Analysis of Factors Related to Disaster Preparedness in
Undergraduate Health Students
Sriyono Sriyono, Deni Yasmara
and Angger Pratama
Faculty of Nursing Universitas Airlangga, Kampus C Mulyorejo, Surabaya, Indonesia
Keywords: Preparedness, Disaster, Knowledge, Experience.
Abstract: When a community is unprepared for a disaster situation, the anticipated results are many fatalities and
economic loss. Such disasters include earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, and avalanches. The
aim of the study was to analyze the factors related to disaster preparedness. The research design was
descriptive analytics, and the population of the research was undergraduate health students in Universitas
Airlangga, Surabaya (Faculty of Nursing, Faculty of Public Health, and Faculty of Medicine) with 97 students
as a subject. The independent variables that were measured were an experience of encountering the disaster,
disaster education, and disaster knowledge, and the dependent variable that was measured was an application
of disaster preparedness. The data was collected by questionnaire and analyzed with chi square and
Spearman’s rho statistical. The results showed that knowledge level was not significant (p = 0.76), and
experience of encountering the disaster (p = 0.453) and disaster education (p = 0.381) also had no significant
result to disaster preparedness. The next study was better if measured another factor that result with disaster
preparedness on undergraduate health students.
Disaster is a series of events that threaten and disrupt
peoples lives caused by both natural/non-natural
factors and human factors and resulting in the
occurrence of casualties, environmental damage,
property loss, and psychological impact (Law No. 24
of 2007). One of the obstacles that are often
encountered in the effort to overcome health
problems in disaster areas is the unpreparedness of
health human resources in dealing with health
problems (MOH 2006).Indonesia is vulnerable to the
threat of geological disasters such as volcanic
eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and landslides. The
most common occurrences of disasters in Surabaya
are floods and fires. Several areas in the city of
Surabaya experience flooding of varying heights
ranging from 10 to 70 cm with the longest flood time
of about six hours. Another type of disaster is fire.
Fire events are a type of disaster that cannot be
predicted but can be prevented.
Every natural disaster must result in material and
immaterial loss to the surrounding community,
especially if people do not have knowledge about
natural disasters. People’s unpreparedness in
anticipating the disaster resulted in the great loss of
lives and economic losses in the event of natural
disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic
eruptions, floods, and landslides. This is where
responsibility and preparedness become key. The
main actor in saving lives and possessions is the
society itself.
A preliminary study conducted by researchers on
March 19, 2016, using the interview method with 30
students consisting of 10 students from Faculty of
Nursing, 10 students from Medicine Faculty, and 10
students from Public Health Faculty of Universitas
Airlangga obtained the result that nine (30%) people
know and claimed to be on standby if one day a
disaster occurred both on campus and in their
residence area because of having enough knowledge
about disaster. Of the rest of the students, three (10%)
people claimed not to know about disaster, and 18
(60%) people claimed they were not ready in case of
a sudden disaster because they do not have enough
Dodon (2013) identified that the public knows
(34%) and knows enough (33%) of various
preparedness measures. Preparedness behavior of
communities before a disaster is at a low level. Low
levels indicate that the community has not been too
concerned with disaster risk reduction measures
Sriyono, S., Yasmara, D. and Pratama, A.
Analysis of Factors Related to Disaster Preparedness in Undergraduate Health Students.
DOI: 10.5220/0008323602630268
In Proceedings of the 9th International Nursing Conference (INC 2018), pages 263-268
ISBN: 978-989-758-336-0
2018 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
before a disaster (Dodon 2013). Law no. 24 of 2007
on Disaster Management has regulated the
implementation of disaster management, which
includes pre-disaster, emergency response (during
disaster), and post disaster. For the situation in an area
where there is a potential for disaster (high disaster
vulnerability level) then at pre disaster stage, the
implementation of disaster management that needs to
be done includes preparedness, early warning, and
disaster mitigation (article 44). Responsibility for
disaster mitigation activities can take the form of
preparedness, measures that enable governments,
organizations, communities, and individuals to
respond quickly to a disaster situation (Rante et al.
2013). Preparedness is one part of the disaster
management process, and in todays evolving disaster
management concept, improved preparedness is one
of the most important elements of proactive disaster
risk reduction activities before a disaster (LIPI 2006).
The health sector forms an important part of
disaster preparedness and response. The regulatory
and response mechanisms require careful planning
and should take into account the vulnerability of a
particular country or region, and health policies and
regulations on disasters, as well as the administrative
and technical organizations of their health sector
institutions. Such considerations should also include
coordination of mechanisms, development of
technical plans and programs, training and research,
and logistical and financial support. Although health
institutions can develop disaster preparedness plans,
each country is expected to have a clear policy on
disaster prevention and management.
