Literature Review Studies in Public Sector’s Enterprise Architecture
Karoll Haussler Carneiro Ramos
, Gabriel Andrade de Souza
and André Felipe Rosa
Department of Administration, FACE, University of Brasília, Darcy Ribeiro University Campus, Brasília, Brazil
Department of Industrial Design, IdA, University of Brasília, Darcy Ribeiro University Campus, Brasília, Brazil
Keywords: Enterprise Architecture (EA), Public Administration, e-Government, Bibliometric, Bibliometric Indicators.
Abstract: Recognize the relevant bibliography is important to researchers. It allows better research performance and the
conjunction of academic knowledge. This study presents a bibliometric analysis of the main articles, on a
worldwide scale, focusing on Enterprise Architecture in public administration. The method uses bibliometric
indicators to show existing correlations, based on data from 82 articles cited in the world’s main journals between
2013 and 2018. A multidisciplinary approach has identified contributions in technology, science, and govern-
ment programs. It is possible to acknowledge that research in corporate architecture in the public sector is
correlated with e-government strategies and interoperability to achieving goals and solving problems in this area.
Public agencies have been supporting technology
infrastructures that increasingly focus on delivering
services and conducting the business of government.
The use of these technologies supports major efforts of
reorganization, modernization and reinvention of
government using e-Government as a possible solution
together with promoting organizational change (Dang
and Pekkola, 2017). Such e-Government initiatives
have been credited as engines of efficient public
administration reform and given their progression state
they can be classified based on their implementation
and governance levels (Lim and Tang, 2008).
Although there is no common definition for
Enterprise Architecture (EA) concept in the literature,
many definitions agree that EA concerns the
organizing logic articulating business processes, the
information used and produced by these processes, the
corresponding system applications and the information
technology (IT) infrastructure. To ensure that these
four components are aligned from business to IT needs,
governance standards and practices are requested, as
well as the development of governance levels.
Despite the importance of e-Government and EA,
there are few studies on their impacts on public
agencies performance and empirical evidence is
lacking to portray these performance effects. Many
studies on e-Government are based mostly on
speculative reasoning rather than empirical analysis
with rigorous methodologies (Lim and Tang, 2008).
This paper presents exploratory research which
uses literature review through bibliometric and contex-
tual analysis to study EA within the public administra-
tion and its evolving changes in the last six years.
John A. Zachman created the expression EA in the
1980s. To Zachman (1987), EA is a set of descriptive
representations that was important to define an
organization. Therefore, become noticeable the
aspects necessary for the management, as well as its
Nowadays, Bellman and Griesi (2015) present a
definition of EA as the organizing logic of the
business process and IT infrastructure, reflecting the
requirements of integration and standardization of the
companies operating model. The intention of EA is
defining how an organization can achieve more
effectively current and future goals.
One of the most popular applications is its use as a
methodology to improve the interoperability and
Ramos, K., Andrade Souza, G. and Rosa, A.
Literature Review Studies in Public Sector’s Enterprise Architecture.
DOI: 10.5220/0007750806420649
In Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS 2019), pages 642-649
ISBN: 978-989-758-372-8
2019 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
efficiency of inter-and intra-organizational IT systems
(Hiekkanen et al., 2013; Janssen et al., 2013; Lemmetti
and Pekkola, 2014). These Initiatives are usually
voluntary, although some law-mandated examples
exist, as in the U.S. (“The E-Government Act”, 2002)
and Finland (“Act on Information Management
Governance in Public Administration”, 2011).
Governments normally consist of many agencies
with different structures and service/business-areas.
This often leads to duplicated information systems
and fragmented business services and process,
decreasing the possibility of cross-agency
interoperability. Therefore, governments pursue EA
initiatives, in agencies, to increase online services
(Saha, 2010), to provide new tools to manage
business and IT alignment within agencies for better
integration of technologies, to rationalize data
structures and applications, and to provide business
modularity (Dang and Pekkola, 2016).
Kotusev (2017) observed that EA literature reviews
including distribution in time, research groups and
communities, citation and authorship patterns,
publication types and geographical distribution,
reference discipline, theory types and empirical
validity. These variables are also known as
bibliometric indicators of scientific quality, scientific
activity and scientific impact.
