural style, structure and management mode
etc. this is not related to the current classification of
the passenger station . The difference of the samples
of passenger station can analysis and assessment
base the ‘Saving Energy Evaluation Method for
Passenger Station Construction Projects’.
The total station energy consumption per
hundred passenger is
.Due to the vast territory of
China, the climate becomes complex and changing
and there are notable features in each climatic
region. Therefore, the national standard line should
not be demarcated during the evaluation of the
comprehensive energy efficiency index of the
passenger terminal, as well as, it should be based on
different climatic regions.
As the example of Hot-Summer and Warm-
Winter region, base the total data in this area can
calculate average station energy consumption per
hundred passengers
. The calculate formula is:
In formula:
-- The average station energy
consumption per hundred passengers in Hot Summer
and Warm Winter Region (kgce/100per);
n—the number of passenger station s of survey
in Hot Summer and Warm Winter Region.
--the total of‘i’station energy consumption
per hundred passengers in Hot Summer and Warm
Winter Region
Consider the related data in scoring articles
under the "Effects" indicator in ‘Green Port Class
Assessment Criteria’(JTS/T105-4-2013),the scores
of the comprehensive energy consumption of port
production and the CO2 emissions of port
production units in the relevant data of the “saving
low carbon level” scoring clause are based on the
average of 26 typical terminal statistics. These two
indicators score of the lower than average of 20%, or
higher than 20%.
Put the average station energy consumption per
hundred passengers in Hot Summer and Warm
Winter Region
below the 20% as the excellent
, above the 20% as the normal
. Therefore, when the average station
energy consumption per hundred passengers in Hot
Summer and Warm Winter Region less than or equal
to excellent indicators represent high levels of
energy efficiency. Less than the normal indicator
and more than excellent indicatorsis a medium level.
More than the normal indicator represent low level.
Other climate region reference this method, the
control value is given in table 3.
Table3. Control index of unit energy consumption of
passenger station.
Climate region
Total energy
consumption per hundred
passengers in station
Freezing area 16.74 25.11
Cold area 5.6 8.40
and cold-winter
2.33 3.49
and warm-winter
2.34 3.50
0.88 1.32
4.4Energy Efficiency Rating of Highway
Passenger Station
On the basis of the ‘General Principles for Energy
Productivity Indexes for Energy-using Products’,
The Ministry of Transport put forward the transport
industry standard ‘General Principles of Energy
Efficiency, CO
Emission Intensity Grades and
Assessment Methods for Transportation Industry’
(Draft for Soliciting Opinions). It identifies the
energy efficiency, CO
emission intensity levels and
assessment methods for transport enterprises. The
core content of the standard is to determine the level
of energy efficiency to stipulate the energy
efficiency and CO
emission intensity level of
transportation enterprises. There are three levels in
total, among which first class is optimal and third
class is the worst.
Learn from domestic and international research
achievements in building energy efficiency and
combine the transport industry standard ‘General
Principles of Energy Efficiency, CO
Intensity and Assessment Methods for
Transportation Industry’ to solicit opinions.
Comprehensively consider energy efficiency status
of highway stations in China and the future
development direction of highway passenger
stations. This classifies the energy efficiency rating
of highway passenger terminals (
Alan Meier, 1996,
J.W. Wen, 2009)
. The level of energy efficiency of
highway passenger stations is divided into three
levels, in which the level of primary energy
efficiency is high, the level of secondary energy
efficiency is generally, and the level of tertiary
energy efficiency is low. The energy efficiency
rating of highway passenger stations is shown in
Table 4 below.
Table4. Classification of energy efficiency of highway
passenger stations.
4.5 Analysis of Energy Efficiency
Standard Characteristics in Typical
Climatic Division
In order to analysis the current energy consumption
of passenger station in different climate region,
project term make the survey for the first and second
class of passenger station energy consumption to
freezing region, cold region, Hot-summer and Cold-
Winter region, Hot-Summer and Warm-Winter
region and temperate regions. Statistical analysis
was conducted on the data obtained from field
surveys and correspondence, as well as, statistics
Annual average energy consumption (Kgce), total
energy consumption per hundred passenger (Kgce).
The specific data are in the table 5.
Table5. Energy consumption of passenger station based on
climatic divisions.
From the analysis results in Table 5, the
highest of average annual energy consumption is
freezing region, follow by cold regions. This is
mainly due to the long heating time and high total
energy consumption in winter. Temperate regions
have the lowest energy consumption. The
characteristics of climate, level of economy and
lives habits have the effect on passenger station in
different climate area. It bases the annual average
energy consumption to analysis passenger station
operation management for energy effectiveness.