Preparedness in anticipating disasters is
implemented through organization and by putting
into place appropriate and efficient measures (Law
No. 24 of 2007). Preparedness is grouped into four
parameters: knowledge and attitude, emergency
planning, warning system, and resource mobilization
(LIPI 2006). Elements of disaster preparedness
include personal, community, and national
knowledge, both within the government and private
sphere in relation to disaster mitigation and
vulnerability. Other important elements include
disaster education (efficiency and effectiveness),
impact of response to disaster, and development of
local response, such as an early warning system, as an
important part of disaster preparedness (Clust,
Human & Simpson 2007).
Disaster preparedness should be invested in
community life, especially adolescents because
adolescents are a part of the community that has an
important role in its life. One of the governments
efforts to improve the security with regard to disaster
is to develop education on disaster risk in adolescents.
The program is intended to generate awareness and
preparedness of adolescents living in disaster prone
areas in the face of disasters through activities such as
disaster simulation training, the establishment of the
Youth Red Cross organization, and socialization
activities on disaster risks. The role of adolescents as
the younger generation in anticipating and handling
disaster situations is considered very important
(Purwoko 2015).
The cultivation of knowledge for disaster
preparedness is conducted through socialization or
disaster education and ensuring environmental safety
against disaster risk factors. In disaster education, the
level of individual readiness will be discussed for
later enhancement through the learning process
(Clust, Human & Simpson 2007). Individual
preparedness for disaster is also demonstrated by the
knowledge, skills, and abilities gained through
experiential learning from real-life experiences
(Clust, Human & Simpson 2007). There are several
stakeholders that are closely related to community
preparedness, ie individuals and households,
government agencies related to disaster management,
school communities, non-governmental
organizations (NGOs), community institutions,
professional groups, and private parties. Of the total
stakeholders, three stakeholders, ie households,
government, and the school community, were agreed
to be key stakeholders and others to be supporting
stakeholders in disaster preparedness (LIPI 2006).
In accordance with the definition of students
according to Indonesia Dictionary, students are
individuals who study in college.
Universitas Airlangga is one of the State Universities
located in the city of Surabaya with the characteristics
of students who come from various regions across
Indonesia, from urban to remote rural areas. With the
rapid development of health sciences, Universitas
Airlangga is determined to be a center of
development in this field. Of 14 faculties in the
campus of Universitas Airlangga, four of them are
faculties that are included in health science classes,
namely, Faculty of Nursing, Faculty of Public Health,
Faculty of Medicine, and Faculty of Dentistry. In the
writing of this thesis, the researchers focus on
undergraduate students who are included in the health
science class and have lessons about disaster, so the
preliminary study conducted by the researchers was
undertaken in three faculties who have lessons about
disaster, which are Faculty of Nursing, Faculty of
Medicine, and Health Faculty Society.
Several studies have been conducted regarding
disaster preparedness for students. Usher and Mayner
INC 2018 - The 9th International Nursing Conference: Nurses at The Forefront Transforming Care, Science and Research
(2011) examined the level of knowledge of nursing
students in Australia by involving 39 institutions of
higher education. The results concluded that almost
all respondents did not have adequate knowledge of
disaster preparedness because 63% of total
respondents had never received disaster-related
education at the university. The results of (Pangesti
and Dwi's 2012) study stated that the level of
knowledge about the risk of flood disaster for
students living in flood-prone areas is better than that
of students living in areas not prone to flooding.
Disaster preparedness is needed by students in
health science, so that health students can become
professional stakeholders in accordance with their
discipline, and so that they have adequate capability,
competence, and knowledge in handling disaster.
However, the lack of courses on disaster in general
has led to the majority of health students not being
ready and alert in the face of disaster (Dewi 2010).
The lack of knowledge of factors related to disaster
preparedness in undergraduate students of health
sciences at Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, is the
reason why the researchers conducted this study. The
approach in this study uses self-efficacy theory
according to Bandura, where knowledge, experience,
and individual characteristics interact to form an
adaptable behavior. In this study, the researchers
linked factors related to the knowledge, experience,
and characteristics of the individual with the
preparedness of the individual against the disaster.
2.1 Study Design
The type of this research is quantitative descriptive
with a cross-sectional research design, which is only
studying the problem or the state of the object at the
time of the research to analyze the factors related to
disaster preparedness in the undergraduate students of
health science at Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya.
The process of collecting and measuring the variables
is done at the same time.