Distribution in time of literature review studies
shows that the decade's ending 2000 and decade's
beginning 2010 was the apex of publications in
government or public sector EA studies (Ramos and
Sousa, 2015; Dang and Pekkola, 2017; Lnenicka and
Komarkova, 2019)
In Ramos and Sousa (2015), literature review
analyzed the period from 1999 to 2014, showed the
main EA focus in the public sector was in e-
government, service, government, and
interoperability. Dang and Pekkola (2017) argued that
researches focus on development issues and
frameworks, nobody knows how those frameworks
and practices are actually used and followed, how
well they fit with their purposes, and what the
challenges are stakeholders react. According to
Lnenicka and Komarkova (2019), big data, open data,
cloud computing, and EA framework are relevant
themes in government EA.
Most literature review research uses the same
databases, as AIS Electronic Library, ACM Digital
Library, EBSCO, Google Scholar, IEEE Xplore,
JSTOR, Science Direct, Springer Link, Taylor &
Francis and Web of Science, justified for ensuring
highest impact in full-text journals and conference
proceedings (Rouhani et al, 2015; Dang and Pekkola,
2017; Gampfer et al, 2018; Lnenicka and Komarkova,
2019). However, authors do not review any
bibliometric indicators, as SCImago Journal Rank
(SJR or ScimagoJR), H-Scopus or Journal Impact
Factor (JIF), since these databases have articles that,
although indexed, have low academic relevance and
impact, not guaranteed the highest impact in full-text
journals and conference proceedings.
This research is a systematic literature review (SLR)
characterized as descriptive, which intends to
comprehend the theme in a broader way, through the
following steps: first, it was defined topics and
research questions: “Where and when were
publications about the topic?”, “Who are the main
authors and their institutional links?”, “What are the
methodological aspects adopted in the research on the
subject?”, “What are the main difficulties and
benefits of deploying enterprise architecture
identified in the studies?”; Second, the database and
criteria for the articles, from the consultation of two
databases that enabled the survey of journals and
scientific events: Capes Periodic Portal and Google
Scholar; Third: Identify and select studies, based on
the analysis of titles and summaries of articles in the
database, considering inclusion and exclusion
criteria. Publication in international journals and
scientific events, publications between 2013 and 2018
and complete scientific paper published in English
met the inclusion criteria. All other articles, as well as
manuals, books, roundtables, patents and book
chapters were excluded; Fourth: categorizing the
articles by reading each one to identify information
necessary to classify the research variables; Fifth:
quantitative and qualitative analysis were made for
data consolidation (all sample) using descriptive
statistics and content analysis (for relevant journals
and scientific events of the sample). The place of
publication, temporary clipping, citations, publishing
name, H-Scopus and SJR, Qualis CAPES, subject
area and category, authors, institutional affiliation and
keywords of the article were information used for the
quantitative analysis, as for the qualitative analysis, the
article objective, nature of study, research design,
approach, data origin, public sphere, organization
studied, sampling, data collection technique, data
analysis technique, difficulties and benefits of
Literature Review Studies in Public Sector’s Enterprise Architecture
deployment, description results and research agenda
are among the information used.
The option to search for publications in scientific
events considers that the temporality of publication in
international journals usually takes one to two years,
whereas, from scientific events, it usually takes less
than a year to be published.
The inclusion criteria restrict the article searches in
the databases considering the research context (public
administration) and temporal cut of last six years for
content analysis allows an overview of the theme
The Publish or Perish software was used to search
for academic publications and the Portal of Periodical
Publications of the Coordination of Superior Level
Staff Improvement (CAPES) of Brazil allowed the
identification of periodicals evaluated by peer review.
For data consolidation, the quantitative analysis
used the articles collected from the database (82
articles). For the qualitative analysis, there was a
clearance of this sample, resulting in 28 articles,
considering the Qualis CAPES stratum, the SCImago
Journal Rank (SJR) and the H-Scopus for periodicals.