Tring best to reduce the building energy efficiency
to the lowest level based on meeting the utilize
function of building. It needs to adapt to different
technology achieving. First of all, it shall operate the
high level heat insulation to the surrounding
protection of the building. Then, applying the
Classification of energy
First class
Second class
Third class
heating with highly efficient, cooling, lighting and
home appliance equipment and systems. The
purpose of these progress is decrease the efficiency
of transfer heating and cooling and fully using the
clean energy, expand cogeneration of heat and
power or combined heat, power and cooling, as well
as, the application of heat pump, energy storage,
heat recovery and variable flow technology.
Otherwise, maximum limited to have effect on
using natural resources is pretty important. Green
building is the conventional method of using natural
energy. Wind power is one of the most significant
resources of the earth. The utilizing of wind power
shows in wind power generation and the use of wind
energy promote ventilation indoors, as well as, the
latter way is the major for the building to use.
5.1 The Production of Saving Energy
The price of production and equipment gradually
decreases with the rapid development of energy-
saving technology. Some passenger station also
makes the great change and reform to energy-saving
and emission reduction. For instance, using
photovoltaic power make lighting of station and
electric charging, as well as, using saving energy
lighting products to transform the station etc.
Because the rapid development and application for
the internet, cloud technology, it gradually form the
intelligent machine. Base on the traditional energy-
saving methods to achieve cloud management, cloud
diagnosis, cloud perception, cloud calculation and
other cloud services with intelligent application.
Depending on the part intelligence of internet
technical, there are some representation products:
Temperature-controlled heating billing valve, cloud
thermostat and cloud remote control, central air
conditioning billing system etc.
5.2 Analysis for Case Study
5.2.1The Introduction of Cloud Thermostat
and Cloud Remote Control
The cloud thermostat is an air-conditioning
temperature-controlled device that based on
traditional thermostats and mobile internet
technology to implement a cloud operation and the
management of energy-saving. It applies to all ‘four-
wire and three-speed’ fan coils and can directly
replace traditional thermostats.
Figure1. Cloud thermostat and cloud remote control.
Cloud thermostat not only has the function of
central intelligent thermostats control, but also has
cloud management (mobile APP management, cloud
diagnosis, cloud perception, cloud calculation and
other cloud services), Time-saving management,
multi-room management, remote control and other
intelligent energy-saving modes.
5.2.2 Application of Case Study
There is a working area of passenger station which
has a construction 1,024 m
. It adapts cloud
thermostats providing the centralize control of
electric heating. There is only one cloud thermostat
in each room, which controls from one to three
electric heating. It utilizes the cloud center of the
original internet access product of company, each
computer or mobile phone can through the assigned
account to connect the internet. According to the
rights to management all electric heating in the
working area, it can set the management of
temperature range, overtime mode and plays a
benefit energy-saving effect. It does not need to set
up regional management equipment and terminal of
management room, as well as, the simple system,
convenient utilize and economical (it can save 8%-
10% energy when turn down 1). Meanwhile, the
fund of project equipment can through the savings of
electronic fee to repay. Cloud thermostat not only
has the function of central intelligent thermostats
control, but also has cloud management (mobile
APP management, cloud diagnosis, cloud
perception, cloud calculation and other cloud
services), Time-saving management, multi-room
management, remote control and other intelligent
energy-saving modes.
This report has conducted in-depth research on
energy consumption and energy efficiency rating of
highway passenger stations. Through statistical
analysis of energy consumption data of different
building climates, it propose an energy efficiency
rating method for highway passenger stations Study
setting of the energy efficiency rating scales to
obtain energy efficiency ratings for passenger
stations in different climate zones. According to the
characteristics of energy consumption of passenger
station, there are the studies for several technology
such as, the analysis and research of energy saving
technology, the cloud temperature controller and
cloud remote control device based on network and
cloud technology are studied. The system is easy to
use, easy to operate and saves the energy
consumption of the station. The research results can
assess the energy utilization efficiency of highway
passenger stations. Through horizontal comparison,
passenger stations can understand the level of energy
consumption for itself located what kind of position
in the same climatic region. Combining the energy
influencing factors and evaluation results can
provide scientific and technical basis for the future
energy-saving, emission reduction and
transformation of passenger stations. This has
positive significance for promoting a conservation-
oriented society, a low-carbon economy, green
transportation, as well as, sustainable development
of the station.
This research project is supported by management
center of transportation energy conservation and
emission reduction. Transportation energy
conservation and emission reduction capacity
building project No. 2015-jnjp-069.
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