2.2 Study Population, Sampling, and
The population were students of health sciences in
Universitas Airlangga. The population of this study
were 2,185 students of health sciences in Universitas
Airlangga with the details of 533 students of the
undergraduate nursing program, 855 students of the
medicine study program, and 817 students of the
Public Health study program.
The number of respondents in the sample is 97
people consisting of 24 respondents who were
undergraduate students of the nursing study program,
36 respondents who were undergraduates of the
medicine study program, and 37 respondents who
were undergraduate students of Public Health study
2.3 Measurement
The instrument used as a data collection tool in this
study was a questionnaire that contained a list of
questions referring to the conceptual framework and
was prepared based on a literature review. The
questions on the questionnaire were filled in by
writing a cross mark (X) on one of the columns
provided in accordance with the respondents answer.
The data used in this study is the primary data.
Based on the demographic characteristics of
respondents is female, seen from data consisting of 66
(68.1%) respondents, who are women. Viewed in
terms of age, almost all respondents were aged
between 18 and 24 years, visible from data consisting
of 94 (94.9%) of respondents aged 18-24 years. In
terms of cluster sampling, a small percentage of
respondents were undergraduates in Public Health, 37
(38.1%) respondents; then 36 (37.1%) respondents
were students of medicine, and nursing students
totaled 24 (24.7%) of respondents. Judging from all
respondents who filled in the questionnaire, it is
known that 49 (49.4%) respondents were from non-
prone areas. This means the distribution of
respondents was almost evenly distributed in this
In this study the variables measured are the level of
knowledge on disaster, experience in the face of
disaster, and disaster preparedness applications.
Distribution of experience in the face of disaster
with people who had experienced disaster reaching
the number of respondents 54 people (56%) 43 people
(44%). Education on disasters with indicators 72
people (74%) and dominate in this variable. Disaster
preparedness application with positive indicator
reaches 50 respondents (52%), and disaster
preparedness application with negative indicator
reaches 47 people (48%), whic means that disaster
preparedness application has average value between
respondents with positive and negative indicator.
Based on the result of hypothesis test by using chi
Analysis of Factors Related to Disaster Preparedness in Undergraduate Health Students
square and Spearmans rho statistic test, it can be seen
that the level of knowledge has an insignificant
relationship to the disaster preparedness with the
significance of p is -0.076. Education on disasters
with significance p value of 0.383 has an insignificant
relationship to disaster preparedness.
Based on data analysis about the relationship of
knowledge level with disaster preparedness, it is
known that the result obtained is not significant. The
un-indicated value indicates no relationship between
the respondents. knowledge level and disaster
preparedness. The results of this study contradict the
theory according to Allport in Notoatmodjo (2010),
which states that in determining the whole attitude,
knowledge, thoughts, beliefs, and emotions play an
important role. Knowledge or cognitive is a very
important domain in the formation of ones actions
(Notoatmodjo 2005).
Differences in the level of knowledge in each
individual can be reviewed according to Blooms
cognitive domain taxonomy. Benjamin Bloom in
Aderson and Krathwohl (2001) states that knowledge
includes six levels of cognitive domains knowing,
understanding, application, analysis, synthesis, and
evaluation. Each level of taxonomy shows the
competence of different individuals in understanding
and receiving information.
The higher the level of individual cognitive
domains, the higher the individuals ability to process
and apply information or knowledge. Blooms
taxonomy also explains that each individual has
different cognitive levels due to various factors.
The researchers believe that respondents in this
study have variations in the level of different
cognitive domains with each other, so the
understanding of the concept of disaster varies. Each
individual will be different way to interpret attitude in
preparedness in the face of disaster, insignificant
value happened because majority of respondents have
enough value reach 54 people consisting of 26
respondents who have positive attitude and 28
respondents who have negative attitude. So if tested
statistically will yield insignificant value. This
happens as can be seen from the source of information
about the disaster. For the majority of respondents,
these are informal sources such as the internet
(30.9%) and newspapers (28.8%). Therefore, the
level of understanding of respondents in Bloom’s
taxonomy will have an effect because they do not get
valid knowledge from formal sources that can be
trusted such as lecture materials and disaster training,
so that will cause different interpretations.
Differences in interpretation between respondents
who received knowledge or information related to
disaster management will also affect their
preparedness in the face of disaster because of the
validity of the information or knowledge obtained by
respondents through informal sources reaching
59.7% cannot be accounted scientifically so that will
impact on variation level of respondent understanding
in answer questionnaire question.