The SJR shows the visibility of journals from
developed countries contained in the Scopus® data-
base. The H-Scopus aims to quantify the productivity
and impact of research by means of the following
measures: number of publications per periodical (“h¹”)
and number of citations of each article (“h²”).
From the quantitative analysis, it was noticed that,
most articles, 71.95% (59 papers), were published in
scientific events. None of these papers were later
published in a journal. This low recurrence of
subsequent publication of event articles in journals
increases the need to investigate publications also in
proceedings for more comprehensive knowledge of
national research publications on the subject.
The scientific production on EA in journals was
stable in the period of 2014 to 2016, with six articles
per year. However, in terms of publications in
scientific events, there was a noticeable growth in
2014, followed by a drop in 2015, and another
remarkable growth in 2016 and 2017, as shown in
Table 11. As the survey was conducted until August
2018, that year cannot be considered as a full year for
analysis, in order to indicate that there was a decrease
in production on the subject.
Table 1: Distribution in years.
Year Place of Publication Total
Journal Scientific Event
2013 1 6 7
2014 6 10 16
2015 6 5 11
2016 6 16 22
2017 2 18 20
2018 3 4 7
Total 24 59 82
Analyzing the time distribution, the same behavior
verified by Lnenicka and Komarkova (2019) is shown
in his analysis from 2003 to 2018. Despite the
differential forms of data collection, results converge.
Comparing these results with the time distribution
performed by Gampter et al (2018), with an analysis
period from 1987 to 2016, and the object of analysis
been EA, the pattern repeats, except for the fall of
publications in 2015.
The 24 articles were published in 21 different
journals. Journals with recurrence in publications are
“Sustainability”, “Software & Systems Modelling”,
and “Enfoqute”, each with two articles. Only the
“Enfoqute” does not feature H-Scopus and SJR on
ScimagoJR. From the 21 journals, 19 present H-
Scopus, SJR, and Qualis Capes, in which evaluation is
in peer review.
Table 2 shows which are journals with SJR greater
than 0.401. This cut from the 0.401 index shows that
the journal has a higher stratum in Qualis Capes.
Furthermore, for this sample, the SJR index average is
0.53, the median value is 0.48 and the standard
deviation is 0.39.
The average for H-Scopus is 40.64; the median
value is 40. The maximum value of the SJR obtained
was 1.32 from “Government Information Quarterly”.
Therefore, nine journals are considered more relevant.
Table 2: Journals and Indexes.
Journal SJR H N. Papers
Government Information
1,32 76 1
International Journal of Medical
1,247 88 1
Journal of Intelligent
1,18 63 1
Annual Reviews in Control 0,82 64 1
International Journal of
Computer Integrated
0,77 44 1
Enterprise Information Systems 0,72 40 1
Sustainability 0,54 42 2
Indian Journal of Fundamental
and Applied Life Sciences
0,48 29 1
Software & Systems Modelling 0,48 41 2
ICEIS 2019 - 21st International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
It is worth noting that the journal with a maximum
value of H-Scopus was 101 by IEEE Internet
Computing, but it has an SJR of 0.38.
Of the 59 articles of scientific events, 47 scientific
events were identified, wherein International
Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
(ICEIS) and Pacific Asia Conference on Information
Systems (PACIS) have the highest concentration of
articles (4 papers each). Table 3 presents the relation
between events evaluated by SJR, H indexes and the
number of articles published in it.
Table 3: Conferences related to EA in Public Sector.
Conference N. of
International Conference on
Enterprise Information Systems
4 2013;
2016; 2017
(2 papers)
Pacific Asia Conference on
Information Systems (PACIS)
4 2016,
*2017 (3
European Conference on
Information Systems (ECIS)
2 2013; 2016
Joint Rail Conference (JRC) 1 2013
International Conference on
Computer and Information Sciences,
1 2016
International Conference on
Information and Communication
Technology (ICoICT)
1 2016
International Conference on
Innovative Computing Technology,
1 2016
International Conference on ICT for
Smart Society (ICISS)
1 2016
AIP Conference Proceedings 1 2017
International Symposium on
Business Modelling and Software
Design (BMSD)
1 2016
International Conference on Science
in Information Technology: Big
Data Spectrum for Future
Information Economy (ICSITech)
1 2015
International Conference on Cyber
and IT Service Management
1 2016
* Event year is not on the basis of ScimagoJR
These findings of publication places in journals
and events are a contribution to researchers and
professionals in this area who are interested in
submitting articles for publication or even to consult
and read articles of EA subject.