According to Bandura’s (Hoy 2008) social theory of
cognitive one of them discuss about one's
understanding of a thing so make someone attitude
will have positive reinforcement; this is in line with
this research because data obtained shows that the
majority of respondents have level of knowledge less
so it does not have a significant relationship with
disaster preparedness. In the process of learning, self-
efficacy is needed both within the self and the
teachers themselves, which in turn leads to self-
regulated learning, which is the process of activating
and maintaining the thoughts, behaviors, and
emotions to achieve the goals (Santrock 2010).
Based on data analysis of disaster education
relationship with disaster preparedness, it is known
that the result obtained is not significant. The non-
significance value indicates the absence of correlation
between respondents’ education about disaster and
disaster preparedness. The results of this study
contradict the theory put forward by Caudill (2011),
which states that each work unit or agency is obliged
to facilitate residents with disaster education to ensure
that appropriate action will be taken during a disaster.
Each individual who inhabits the building must
understand the disaster risks. Disaster education can
be realized through an education curriculum, training,
and disaster simulation. In line with (Pangesti & Dwi
2012) which concluded that there was no significant
relationship between the experience of obtaining
disaster-related courses and disaster preparedness.
The researchers believe that each individual will
be different way to interpret attitude in preparedness
in the face of disaster; insignificant value happened
because at cross tabulation of research data in table
5.4 did not experience gap which is too massive so
that if tested statistically will yield insignificant
value. As Caudill (2011) points out, more
institutionally where each institution must have a
training program and a simulated disaster to minimize
disaster impacts in its institution, it will be different
from individuals where each individual has different
views on disaster preparedness so that each
individuals seeking disaster training will also be
INC 2018 - The 9th International Nursing Conference: Nurses at The Forefront Transforming Care, Science and Research
different. In terms of information, the data shows that
30.9% of respondents are more dominant in accessing
information about internet disaster, while those who
receive education about disaster through lecture
material is only 20.6%, so there is a tendency of
different interpretation related to disaster
management among respondents who get education
through formal (lecture material) and informal
(internet) sources.
According to Wang et al. (2008), disaster
management training standards for different people
also affect the attitude to disaster preparedness as it
relates to material relevance in disaster training, so it
could produce statistically meaningless results. Wang
et al. (2008) also revealed that the time span between
disaster research and education gained by multiple
respondents allows for varying levels of
understanding of questionnaire questions, which may
lead to statistically meaningless results.
Bandura in Woolfolk (2004) revealed that the more
often a person gets an education, the greater the self-
efficacy he gets. If education gets better than the level
of self-efficacy of a person, their self-efficacy will
increase, but if education gets worse. then the self-
efficacy of the person will decrease.
Based on data analysis of experience relationships
in the face of disaster with disaster preparedness in
mind, the results obtained are not significant. The
non-significance value indicates no relation between
experience in responding to disaster and disaster
preparedness. This is in contrast to Kapucus (2008)
study, which suggests that individuals who have
experience in dealing with disasters will adapt and
learn while engaged in disaster situations, so the
threat of disaster will be responded to seriously and
more effectively in the future. At the individual level,
the experience of disasters generally has a positive
impact on future disaster-related motivations.
In line with research (Dewi 2010), the proportion
of health human resources preparedness in the group
of respondents with a working experience ≤ 1 year of
23.4%. While in the group of respondents with a
working experience of 2-5 years proportion of 37.4%
and in the group of respondents. The researchers
believe that insignificant value occurs because It can
be seen in this study that the majority of respondents
experience in dealing with disasters is as a victim
(82.4%) of the disaster itself so that the interpretation
of preparedness in the face of disasters will be
different from the experience of the students when as
a helper or health worker.
Banduras theory of self-efficacy in Woolfolk (2004)
reveals that our direct experience becomes a powerful
source of efficacy information. The experience of
success becomes the greatest source of effectiveness
of the effect on individual self-efficacy levels based
on authentic experience. The experience of success
leads to increased individual self-efficacy, while
repeated failures result in decreased self-efficacy,
especially if failure occurs when the individuals self-
efficacy has not really formed strongly. Failure can
also decrease the individual’s self-efficacy if the
failure does not reflect a lack of effort or influence
from outside circumstances.
Knowledge of disaster has an insignificant
relationship with disaster preparedness in
undergraduate students of health science at
Universitas Airlangga Surabaya. Disaster education
has an insignificant relationship with disaster
preparedness in undergraduate students of health
sciences at Universitas Airlangga.
Experience in dealing with disaster has an
insignificant relationship with disaster preparedness
in undergraduate students of health sciences at
Universitas Airlangga.
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INC 2018 - The 9th International Nursing Conference: Nurses at The Forefront Transforming Care, Science and Research