Considering articles of journals and scientific
events indexed on ScimagoJR, which are in total 32
articles, the subject area concentration is computer
science, with 75% of papers (Table 4).
Table 4: Subject area.
Subject Area
N. of
Computer Science 24 75,00%
Engineering 8 25,00%
Social Sciences 7 21,88%
Mathematics 5 15,63%
Environmental Science 4 12,50%
Energy 3 9,38%
Medicine 2 6,25%
Decision Sciences 2 6,25%
Materials Science 1 3,13%
Agricultural and Biological
Chemical Engineering 1 3,13%
Biochemistry 1 3,13%
Business 1 3,13%
Management and Accounting 1 3,13%
Genetics and Molecular Biology 1 3,13%
Considering the 82 articles, 139 authors
participated in researches. Two authors elaborated the
relative majority of researches (30 papers).
Researches counting one author were only 11 articles,
and the average of authors per research is 2.74. The
number of citations of these articles is an important
indicator for verification of author’s relevance. The
author R. Abraham has in a single article, entitled
“Enterprise architecture artifacts as boundary objects
- A framework of properties”, 45 citations, published
in Proceedings of 21st European Conference on
Information Systems (ECIS 2013). Table 5 shows
articles that have above 20 citations.
Table 5: Most cited articles.
Authors Cites (Year) Title
R Abraham 45 (2013) Enterprise architecture
artifacts as boundary objects-
A framework of properties
U Franke,
P Johnson,
J König
38 (2014) An architecture
framework for enterprise IT
service availability analysis
A Vargas,
L Cuenca,
A Boza,
I Sacala,
M Moisescu
28 (2016) Towards the
development of the
framework for inter sensing
enterprise architecture
P Närman,
M Buschle,
M Ekstedt
26 (2014) An enterprise
architecture framework for
multi-attribute information
systems analysis
V Burégio,
Z Maamar,
S Meira
26 (2015) An architecture and
guiding framework for the
social enterprise
Average citations of the 82 papers is 4.5122, the
median value is 1 and the standard deviation is 8.71.
Literature Review Studies in Public Sector’s Enterprise Architecture
Regarding the author’s institutional linking, 70
universities were identified. The University of
Technology of Malaysia has the largest number of
published articles (6 papers). Seven articles had no or
missing information. Table 6 shows the author’s
institutional affiliation.
Table 6: Author’s Affiliation.
(Country) Institutional affiliation Occ.
(Malaysia) University of Technology Malaysia 6
(Croatia) University of Zagreb 3
(Brazil) University of Brasília 3
(Indonesia) Bandung Institute of Technology 3
(Iran) Islamic Azad University 3
(Germany) University of Rostock 2
(Indonesia) Bina Nusantara University 2
(Croatia) IBISTM 2
(Iran) University of Tehran 2
(Indonesia) University of Lampung 2
(Emirates) American University of Sharjah 2
(Brazil) Federal University of Rio de Janeiro 2
(Canada) Ryerson University 2
(Indonesia) Telkom University 2
(Sweden) Royal Institute of Technology 2
(Finland)Tampere University of Technology 2
Indonesia is the country with the largest amount
of research (12 papers), followed by Malaysia (7
papers); Germany and Iran, each with 6 papers;
United States of America and France, each with 5
papers; Switzerland, Finland, Brazil and Croatia each
with 4 papers. In terms of continents, Europe
predominates by participating in 14 researches; then
Asia participating in 8 researches; Latin America,
Middle Orient participating in 4 researches each;
North America in 3 researches; Africa and Oceania
with 1 research each.
From the published articles, eight surveys had
participants from, at least, one public organization
(Table 7).
Table 7: Participating public agencies.
Government Agencies City, Country
Ministry of Communication and
Riyadh, Saudi
Ministry of ICT Bogota, Colombia
Government of Ontario Toronto, Canada
Integration and Interoperability
Coordination (SERPRO)
Brasilia, Brazil
New York City Transit (NYCT) New York, USA
IT Organization of Iran Tehran, Iran
Among the keywords used in the 82 articles, 230
terms were identified, with only 11 terms with
recurrences in at least 3 papers.
Table 8 shows the frequency of use of keywords
from the researched articles.
Table 8: Keywords.
Keyword Frequency
Enterprise architecture 47
Enterprise architecture framework 13
Public sector 7
E-government 5
Framework 5
Balanced scorecard 4
Zachman framework 4
Change management 3
Software architecture 3
Metrics 3
There is no consensus among authors about the
use of keywords for indexing articles. In the
evolutionary aspect of EA.
The results are in line with the Lnenicka and
Komarkova (2019) analyses of the terms enterprise
architecture framework, TOGAF, and Zachman
framework, but there is no evidence of big data or
cloud computing. The question of e-government still
remains according to Ramos and Sousa (2015).
In the public sector, EA has become a tool to
support e-government and interoperability activities.
Methodological aspects of publications regarding
the approaches of research; data collection strategies;
techniques of sampling and analysis. To do so, a new
selection was made in the sample of the 82 journals,
choosing to work with those that were published in
periodicals and scientific events of greater relevance,
as those in Table 3 and 4, thus, the new cut of
articles for content analysis has 28 articles.
Initial analyses have shown that most of the
published articles (18 papers) are empirical, which
refers to reports of specific experiences of public
organizations. Of the 9 theoretical articles identified,
all are bibliometric surveys. Only one article
researched about EA methodology.
There is no predominance in research design, in
which 36% (10 papers) are descriptive, 32% (9
papers) are exploratory, 29% (8 papers) are
explanatory research and have a qualitative approach.
The use of this methodological approach is
consistent with the types of research for analyzing the
implementation of EA frameworks.
Regarding the origin of the data, 50% of the
publications (14 papers) used primary sources in the
collection, in which, data were collected in field
surveys. Secondary sources were used in 29% of the
publications (8 papers), essentially based on
bibliographic analysis research. There were 6 papers
ICEIS 2019 - 21st International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
that had secondary and primary data. On the data
collection strategies, the greatest recurrence is of case
studies (12 papers), followed by bibliographical
research (6 papers), the following research strategies
were also identified: opinion survey (2 papers),
documentary research (2 papers) and experimental
research (1 paper).
Bibliographic research, survey, observation, docu-
mentary analysis, interview, documentary research, the
Delphi method, focus groups and experimental tests
are among the instruments of analysis used by the
authors. Regarding the data analysis, there was a great
predominance of content analysis (16 papers) and then
descriptive statistics (2 articles).
The relative majority of empirical studies (7
papers) were carried out at a federal level.
Subsequently, there was a concentration of researches
carried out at universities (4 papers). Two research in
the hospital sector were identified as well. It is worth
stressing that the EA theme is an interdisciplinary
matter and is part of many countries governance
agenda. Thus, articles that analyze the EA of
international governments appears.
Among the analyzed articles, it was possible to
classify different types of difficulties related to EA,
which were grouped in 6 thematic categories (Table 9).
Table 9: EA difficulties in the public sector.
Categories Reference Examples
Deficiency of the
EA model(s) to
meet current
organizational needs
Amalia, Supriadi (2017); Hussein,
Mahrin, Maarop (2017); Nama,
Kurniawan (2017); Oberhauser
Deficiencies in the
planning and
implementation of
Bakar, Selamat (2016); Kurniawan,
Hiererra (2016); Lee, Oh, Nam
(2016); Moscoso-Zea, Luján-Mora,
Cáceres, Schweimanns (2016); Nam
(2016); Nam et al (2016); Aliee et al
(2017); Bakar, Selamat, Kama
(2017); Haghighathoseini et al
(2018); Oberhauser (2018)
Difficulty of
Amalia, Supriadi (2017); Nama,
Kurniawan (2017); Nunes, Cappelli,
Costa (2017); Mondorf, Wimmer
(2017); AlSoufi (2018)
Kaddoumi, Watfa (2016); Lee, Oh,
Nam (2016); Nam et al (2016);
Nunes, Cappelli, Costa (2017)
Technical and non-
technical difficulties
Santikarama, Arman (2016); Seghiri
(2016); Mondorf, Wimmer (2017);
Nama, Kurniawan (2017); Sultan,
Miranskyy (2018)
Lack of agility in
meeting demands
Kaddoumi, Watfa (2016); Amalia,
Supriadi (2017); Nama, Kurniawan
(2017); Nunes, Cappelli, Costa
(2017); Sultan, Miranskyy (2018)
In the same way, it was identified in the literature
possible benefits obtained or expected by public
organizations in relation to the adoption of EA. In this
case, it was possible to classify benefits in 9 thematic
categories (Table 10).
Table 10: EA benefits in the public sector.
Categories Reference Examples
Achievement of
Lee, Oh, Nam (2016); Yuliana,
Rahardjo (2016); Bakar, Selamat,
Kama (2017); Hussein, Mahrin,
Maarop (2017)
(from IT to
Bakar, Selamat (2016); Kaddoumi,
Watfa (2016); Lee, Oh, Nam (2016);
Nam, Oh, Kim (2016); Yuliana,
Rahardjo (2016); Amalia, Supriadi
(2017); Hussein, Mahrin, Maarop
(2017); Nunes, Cappelli, Costa (2017);
Sultan, Miranskyy (2018)
Advance of e-
Bakar, Selamat (2016); Lee, Oh, Nam
(2016); Aliee et al (2017); Bakar,
Selamat, Kama (2017)
Contribution to
Abraham (2013); Kaushik, Raman
(2015); Kaddoumi, Watfa (2016);
Moscoso-Zea et al (2016); Yuliana,
Rahardjo (2016); Aliee et al (2017);
Bakar, Selamat, Kama (2017);
Hussein, Mahrin, Maarop (2017);
AlSoufi (2018)
Santikarama, Arman (2016); Yuliana,
Rahardjo (2016); Bakar, Selamat,
Kama (2017)
Bernus, Noran, Molina (2015);
Moscoso-Zea (2016)
(and IT)
Kaddoumi, Watfa (2016); Lee, SW Oh,
Nam (2016); Amalia, Supriadi (2017);
Hussein, Mahrin, Maarop (2017);
Mondorf, Wimmer (2017);
Haghighathoseini et al (2018)
(and IT)
Bakar, Selamat (2016); Kaddoumi,
Watfa (2016); Moscoso-Zea et al
(2016); Seghiri et al (2016)
Promotes the
integration of
Kaushik, Raman (2015); Bakar,
Selamat (2016); Dang, Pekkola (2016);
Lee, Oh, Nam (2016); Moscoso-Zea et
al (2016); Vargas (2016)
The study analyzed the evolution of EA theme in
Public Sector. It is important to note that articles of
EA focus on the areas of computer science,
engineering, and social sciences, which shows a
multidisciplinary character involving different
Literature Review Studies in Public Sector’s Enterprise Architecture
aspects in the public sector. The analysis shows that
consider scientific events and articles published in
proceedings can be significant for comprehending the
theme since research shows that much of the EA
literature appear on scientific events.
Through the bibliometric analysis, we can observe
growth in the approach of the theme in worldwide
scope, in addition to a change of stakeholders region,
which cease to be in majority on the west and come
to appear with relevance in the East. The countries
with the highest volume of publication in the sample
used were Indonesia, Malaysia, Germany, and Iran.
Only after this group, comes the United States of
America. In conclusion, we find that, after three
decades of research, publications and development of
EA in West countries, there is a struggle in the East
to follow up studies and approaches that started and
were implemented through the years. The search for
government transparency as a reflection of
democratic transformations and more politically
involved societies brings EA as a well-researched
solution. Malaysia is a good example of a country that
is passing through a democratic transition and it
appears to be a direct relationship between the
development of EA in the country and its new
democratic policies. A more particular research in
this area can bring greater correlations between the
political changes of East countries and their new
approaches to EA.
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